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Future Combat System FCS Training IPT Environmental Requirements and their Relationship to Military


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Title: Future Combat System FCS Training IPT Environmental Requirements and their Relationship to Military

Future Combat System (FCS) Training IPT
Environmental Requirements and their Relationship
to Military Functions and FCS Program Requirements
  • By
  • Robert M. Cox James R.
  • Clark D. (Dan) Stevens Edward L. Sears
  • 21 September 2005

FCS Distribution
  • FCS Distribution statement
  • DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT D. Distribution authorized
    to the Department of Defense and U.S. DoD
    contractors only to protect information and
    technical data that advance current technology or
    describe new technology in an area of significant
    or potentially significant military application
    or that relate to a specific military deficiency
    of a potential adversary. Information is
    export-controlled and subject to the provisions
    of DoD Directive 5230.25 (reference (c)).
  • The four (4) FCS papers from which these
    presentations were developed have been reviewed
    for release outside FCS
  • Some questions may not be answered for issues
    related to the Distribution statement above

Background and FCS Definition of Geospatial
What is Geospatial Data?
Mission-relevant, earth-referenced data
pertaining to air, land, sea, and space
Geospatial Battlespace Environment Information
as defined by FCS Geospatial Working Group
  • Mission-relevant, earth-referenced data
    pertaining to air, land, sea, and space.
  • Data includes factors and conditions that must be
    understood to successfully apply combat power,
    protect the force, or complete the mission.
  • This data includes the air, land, sea, space
    facilities weather terrain the electromagnetic
    spectrum and the information environment within
    the operational areas and areas of interest. JP
    1-02 plus cultural/urban.
  • the terrain land (surface and subsurface)
    hydrology sea (physical oceanography) littoral
    vegetation geomagnetics gravimetrics seismic
    cultural (facilities infrastructure urban
    population density, ethnicity, religious
    affiliations political data agricultural and
    husbandry info vehicles vessels toponymic)
    aeronautics atmosphere space weather space
    weather obscurants acoustics hazards
    (dangerous) electromagnetic spectrum

This data DOES NOT include soldiers,
physiological conditions, communications, and
platforms (except as part of the scenery),
mechanical or supply status, targets
intelligence, civil-military information orders
planning info (COA), intent.
Geospatial Data Issue Fidelity
  • Fidelity of Geospatial Data strongly influences
    how the data is
  • Collected
  • Processed
  • Represented
  • Stored
  • Used
  • Geospatial Data-using Applications vary in
  • Fidelity required for that data
  • Necessary Interoperability with other applications

BRIDGE Bridge Ref. No. 2342656 Use Road
Bridge No. of Spans 2 Width 20M Length
300M Overhead Clearance 10M UnderBridge
Clearance 40M Load Class 5 Short Tons
Point feature
Line feature
Area feature
Cost Time to Produce
FCS Embedded Training and the FCS Training IPT
Environmental Representation Requirements
Embedded Training..
a DoD plan an Army Commitment
Build an Integrated Live, Virtual, and
Constructive Training Environment. The ultimate
goal is to develop a transformed training
capability that provides accurate, timely,
relevant, and affordable training and mission
rehearsal in support of specific operational
needs. Training must be a living process with the
ability to adapt and respond quickly to the
dynamic challenges of the national security
environment. This will require the ability to
identify potential crisis situations in real
time conduct course-of-action analyses utilize
continuously available networks for mission
rehearsal, simulation and just-in-time training
and measure performance systematically to improve
operational effectiveness.
Strategic Plan for Transforming DoD Training, 1
Mar 02
Training KPP
The FCS FoS must have an embedded individual and
collective training capability that supports
live, virtual and constructive training
Rationale Embedded full task and tactical
engagement simulation systems must provide
Soldiers and leaders a full task training
capability with a readily available system for
planning, training and assessing tasks with
subordinate units in any combination of L/V/C
environment from distributed locations provides
feedback through the selected TSP and allow
leaders to modify conditions within a TSP to
adjust difficulty during training or build a TSP
to support a mission rehearsal and provide the
interface to Soldier Systems embedded training
capabilities. 90 of individual, crew, and
leader tasks associated with FoS platforms and
90 collective tasks with available training
products on the system to support a mission
rehearsal up to company level (Threshold) 100 of
individual, crew, and leader tasks not associated
with a platform including dismounted Soldiers and
100 of collective tasks to support a mission
rehearsal up to UA level (Objective).
UA/FCS Training Concept
Training is THE factor in determining the
victor. - DSB Task Force on Training Superiority
and Training Surprise
  • Expanded training availability using organic,
    integrated, embedded systems - Training,
    Operations, and Mission Planning/ Rehearsal for
    full spectrum training including JIM
  • Full range of training task representation -
    individual, crew, collective, and leaders
    embedded or reach via C4ISR system
  • Reduced training burden cost resulting from
    product line design approach - maximum
    commonality between operational and training

Non-organic assets
Stand-alone Simulations Simulators
Part task Trainers
Embedded Systems
Units Leader teams
Home Station Institution
C4ISR drivers
Knowledge Repositories
Training Systems Capabilities
Embedded Task Training (Crews Soldier)
Distributed, Collective Training (Virtual
Constructive) ( Leaders Units )
Platform Workstation
Environmental Representation
Environmental Representation
Distributed, Collective Training (Live) (Embedded
MILES CTC Instrumentation Interface)
UE Subunit
Critical Enabling KPP Requirements
Embedded Training - Virtual / Constructive (ORD
Embedded Training - Live (ORD 1089)
Interoperability Reach (ORD 3784)
Dismounted Training (ORD 1078)
Plan Exercise
Execute Exercise
Assess Exercise
Initialize Simulation
Scenario Generation
OTW View
After Action Review (AAR)
Embedded TESS
Exercise Management
Generated Forces (CGF)

Environmental Representation
  • MGV Reqt

Inter-Vehicle Connectivity
  • Common
  • Training
  • Components

Interoperability Reach
FCS Environmental Requirements
Requirements Commonality and Uniqueness
  • FCS Training, MS, and Operational Geospatial
    Requirements have significant commonality and
  • Commonality Coverage, data content (mostly),
  • Uniqueness Formats, fidelity, required
    attribution, visualization,
  • Do the requirements support/require common

FCS ORD Environmental Requirements as Identified
by the Training IPT
  • FCS ORD was reviewed and environmental
    requirements were identified
  • Approximately 420 were identified (this number
    has since been reviewed by the FCS GBE WG and
    reduced by about 200)
  • Not all 420 had actual ORD numbers
  • Initial review did not distinguish between
    environmental database requirement and a testing
    requirements (Need to know soil type for maneuver
    vs must be able to operate between 20 and 100
  • Requirements stratified by four environment
    domains (terrain, atmosphere, ocean, space)

FCS ORD Environmental Requirements
  • Below is an extraction from the spreadsheet
  • Description column is the actual ORD words
  • Geospatial requirement column is for the domain
    of the requirement
  • Comments column is the rationale used
  • Last two columns are whether we thought the
    requirement was an operational or test
    requirements and if the requirement was an
    architecture, timing, or database requirement

FCS ORD Training Requirements
Objective Requirements
KPP-Critical Requirements
Training Requirements are spread across the FCS
Training Requirements are spread across the FCS
FCS ORDEnvironment Requirements
  • Annex A ORD 2355 Technology insertion
    to ensure plug and play states that we can select
    technology now, and change later if other
    technology is developed that better meets FCS
  • Annex A ORD 3266 States need for
    common representation. The FCS Battle Command
    system must be one system that meets the
    requirements for garrison operations, training,
    field exercises, and actual operations.
  • Annex A ORD 2323 Battle Command
    systems must meet the requirements for garrison
    operations, training, field exercises, and actual
  • Annex B ORD 3131 Must have a common
    data base.
  • Annex B ORD 3125 Need for data that
    is accessible/retrievable from knowledge
  • Annex A ORD 1064 Data comes from
    multiple sources and needs to be horizontally
    integrated into a common representation.

FCS ORDEnvironment Requirements
  • Annex A ORD 2392 C4ISR systems rely
    on the networkover operational distances, in all
  • Annex A ORD 2467 FoS must acquire,
    access, and disseminate relevant and accurate
    environmental information.
  • Main ORD 3790 replicate FCS
    capabilities and constraints for use in events,
    such as Modeling and Simulation (MS) and
    wargaming, relies on establishing a consistent,
    authoritative source of information about the FoS
    (i.e. an authoritative representation)
  • Annex D ORD 1079 view of the
    synthetic natural environment from and the
    out-the-window displays must be in a natural

FCS ORD Training Environment Requirements
  • The FCS FoS ET systems must provide
    interfaces that allow it to interoperate within
    the FCS FoS, with Training Aids Devices,
    Simulators, and Simulations (TADSS), and with the
    Current synthetic training environment that
    includes live, virtual, and constructive
    simulators/simulations. Also,must have a
    networked, embedded, virtual, Full Task Training
    (FTT) capability to support individual, crew, and
    multi-echelon training without reconfiguration of
    the equipment. The FTT must provide a synthetic
    OE to conduct training (e.g. range
    instrumentation, CATT, WARSIM, and OneSAF) (ORD
    1093 page 61)
  • FTT must support training at the
    Soldier (operator/maintainer), crew, and small
    unit level (Threshold) to include the dismounted
    infantry elements (Objective) (ORD 1078 page
  • ET will support multi-echelon
    training and rapid teaming including integration
    of Current and JIM capabilities at UA and below
    (Threshold) and above (Objective). The FCS
    enroute mission planning and rehearsal system
    will require the same simulations capabilities as
    the training simulations but will require more
    rapid initialization and graphics file generation
    to meet operational timelines. (ORD 1253 Page
  • Tactical Engagement Simulation
    System (TESS) provides realistic simulation of
    the tactical environment during force-on-force
    and force-on-target tactical training exercises.
    FCS Battle Command network must be capable of
    transmitting tactical engagement data. Embedded
    TESS capability provides the means to replicate
    the OE. (ORD 1089 Page 62)
  • The FCS FoS ET management system
    must be capable of producing Computer Generated
    Forces (CGF). (ORD 3819 page 63)

FCS ORD Training Environment Requirements
  • TSPs for collective training must
    provide realistic vignettes in increasingly
    challenging enemy and environmental complexities
    (including adaptive enemy behaviors and complex
    urban environments) so units and staffs can
    practice, rehearse, and train under expected
    mission conditions. (ORD 3782 page 64)
  • Simulation/Stimulation Data (STRAP 3.1.3
    Embedded Training. Page F-6 as example the
    STRAP has numerous environmental requirements)
  • Receive operational data from actual data sources
  • Simulate operational data not available from
    actual data sources
  • Integrate simulated and actual data
  • TADSS Full mission simulations and simulators
    (STRAP F-58)
  • Provide a synthetic common operational picture
  • Operationally appropriate terrain databases
  • Provide synthetic allied and opposing forces.
  • Comply with SEDRIS design criteria (EDCS)
  • Final note
  • Training Common Component PCDs requires use of
    SEDRIS technology (EDCS)
  • PCDs 24 and 72
  • FCS TV-1 SEDRIS products are listed in lines
    599-601 and 1161-1164
  • SEDRIS technologies are all ISO/IEC Final Draft
    International Standard level with the exception
    of EDCS which is an approved ISO/IEC Standard
  • Developed under ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 24 (Computer
    graphics, image processing and environmental data

Training IPT Feature and Attribute Requirements
Proposed Feature/Attributes
  • With a dictionary of concepts, the
    feature/attribute combinations can be identified
  • Several programs have had an environmental data
    model developed using EDCS
  • These environmental data models were used to
    create a union of features/attributes
  • Some of the data models used to create the union
  • DTSS - DNC
  • OOS terrain - OOS AOS
  • MM5 - IMETS
  • MSDS 1-5 - Littoral 1-5

Proposed Feature/Attributes
  • Initial work was to identify just the features
    and just the attributes separately
  • Done first to provide SSEI data modeling team a
    look at what Training requires and what to expect
    when feature/attribute combinations where

Military Functions
Military Functions
  • Military Functions were based initially on OneSAF
  • All Military Functions were then mapped to the
    FCS missions as found in the OO
  • All Features were mapped to the Military
  • This provides a pedigree for all features and
  • They are related to Military Functions
  • Military Functions are related to actual required
    FCS missions
  • Also, all features were mapped to a domain
    (terrain, atmosphere)
  • All FCS ORD requirements were mapped to a domain
    it supports
  • Thus all feature requirements (and their
    associated attributes) are now linked to an ORD
    requirement and an OO mission

Military Functions
Military Function
  • This includes all open-country movement that is
    not specifically captured in other MFUs. This
    does not include actual combat operations.
  • Same as above, but only includes movement on
    prepared surfaces including road and rail.
  • This includes movement within any structure or
    enclosures such as buildings, caves, sewers, etc.
    It does not include combat elements such as
    clearing a room.
  • This includes all human movement in an urban
    environment outside of structures and enclosures.
    Examples are patrolling a block, or moving to
  • This is essentially human mobility or move to
    contact outside urban areas.
  • Most refers to UGV movement inside buildings,
    caves, and other enclosures.
  • Includes all air activity related to getting to
    and from the operational area.
  • Mobility over open water or littoral regions
    around open water.
  • Mobility over inland waterways. Includes rivers,
    lakes, canals, flooded fields, etc.
  • Includes supply and resupply but not movement of
    the material which is covered under mobility MFUs.
  • Cross-country mobility (and planning) (includes
    exterior UGV movement)
  • On-Road mobility (and planning)
  • Human movement inside structures and enclosures
  • Human movement urban exterior
  • Human movement non-urban exterior
  • Vehicle movement inside structures and enclosures
  • Air unit/vehicle mobility (and planning)
    (includes UAV movement)
  • Maritime mobility (Open water and Littoral)
  • Riverine mobility (Rivers and Inland water)
  • Logistics

Military Functions
Military Function
  • EO/IR propagation and sensor detection (Visible,
    IR, RF, MW wavelengths)
  • Acoustic propagation and acoustic wavelength
  • Seismic propagation and sensing
  • Secure and defend MOUT position (clear and secure
  • Secure and defend non-MOUT position (attack and
    secure position)
  • NBC
  • Airborne intelligence
  • Ground-based intelligence
  • Space-based intelligence
  • Space-based communications
  • Terrestrial communications
  • Battle damage assessment (BDA)
  • Interaction with non-combatants
  • EO/IR visibility, line of sight (or ducting),
    detection, and lock-on. This includes use of
    night-vision for night flights and night fights.
  • Includes all elements of sound propagation and
    acoustic "shadows".
  • Includes propagation of ground waves etc.
  • Specifically refers to clearing
    buildings/sewers/etc. It is not the movement
    within, but the combat operations of blowing the
    door, throwing grenade, etc.
  • Specifically refers to attacking position outside
    of urban areas. It is not the movement, but the
    combat operations.
  • Self evident
  • Includes all intelligence gathered through
    airborne means such as UAV, combat aircraft,
    JWACS, etc. Does not include movement of the
    aircraft to the operational area, or detection of
  • Same as above, but only refers to ground-based
  • Same as above, but only refers to space-based
  • Includes all effects on space-based
    communications including space weather effects on
    space assets.
  • Includes all effects on terrestrial
    communications such as RF and MW.
  • Self evident
  • Includes crowd control, roadblocks, IFF during
    operations, etc.

Summary of FCS Training IPT efforts
Training IPT process for development of
  • Training IPT has identified all the environmental
    requirements in the ORD and linked them with the
    SoS Spec (one spreadsheet)
  • Training IPT has identified in the OO the UA
  • Training IPT has through our Training Common
    Component (TCC) effort defined applicable
    Military Functions (MFs) - e.g. on road/off road
    mobility, inter visibility, etc. (a spreadsheet)
  • Training IPT has mapped the OO missions to MFs
    (a spreadsheet)
  • Training IPT has listed our operationally
    relevant requirements (individual features and
    attributes) in a spreadsheet
  • Training IPT has mapped the requirements in 5 to
    the MFs in 3 (a spreadsheet)
  • Note the objective of this is to provide a
    pedigree for our requirements (how they relate to
    the OO UA Missions and are related to the SoS
    Spec and ORD)

FCS Training IPT Delivery of Environmental
Requirements to the FCS Data Architecture Team
Training Environmental Representation Delivery
  • The requirements. This is an Excel spreadsheet
    called FDIS_RAD_20041124. There are various
  • The first tab is the list of Training IPT
    requirements. It is the combined list of
    features (entities) and the associated attributes
    to each. This list is over 23,000 entries long.
  • The fourth and fifth tabs are the individual
    features and attributes, respectively.
  • Tabs two and three are other combinations of the
    three tabs just described.
  • It should be noted that while this is the
    complete list of our requirements to-date, we
    recommend the DAT use another part of the
    delivery in its work to represent our
    requirements in the UA IM. We have taken this
    list and created our suggested representation of
    the Training IPT requirements in the C2IEDM.

Training Environmental Representation Delivery
  • The representation of the requirements in a
    Logical Data Model (LDM) Discussed in later
  • Because the UA IM is based on the C2IEDM, we have
    taken the first step in representing our
    requirements in the C2IEDM.
  • It was felt this would provide the DAT with an
    initial guess as to the representation of
    environmental concepts in the C2IEDM.
  • We do expect that as the DAT integrates these
    requirements our suggestions may not be taken.
    The Training IPT understands that and only
    requests the DAT inform the Training IPT the
    final structure that is used to capture the

Training Environmental Representation Delivery
  • The definition and name space used for our
    submission (Discussed in later paper along with
    mapping to other dictionaries).
  • This is the International Standard (IS) of the
  • The Training IPT has a requirement to represent
    all our environmental data using this
    international standard.
  • While our requirements do not cover the complete
    list of concepts in this standard, all concepts
    in our submission can be found in this document.
  • The Training IPT understands there is much
    discussion about name space used for a given
    concept. That is separate from what we use to
    define a concept and the actual definition we
  • We do provide a name space (EDCS label) however,
    we also realize once the concept becomes part of
    the UA IM and the FCS dictionary, the DAT will
    construct a name space that is consistent with
    FCS process.
  • All the Training IPT asks is that when that name
    space is constructed, the DAT provides the
    mapping between what it calls a concept and the
    name space we provided using EDCS.

Training Environmental Representation Delivery
  • Mapping between various dictionaries (discussed
    in another paper).
  • There are several name space dictionaries for the
    environment - EDCS, FACC, DFDD, NFDD, the new
  • In the month of February, we received copies of
    each of these.
  • Two spreadsheets were produced that maps Training
    IPT requirements to each of the dictionaries
    (feature and attributes).
  • Only EDCS covers the depth and breadth of the
    Training IPT requirements
  • Details of mappings will be discussed in later
  • Example
  • In FACC 2.1, GB005 is Airport/Airfield/Airstrip
    and is defined as an area of land or water used
    for landing, take-off, and movement of aircraft
    including associated building and facilities.
  • This was superseded by DFDD GB005 (note same name
    space code), which calls this Aerodrome and says
    it is An area of land set aside for the
    take-off, landing and/or accommodation of
  • This change removes water, amphibious aircraft
    landing and by implication aircraft carriers.
    Same name space, but legacy systems now have an
    interoperability issue.
  • We are sure there are reasons for the change and
    welcome discussions on these and other concepts
    with the dictionary owners.

Training Environmental Representation Delivery
  • Urban Requirements (discussed in a later paper)
  • Urban environment least understood in MS for
    Training and Enhanced Mission Planning and
    Rehearsal (TEMPR)
  • MS systems have urban requirements but usually
    no pedigree of the requirements
  • We have documented a set of urban requirements
  • Some came from the original URA study
  • Some came from expanding the URA to include new
    information and FCS documents
  • Some came from mapping to UHRB
  • All requirements now have pedigree to some

  • Presented Future Combat System (FCS) Training IPT
    Environmental Requirements and their Relationship
    to Military Functions and FCS Program
  • Discussed particular FCS Training IPT program
  • Discussed how individual feature and attribute
    requirements were derived, represented in a LDM,
    and the dictionary used to define the concepts
  • Discussed how the requirements are related to
    particular Military Functions
  • Discussed what exact requirements were given to
    the FCS Data Architecture Team
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