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Title: European%20Union%20of%2025

European Union of 25
Previous enlargements The EC started with 6
member States
(I) Preparations Pre-accession Strategy
  • Association Agreements
  • Pre-accession partnership
  • NPAA
  • Opening of Community programmes and agencies for
    the applicant countries
  • Annual reports from the European Commission
  • Pre-accession Assistance (2000-2006)
  • PHARE ( 1.500 million per year)
  • ISPA ( 1.000 million per year)
  • SAPARD ( 500 million per year)
  • Co-financing from International Financial

(II) Negotiation process The EU has initiated
accession negotiations with twelve new candidate
countries on 31 chapters
  • 1. Free movement of goods
  • 2. Freedom of movement for persons
  • 3. Freedom to provide services
  • 4. Free movement of capital
  • 5. Company law
  • 6. Competition policy
  • 7. Agriculture
  • 8. Fisheries
  • 9. Transport policy
  • 10. Taxation
  • 11. Economic and monetary union
  • 12. Statistics
  • 13. Social policy and employment
  • 14. Energy
  • 15. Industrial policy
  • 16. Small and medium-sized enterprises
  • 17. Science and research
  • 18. Education and training
  • 19. Telecommunications and IT
  • 20. Culture and audiovisual policy
  • 21. Regional policy and structural instruments
  • 22. Environment
  • 23. Consumers and health protection
  • 24. Justice and home affairs
  • 25. Customs union
  • 26. External relations
  • 27. Common foreign and security policy
  • 28. Financial control
  • 29. Financial and budgetary provisions
  • 30. Institutions
  • 31. Other

(II) Negotiation process Conditions for
  • European Council of Copenhagen (June 1993)
  • Stability of Institutions guaranteeing democracy,
    the rule of law, human rights and respect for and
    protection of minorities
  • The existence of a functioning market economy as
    well as the capacity to cope with competitive
    pressure and market forces within the Union
  • The ability to take on the obligations of
    membership (known as the acquis communautaire
    which consists of 31 chapters) including
    adherence to the aims of political, economic and
    monetary union

(II) Negotiation process
  • The European Council of Copenhagen (Dec 2002)
  • 13 years after the Berlin wall felt and almost 2
    years since the accession negotiations started
  • Negotiations concluded with 10 countries (Cyprus,
    Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary,
    Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania).
    These countries become members of the EU the 1st
    of May 2004
  • Bulgaria, Romania will continue negotiations, at
    least until 2007. Further progress should be
    done, specially regarding their judicial and
    administrative capacity.
  • Turkey If the European Council in December 2004,
    decides that Turkey fulfils the Copenhagen
    political criteria, the European Union could
    start accession negotiations with Turkey in 2005.

Situation in the EU of 25 after May 2004
  • Reforms
  • - Institutional reforms IGC and new Constitution
  • - Community Policies Reforms CAP, Regional
  • Transitional measures
  • - free movement of persons (possible
    restrictions, max. 7 years!)
  • free movement of goods (license for medical
    devices and Pharmaceuticals)
  • Free movement of services (e.g., for reaching
    minimum levels of guarantees for banking deposits
    or investor protection )
  • - free movement of capital (acquisition of second
    residence and agriculture or forestry land) etc
  • Single Currency none of the new members will be
    able to adopt the Euro before 2006
  • Schengen accession to the European Union will
    not immediately lead to the lifting of internal
    border controls. Further external borders
  • Safeguard measures temporary possible remedial
    actions in case of problems

Future Enlargements of the EU???
  • With the accession of ten new Member States to
    the European Union successfully accomplished, the
    European Council expressed its determination to
    continue the process it has engaged in with the
    candidate countries, while maintaining the
    momentum of European integration
  • The accession of Bulgaria, Romania and in a
    future Turkey
  • Western Balkans showed its intention at the
    Thessalonica Summit 2003. Stability and
    association process
  • Croatia status of candidate country as an
    encouragement to the other countries of the
    Western Balkans to pursue their reforms!
  • Macedonia submitted its application for
    membership in March 2004
  • European Economic Area (?)

European Council December 2004 Romania Bulgaria
  • Welcomed the successful completion of accession
    negotiations with
  • Bulgaria initiated negotiations in Feb. 2000 and
    provisionally closed the 31 chapters on 15 June
    2004. Officially, negotiations concluded on 14
    December 2004
  • Romania initiated negotiations in Feb. 2000 and
    closed all the chapters on 14 December 2004
  • Considered that both will be able to enter the EU
    on 1 January 2007, but compliance with
    commitments will be closely monitored by
    Brussels provided that reform momentum is
    maintained and all commitments are completed in
    all areas
  • Safeguard clauses will provide for measures to
    address serious problems that may arise, before
    accession or in the three years after accession,
    in particular in the areas of JHA, Competition
    and Environment
  • Next steps
  • Commissions Regular Monitoring reports
  • Signature of Accession Treaty by 2005
  • Accession to the EU January 2007

Turkey Background towards accession
  • Turkey applied for membership in 1987 and
    obtained the status of candidate country in
  • Commission presented on 6 October 2004
  • -Commission regular Report significant progress
    towards compliance with political criteria
  • -Recommendation Turkey fulfils the political
    criteria and recommends that accession
    negotiations be opened (2005) under some
  • legislation and implementation needs to be
    further consolidated and broadened
  • in case of problem, the Commission will
    recommend the suspension of negotiations. The
    Council will decide by qualified majority
  • -Impact study
  • Pre-Accession Strategy- Financial assistance
    (2004-2006) 11 billion euros

European Council December 2004 Turkey
  • The 25 European leaders decided to say yes to
    opening accession negotiations with Turkey, on
    the basis of the analysis of the European
  • - Negotiations will start on 3 October 2005
  • - The goal of these negotiations is EU
    membership. The talks will have an open ended
    character, meaning that there is no guaranteed
  • - Turkey sufficiently fulfils the political
    criteria but the Council expects Turkey to
    actively pursue its efforts to bring into force"
    the six specific items of legislation already
    identified by the European Commission as crucial,
    as well as to implement the zero-tolerance policy
    relating to torture and ill-treatment.
  • - the Council "welcomed the declaration of
    Turkey that 'the Turkish Government confirms that
    it is ready to sign the Protocol on the
    adaptation of the Ankara Agreement prior to the
    actual start of accession negotiations (delicate
    compromise on the issue of Cyprus).

Croatia Background towards accession
  • Application for membership in February 2003.
    Positive Commissions opinion (April 2004) on
    candidate status and the opening of
    negotiations ,welcomed by the European Council
    (June 2004)
  • European Commission Strategy Paper 2004 (6
    October 2004) pre-accession strategy for Croatia
    (Financial assistance 105 M in 2005)
  • Efforts are still needed in the fields of
    minority rights, judiciary reform, the fight
    against corruption and regional co-operation,
    enhance its co-operation with the International
    Tribunal in the Hague and bring former general
    Ante Gotovina to the tribunal
  • A bilateral intergovernmental conference with
    Croatia early in 2005 was convened in order to
    begin negotiations

European Council December 2004 Croatia
  • Negotiations with Croatia will conditionally
    begin on March 17th 2005, if it cooperates with
    the United Nations (UN) War Crimes Tribunal
    established for the former Yugoslavia. The
    Luxemburg Presidency , will decide whether or not
    Croatia has cooperated with the Tribunal
  • It is expected that Croatia, with a population of
    about 4.5 million, will conclude its membership
    negotiations in 2007
  • Date of accession still not defined
  • Pre-Accession Strategy- Financial assistance
    (2005-2006) 105 million (80 million for
    Phare and 25 million for ISPA) in 2005
  • and 140million in 2006 (80 million for Phare,
    35 million for ISPA, and 25 million for SAPARD)

The Neighbourhood Policy of the EU
  • Enlargement cannot -- and, I add, must not --
    be the only response to those who want to
    strengthen their links with the Union. R.
  • EU launched a new proximity policy aimed at
    creating a ring of friends on the enlarged EUs
    borders by enhancing relations with all of the
    EUs neighbours first and foremost Russia. The
    objective is to create a wider Europe,
    characterised by a single economic and social
    space, an area of stability and prosperity

The Neighbourhood Policy of the EU
  • Partners
  • Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova
  • Mediterranean partners Algeria, Egypt, Israel,
    Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia,
    as well as the Palestinian Authority
  • inclusion of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia
  • http//
  • National Action Plans (3-5 years)
  • Alignement with EU standars
  • Co-peration on EU policies
  • - Dialogue on counter-terrorism
  • Participation in EU Programmes
  • - Co-operation on JHA