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Explorations in Mass Communication: Issues and Controversies

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500 channels, podcasts, blogs and Youtube ... Based on Harold Lasswell's model in the discipline of political science in the US( 1948) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explorations in Mass Communication: Issues and Controversies


1
CMNS 130
  • Explorations in Mass Communication Issues and
    Controversies
  • Catherine Murray

2
Agenda
  • Course Introduction Expectations
  • The Writing Assignments
  • The Logic of Course Design
  • Introductory Lecture
  • What is Mass Communication?

3
Course Team
  • Xinren Li
  • Carolyn Liu
  • Sherry Yu
  • Heather Fleming
  • Tara McFarlane (Writing Intensive Learning
    OfficeLIDC)

4
Course Support
  • www.sfu.ca/cmns/faculty/murray_c/
  • Click on current courses CMNS 130

5
CMNS 130 Course Objectives
  • To provide a map to navigate the field of
    communication studies
  • history political economy
  • Society and technology
  • To identify different perspectives on
    contemporary controversies
  • To teach the design of effective arguments in
    academic writing in this discipline

6
CMNS 130
  • A gatekeeping course for majors
  • Leads to a range of courses which study the
    institutions of the media
  • institution
  • A relationship or behavioral pattern of
    importance in the life of a community or society
  • An ever-present feature
  • An enduring organization, or set of organizations
    bound formally or informally by rules
  • See custom courseware, page 40

7
Protocol for lectures
  • Attend often
  • Read before
  • Switch off cell phones
  • Use laptops for notes only
  • ASK questions or take notes of questions to ask
    your TA
  • This is a cumulative course understand a unit
    before you move on

8
Lecture Tutorial Support
  • Outline for lectures available midnight Wednesday
  • Download and Use outline as a guide to your own
    note taking in class
  • Lectures are audiotaped and available in library
  • READ before lecture
  • Tutorials
  • Attend each tutorial
  • Participate in debate
  • Writing assignments total 5
  • ONE FINAL EXAM
  • Workshop for final exam available

9
Guide to Writing
  • See Guidelines for Writing Assignments Spring
    2007
  • Consult Margaret Northey et al. 2005. Making
    Sense A Students Guide to Research and Writing.
    2nd edition. Oxford University Press.
  • Use the style manual used in the Canadian Journal
    of Communication

10
Writing Assignments
  • Two due in Tutorial
  • Date to be assigned
  • 10 each
  • length 350-500 words
  • Article Analysis
  • due Feb 1,2007
  • 15
  • Length 750 words ( 3 pages)

11
Writing Assignments Contd
  • Major Course Essay
  • Due March 15, 2007
  • 25
  • Length 2,000-3,000 words or 8-12 pages /space
    and a half
  • Creative Public Commentary
  • Due March 29, 2007
  • 10
  • 150 words

12
DAIE for Course Skills
  • Develop the Four stages of critical thinking and
    academic writing
  • Description
  • Analysis, Framing of Arguments and Proof
  • Interpretation Debate
  • Evaluation/Originality

13
The Alchemy of Grades
  • Description
  • C
  • Basic facts mastered and patterned
  • Analysis
  • B range
  • Meaning of patterns probed, knowledge applied.
    Hierarchy of patterning proofs
  • Interpretation
  • High B to A-
  • Comparisons and analogies. Judgement. Argument
    and Illustration.
  • Evaluation
  • A-A range
  • Values. Understanding
  • If creative originality or thought leadership an
    A plus
  • TIP GUIDE YOUR EDITING BY THE MARKING RUBRIC
    WITH EACH ASSIGNMENT

14
Course Writing Assignments
  • Frame arguments
  • Organize proofs
  • Write persuasively
  • Develop a unique expressive voice

15
The Logic of the Course Design
  • Definitions Disciplinary Distinctions
  • Technology and History
  • Ideology Propaganda
  • Law and Policy
  • Economics Labour Processes
  • Culture Symbols
  • Issues Interests
  • Positions and Debates

16
STUDY QUESTIONS FOR THIS WEEK
  • What is the main theme for CMNS 130?
  • Watch for 4 key definitions
  • What is the transmission model of communication?
    How does it differ from the cultural model?

17
The Big Picture
  • Communication is a battleground of power
  • Harold Adams Innis Empire of Communication
  • If knowledge is power, it becomes power only
    through communication
  • Historically, allied with religious, or secular
    state powers and now business corporations
  • Central to institutions of democracy and
    capitalism
  • 130 outlines how media work, how they are shaped
    by and shaping the economic, political and social
    worlds around us
  • Do the media create critical citizens or passive
    consumers?

18
Themes of CMNS 130
  • Propaganda Persuasion is increasing
  • Citizens need to understand power over
    communication and its hidden techniques of
    control
  • Battles are between
  • Censorship and Freedom of Expression
  • State and Market control
  • Information and Propaganda
  • Empowerment and Enslavement
  • Frequently, at the expense of the citizen
  • Learn to decode the democratic deficit
  • Make the case for democratic communication

19
Recent Issues Controversies
  • Globally
  • Danish papers right to publish cartoons of
    Mohammed
  • Embargoed cell phone pictures of the hanging of
    Saddam Hussein
  • Italian print media voluntarily restrict pictures
    of underweight models

20
Issues and Controversies Contd
  • In Canada
  • Protests over application to import CCTV in
    Canada
  • Licensing of Al Jazeera for importation in Canada
    if broadcast is previewed for compliance with
    hate laws
  • Local Surrey radio station plays a role in
    holding town hall meetings about violence against
    women in the South Asian Community

21
The Paradox of Mass Communication
  • Never more apparent choice
  • 500 channels, podcasts, blogs and Youtube
  • Never over larger space, or shorter times, more
    convenient to the user
  • Yet never more social controversy over morals and
    political impacts on human security, democracy
    and intercultural understanding

22
The Policy Conundrum
  • Pendulum of power has swung away from direct
    state regulation of the economic structure or
    technology rise of media behemoths, challenges (
    eg Mp3s)
  • But, a time of war on terror which excuses
    state control of information on a scale not seen
    since the major world wars

23
Key Concepts
  • Definitions of
  • Communication
  • Mass Communication
  • Media
  • Two models of the Communication Process

24
The Definition of Communication
  • From Latin Communicare
  • Verb to share, impart, to make meaning common
  • To give or receive information,entertainment,signa
    ls, messages in any way
  • Using talk, gestures, writing or other means
  • Everyday Definition
  • a meaningful exchange of information

25
Origins of Communication
  • Part of human search to transcend time and space
  • One of the oldest of human practices
  • Essential for social survival, economic
    organization
  • Formal study rooted in classical politics from
    times of Ancient Greece and Rome under a
    different title rhetoric, literary criticism,
    persuasion (humanities)
  • Development of the study of Mass Communication
    allied with rise of social sciences and mass
    marketing after WW2( social science influence)

26
Mass Communication
  • Communication from
  • one person, group or institution
  • through a transmission system or medium
  • to large audiences or markets
  • which are dispersed, anonymous and unknown to
    each other
  • Usually on a very large scale
  • Often heterogenous
  • READING REFERENCE MCQUAIL PAGE 9 CUSTOM
    COURSEWARE
  • ANALYTIC NOTE SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH A MASS
    SOCIETY CRITIQUE OF ALIENATION CC10

27
Medium Defined
  • Something intermediate
  • A middle state
  • An intervening thing through which something( an
    act or effect) is produced
  • CC14
  • Colloquial an intermediary mediates, translates,
    intercedes between adversaries

28
Key Characteristics
  • From one (or few) to many
  • Implies concept of gatekeeper controller of
    transmission/message design
  • Implies concept of effectiveness and efficiency
    is messaging achieving what it intended?

29
Media
  • The social or market institution that enables
    communication to take place
  • More specifically, a technological development
    (eg. Sound recording, photograph, telegraph) that
    extends the channels, range or speed of
    communication
  • STUDY AID AND SOURCE KEY CONCEPTS IN
    COMMUNICATIONS AND CULTURAL STUDIES ( 2ND ED.).

30
The Mass Media
  • Books
  • Newpapers
  • Magazines
  • Sound Recording
  • Radio
  • Film
  • TV
  • Videogames

31
The Shapers of the Mass Media
  • States and Regulators
  • Economic owners and controllers of the Media
  • Creators and Analysts of the Media
  • Audiences/Citizens and Consumers

32
Characteristics of Mass Communication
  • Message produced in complex organizations (
    sender)
  • Formally constituted institutions
  • Rule based
  • With specialist vocations/professions
  • Message fixed in some form with information and
    symbolic content ( technology of delivery is
    either in digital bits or commodity form)
    (material)
  • Message is sent/transmitted or diffused widely
    via a technological medium
  • Newspaper, magazine, CD or videocassette, radio,
    television, satellite or Internet
  • Message is delivered rapidly over great space
  • Message reaches large groups of different people
    simultaneously or within a short period of time(
    mass audience of receivers)
  • Message is primarily one-way, not two way,
    although this is now being challenged at the
    margins
  • STUDY AID COMPARE AGAINST TABLE 2.1 PAGE 14 CC

33
Transformation of Mass Communication
  • Arrival of computers and switched two-way
    interactive technology digitization
  • Internet
  • From one to many to one to one from many to
    many--almost infinitely
  • Rise of transactional media ( pay per bit)
  • Resistance of media piracy swapping and
    downloading

34
Transmission Model of Communication
  • Sender Message Receiver
  • Based on Harold Lasswells model in the
    discipline of political science in the US( 1948)
  • Helps identify the stages through which
    communication passes so each one can be properly
    studied
  • Modern models recognize process is more complex,
    no longer one way and there is more interaction
    and feedback between sender and receiver

35
Transmission Model II
  • Central Questions
  • Who says what to whom with what effect? (
    transmission model)
  • Useful in early study of propaganda, and
    advertising ( stimulus response assumption)
  • Sees mass communication as a process of
    transmitting intentional messages for the purpose
    of changing behavior, persuading, social control,
    or marketing
  • Implies the study of gatekeepers, symbolic
    producers, contents, dissemination, trade and
    impacts

36
A Different Approach the Cultural Model
  • The Media Encode meaning-----Decode meaning
  • Involves Creation of the Text, design of the
    sign, symbol or codes and interpretation
  • But NOT synonymous with the wider idea of popular
    culture
  • Communication is much more than message
    exchange.. The enrichment that communication
    brings in terms of culture, cohesion and
    connectedness is widely acknowledged.
  • Communication unlocks the ideas of a culture
  • Intimately tied up everyday existence

37
Cultural Model II
  • Central Question
  • How does communication construct a map of meaning
    for people in everyday life? (cultural model)
  • How do people negotiate common meaning and remain
    bound by it?
  • Starts from the assumption that
  • Any attempt to understand the power of the media
    requires us first to understand how these
    products are located within and work to construct
    meaning in everyday life (Grossberg et al, p.
    237).
  • Embraces ideology/belief systems and ritual
    mass communication is the representation of
    shared beliefs where reality is produced
    maintained, repaired and transformed

38
Differences between the Two models
  • Transmission Model
  • tends to focus on things, structures
  • Derived from transportation (CC42)
  • Analytic rational linear
  • Focus on Gatekeepers, Owners, Professionals
  • Objective focus on players, things, interests
  • Cultural Model
  • Tends to focus on humans, processes
  • Derived from linguistics/humanities tradition
  • Holistic irrational nonlinear
  • Focus on receivers, audience
  • Ideology/meaning is central so subjective, often
    critical

39
Implications of the Two models
40
How different authors bridge the two
  • Lorimer and Gasher ( reading one) combine them
  • Mass communication is the transmission and
    transformation of meaning on a large scale
  • ( but?)
  • Grossberg et al(reading two) argue they are
    complementary
  • QUOTE FOR THE DAY
  • WE LIVE IN A WORLD OF MEDIA BUT NOT IN A MEDIA
    WORLD ( CUSTOM COURSEWARE P.37 GROSSBERG ET AL)

41
Next Week Media and Modernity
  • Read
  • Tutorial A Survival Guide to 130 so prepare your
    questions
  • Tutorial Introducing Chomsky Assignment( A
    Propaganda Model of Communication) look up
    Chomsky bio
  • TUTORIAL TIP CUSTOM COURSEWARE PP. 36-38 and
    44-45 ARE KEY
  • WRITING TIP MEDIUM IS SINGULAR, MEDIA ARE PLURAL
    CC P. 38
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