The%20Design%20of%20Effective%20Online%20Instructional%20Tools:%20Key%20Steps%20to%20take%20from%20the%20Identification%20of%20a%20Learning%20Gap%20to%20the%20Development%20of%20the%20Final%20Product - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The%20Design%20of%20Effective%20Online%20Instructional%20Tools:%20Key%20Steps%20to%20take%20from%20the%20Identification%20of%20a%20Learning%20Gap%20to%20the%20Development%20of%20the%20Final%20Product

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Title: The%20Design%20of%20Effective%20Online%20Instructional%20Tools:%20Key%20Steps%20to%20take%20from%20the%20Identification%20of%20a%20Learning%20Gap%20to%20the%20Development%20of%20the%20Final%20Product


1
BREATHING It's Not Just About Oxygen!
  • The Design of Effective Online Instructional
    Tools Key Steps to take from the Identification
    of a Learning Gap to the Development of the Final
    Product

Jackie Carnegie, PhD, M.Ed., University of
Ottawa jcarnegi_at_uottawa.ca
2
STEP 1 Identifying the Learning Gap
  • poorly answered exam question
  • questions students ask during class
  • student emails

3
The Question
  • Julie decides to try to get into the record books
    by sitting under water for as long as possible.
    She fixes a mouthpiece to a long plastic tube,
    weights herself down and sits at the bottom of an
    8-foot pool with the top of the plastic tube 2
    inches above the water.

4
The Question (cont.)
  • 1) After a few minutes she finds that
  • a) she is breathing more deeply
  • b) she is able to breathe more shallowly
  • c) her depth an rate of breathing are the
    same as when above water
  • d) her tidal volume has decreased

2) In no more than two sentences, justify your
answer to question 1
5
Student Performance on Q1
6
Student Performance on Q2
7
Common Errors/Misconceptions
  • 95 did not recognize the tube as a source of
    additional dead space volume
  • 85 did not mention blood CO2 levels as the
    driving force behind ventilation
  • 5.5 suggested that a lack of O2, only, would
    prompt increased lung ventilation

8
THE GOAL
9
Step 2 Planning the Online Learning Modules
  1. Begin the Planning with a Position Paper
  2. Conduct a Task Analysis
  3. Formulate Learning Objectives
  4. Determine Entry Level Knowledge Behaviours
  5. Construct a Site Map

10
2A. Write a Position Paper
  • The Problem to be Addressed
  • Health Science students in undergraduate ANP
    courses have difficulty
  • synthesizing
  • applying physiological concepts in different
    contexts

11
2A. Write a Position Paper
  • Consider the Learner Apply Cognitive Strategies
  • DECL
  • Delivery (scope, sequence, strategies)
  • Environment (learning climate, learning setting)
  • Content (required mental operations tasks,
    learning domain)
  • Learner (attitudes, capacity, demographics)

12
2A. Write a Position Paper
  • Apply Cognitive Strategies
  • Gagnés Nine Events
  • Gain attention
  • Inform learners of objectives
  • Stimulate prior learning
  • Present the content
  • Provide learning guidance
  • Elicit performance for practice
  • Provide feedback
  • Assess performance
  • Enhance retention and transfer

13
2A. Write a Position Paper
  • Expected Cognitive Improvement
  • Students will be able to explain the
    interrelationship between blood CO2 levels lung
    ventilation.
  • Students will be able to recognize situations
    that will influence blood CO2 levels predict
    how the body will respond to maintain homeostasis.

14
2B. Conduct a Task Analysis
  • Primary tasks subtasks
  • What tasks do you want the student to be able to
    do?
  • Tasks and subtasks lead to learning objectives
  • TPO EOs
  • Each subtask is associated with required task
    knowledge
  • What does student need to know in order to be
    able to do each of these tasks?

15
Lung Ventilation Task Analysis
  1. Describe the role of lung ventilation in clearing
    CO2 from the bloodstream.
  2. Describe the role of blood CO2 levels in
    regulating lung ventilation.
  3. Recognize various clinical and physiological
    scenarios as examples of alterations in DSV and
    explain resultant compensations of the body to
    maintain homeostasis.

16
Subtasks Task Knowledge
TASK 1 Describe the role of lung ventilation
in clearing CO2 from the bloodstream.
Sub-subtasks Task Knowledge
a) Describe the pathway of airflow in the lungs during a typical inspiration/expiration cycle (i) basic lung anatomy (ii) conducting versus respiratory zones of the lungs
b) Describe CO2 movements between the blood and the alveoli during a typical inspiration/expiration cycle (i) CO2 partial pressures in inspired versus expired air, alveolar air, arterial and venous blood (ii) CO2 gradients between alveolar air and the pulmonary circulation (iii) definition of alveolar ventilation rate
c) Describe the influences of alterations in lung ventilation on blood CO2 levels (i) the four respiratory volumes tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume (ii) tidal volume as a composite of dead space and alveolar ventilation
17
2C. Formulate Learning Objectives
  • Terminal Performance Objective
  • The student will recognize clinical and
    physiological examples of conditions that alter
    alveolar ventilation and, through application of
    the role of blood CO2 levels in regulating
    respiration, predict and explain the bodys
    compensatory responses that will maintain
    homeostasis.

18
2C. Formulate Learning Objectives
  • EO1 The student will summarize the role of the
    lungs in clearing CO2 from the bloodstream
  • EO2 The student will delineate the role of
    blood CO2 levels in regulating lung ventilation.
  • EO3 The student will recognize various clinical
    and physiological scenarios as representations of
    DSV that have associated influences on blood CO2
    clearance and the regulation of lung ventilation
    by the DRG.

19
Learning Objectives Verbs are Important
  • Blooms Revised Taxonomy

Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understandi
ng Remembering
(Tarlinton, 2003)
20
BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new
ideas, products, or ways of viewing
things Designing, constructing, planning,
producing, inventing.   Evaluating Justifying a
decision or course of action Checking,
hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting,
judging    Analysing Breaking information into
parts to explore understandings and
relationships Comparing, organising,
deconstructing, interrogating, finding   Applying
Using information in another familiar
situation Implementing, carrying out, using,
executing   Understanding Explaining ideas or
concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing,
classifying, explaining   Remembering Recalling
information Recognising, listing, describing,
retrieving, naming, finding  
Modified from Tarlinton, 2003
21
EO2 The student will delineate the role of
blood CO2 levels in regulating lung ventilation
  • EO2.1 The student will outline the process by
    which air is moved into and out of the lungs
    under resting conditions and, given a diagram of
    the brain stem, locate the DRG and justify its
    designation as the pacesetting inspiratory centre
    of the body.
  • EO2.2 Using the carbonic acid-bicarbonate
    equilibrium reaction to link CO2 levels with pH,
    the student will explain the mechanism by which
    CO2 levels regulate the rate and depth of
    breathing at the level of the DRG.

22
4. Entry Level Knowledge Behaviours
  • What basic knowledge should students already
    have?
  • What basic abilities should students already have?

23
5. Construct a Site Map
LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4
HOME PAGE Learning Objectives
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 1. What is the pathway of airflow into and out of the lungs? Question 2 Correct Answer
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 1. What is the pathway of airflow into and out of the lungs? Question 3 Correct Answer
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 2. Lets Look at Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures PowerPoint Slides Gas Partial Pressures Respiratory Volumes
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 2. Lets Look at Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures Question 1 Hint
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 2. Lets Look at Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures Question 2 Correct Answer
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 3. A Closer Look at Tidal Volume
HOME PAGE MODULE 1 Clearing Carbon Dioxide from the Bloodstream 4. Effective Lung Ventilation Questions 1 2 Correct Answers
HOME PAGE MODULE 2 Regulation of Lung Ventilation by Carbon Dioxide 1. How does the DRG Function as the Pacesetting Inspiratory Centre? PowerPoint Slide Inspiration must be Stimulated
HOME PAGE MODULE 2 Regulation of Lung Ventilation by Carbon Dioxide 2. The Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer System and Stimulation of the DRG Questions 1 2 Correct Answers
HOME PAGE MODULE 3 Alterations in Lung Ventilation during Daily Life and in the Clinic Application 1 Angelas Hurdles versus Lauras Balloons Question Correct Answer
HOME PAGE MODULE 3 Alterations in Lung Ventilation during Daily Life and in the Clinic Application 2 Tobys Secret Fort
HOME PAGE MODULE 3 Alterations in Lung Ventilation during Daily Life and in the Clinic Application 3 Lung Ventilation in the Clinic Research Report Some Masks Used In Children's Asthma Treatment Not Effective, Research Shows
24
Lets Have a Look at the Web Site
BREATHING It's Not Just About Oxygen!
25
Key Last Step Formative Evaluation
  • Potential Evaluators
  • content experts
  • instructional designers
  • students

26
Formative Evaluation
  • Content Expert
  • motivation for learning
  • subject matter
  • self-testing exercises
  • invitation to provide comments

27
Formative Evaluation
  • Instructional Designer
  • language, grammar, directions
  • displays surface features
  • use of audio
  • questions module construction
  • invitation to provide comments

28
Formative Evaluation
  • Student
  • language ease of use
  • interest
  • content module design
  • invitation to provide comments

29
References
  1. Gagné RM, Briggs LJ Wager WW (1992) Principles
    of Instructional design. Harcourt Brace
    Jovanovich.
  2. Mann BL (2005) Making your own educational
    materials for the Web. Int. J. Instruct. Tech.
    Dist. Learning 10 (2).
  3. Marieb E (2004) Human Anatomy Physiology.
    Pearson Education
  4. Moreno R Mayer RE (2000) A learner-centered
    approach to multimedia explanations deriving
    instructional design principles from cognitive
    theory. http//imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/in
    dex.asp
  5. Tarlinton D (2003) Blooms revised taxonomy.
    http//www.kurwongbss.qld.edu.au/thinking/Bloom/bl
    oompres.ppt
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