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Guidelines on HOW TO Successfully Find, Read, Summarize, and then Write Abstracts

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Title: Guidelines on HOW TO Successfully Find, Read, Summarize, and then Write Abstracts


1
Guidelines on HOW TOSuccessfully Find, Read,
Summarize, and then Write Abstracts
  • Dr. David M. Agnew
  • VOED 6503, History and Principles of Vocational
    Education
  • Arkansas State University

2
Objectives of this Presentation
  • 1. To help you understand the purposes of this
    assignment.
  • 2. To define abstract and know the attributes of
    a good abstract.
  • 3. To help you find appropriate articles for this
    assignment.
  • 4. To help you learn to read articles with a
    purpose in mind.
  • 5. To help you learn how to organize your
    thoughts on the articles you read.
  • 6. To help you write abstracts that are worthy of
    a good grade.

3
Objective 1 Purposes or Objectives of this
Assignment
  • Of the Abstract Assignment
  • To survey the sources of professional literature
    associated with the discipline.
  • To gain an awareness of the nature of literature
    in the discipline.
  • Develop in depth knowledge associated with some
    aspect of the profession or discipline.
  • Of the Abstract Itself
  • To bring information into the class that would
    not normally be included.
  • To further develop ones ability to critically
    review the literature and assess the key points
    of the literature.
  • To share the information with others in the class.

4
Objective 2 Define Abstract
  • Types of assignments
  • Research paper or report
  • Opinion paper, editorial
  • Abstract
  • What is an article abstract?
  • A summary of an article, an overview.
  • It is boiling a long article down to just the
    bare facts.
  • Taking a 10 or 30 page article down to ½ a page.

5
Objective 2b Key elements of a good abstract
  • What are the key elements of a good abstract?
  • Follows guidelines provided in the assignment
    sheet.
  • About 200 words in length, single spaced (½ page
    long but not more than 1 page).
  • Font should be 12 point, New Times Roman
  • Has multiple paragraphs that are organized
    logically.
  • Citation follows APA Style Manual, 5th edition.
  • http//www.apastyle.org/
  • http//www.psywww.com/resource/apacrib.htm
  • http//www.lib.usm.edu/research/guides/apa.html
  • Is grammatically correct.
  • Maintains the key themes or ideas of the articles
  • Summary is in your own words
  • Offers a short assessment at the conclusion of
    your prospective.

6
Objective 3 Searching for Scholarly Publications
  • 1. Best Places to Look for scholarship
  • Books (Published) Not for abstracts
  • Thesis or dissertations (unpublished) Not for
    abstracts
  • Professional scholarly journals (Published,
    FOR ABSTRACTS)
  • Usually there is at least one that is directly
    associated with a profession and others with a
    less direct connection.
  • Proceeding of Professional and scholarly
    presentations (Sometimes, but not allows
    published, FOR ABSTRACTS)
  • Scholarly means refereed and blind peer reviewed
  • 2. Other sources that are sometimes acceptable
  • Some websites (maybe if it is a journal) Not for
    abstracts
  • Consider stability and source (institutional or
    individual)
  • Many professional journals are now on the web
  • Some professional sources other than journals
    and proceedings, such as lower level periodicals
    (Ag Ed Magazine), Professional newsletters,
    official communications through memos or letters,
    official reports of official committees or a task
    force. (maybe)
  • Published, book reviews, editorials, or
    abstracts, Not for abstracts
  • Legal documents, laws, legislation Not for
    abstracts

7
How to use the internet to find Good Journal
Articles
  • Databases such as ERIC, Academic Search Premier,
    Article1st, AGRICOLA, HistoryHistory (American),
    History (World)
  • Webpage or homepage for individual journals.
  • Example 1 Journal of Agricultural Education
  • Professional organization, American Association
    of Agricultural Educators (AAAE)
    http//pubs.aged.tamu.edu/jae/
  • Example 2 Journal of Education for Business
  • http//static.highbeam.com/j/journalofeducationfor
    business/index.html

8
Objective 4 Purposes for Reading
  • Reading to assess Enables you to determine
    whether the content is valid and has merit and
    relevant for your applications.
  • Reading to learn Enables you to learn
    information for background knowledge or decision
    making
  • Reading to learn to do Enables you to learn how
    to complete tasks (learning but not to do)
  • Reading to do Actual doing, not just knowing a
    process, enables you to complete tasks.
  • Reading to tell To tell or share what you have
    learned with others.

9
Objective 5 How to organize your thoughts on the
articles you read.
  • 1. Review the article quickly (if an abstract is
    provided review it first, if not look at the
    title, subtitles, and any illustrations or
    graphical info provided. Also if a research
    article look for the research questions and then
    look to the results and conclusions for a quick
    understanding of the article)
  • 2. Reflect upon your purpose for reading.
  • 3. READ it, dont just scan it, Read it in
    sections and re-read. The goal is to do it right
    not to get done quickly.
  • 4. Make notes as you read, listing the key points
    and high-light sections, if you are working from
    a photocopy.
  • 5. Ask yourself these questions?
  • a. What are the key points? what is the author
    telling me?
  • d. Would others in my class agree that the
    points you saw would actually be the main points?
  • c. What can I learn from this that I can tell
    others?
  • 6. Organization of the actual abstract
  • a. At the top, on the right side indicate that
    this is 1 of 4, 2 of 4 , etc.
  • b. One the next line, place you name in the
    center of the page.
  • c. The citation goes next at the top, two line
    down from your name
  • d. Double space and begin the abstract.
  • Two or three paragraphs will be devoted to your
    summary of the article.
  • The last paragraph is where you evaluate the
    article in your own words.

10
Objective 6 Writing abstracts that are worthy of
a good grade
  • Here are what mistakes people make and how it
    affects their grade.
  • Trying to not go to the library, You most likely
    can not get it all off the internet
  • Not reading directions or not following
    directions
  • Trying to do the abstract without reading the
    article
  • Using only one journal
  • Not using acceptable source for the article that
    you abstract
  • Selecting an article that is not related to the
    subject of this course
  • Not properly citing source
  • Not thinking that I will look up the original
    article
  • Misspelling, poor grammar and sentence
    construction
  • Taking credit for something someone else did
  • Copying sections of the article word for word
    (i.e Article abstract or resume) This will result
    in failure for the course or at least F on the
    assignment.
  • Taking someone elses work and submitting it as
    your own is called PLAGIARISM. See the
    Academic Integrity Policy in the course syllabus
    for details
  • Not following the format (Example is given)
  • Restatement of simple disjointed facts and not a
    summary of content.
  • Abstract is too short (less than half a page will
    not work)
  • Abstract is too long
  • more than one page
  • Not being ready to report on the article in class
    when it is your turn

11
One of your assignments for this semester is to
  • Write four abstracts, 3 on historical aspects of
    Career and Technical Education and 1 on current
    issues or trends in Career and Technical
    Education.
  • Detailed guidelines are on the assignment sheet.

12
Evaluation Criteria for Written Abstracts
  • 1. Organization Placement -- follows the stated
    guidelines, has all the parts, and they are in
    the proper places (each part is located in proper
    sequence and in proper place on the page).
  • 2. Content Easy to read, is well written, has a
    logical flow, is a good summary
  • 3. Follows generally accepted rules of English --
    good grammar, spelling, good sentence structure,
    etc.
  • 3. Citations -- Follows APA Guidelines
  • 4. Selection of article - Article is on topic
    is informative

13
Check List Before You Turn It In
  • ___ Does the topic of the article relate to the
    course as discussed in class?
  • ___ Is each abstract numbered correctly?
  • ___ Does each citation conform to APA style?
  • ___ Is each citation complete?
  • ___ Is your name on each abstract?
  • ___ Is there proper spacing between each section
  • (Name, Citation, and Body of the abstract)
  • ___ Is each article summarized in 2-3 paragraphs?
  • ___ Is the last paragraph of each a commentary?
  • ___ Does it show fore though adherence to the
    rules of grammar?
  • ___ If someone else read your abstract would they
    get the major points?

14
Evaluation Criteria for Oral Presentations
  • 1. Voice Clear, loud enough, confident
    articulate
  • 2. Grammar Uses accepted grammar
  • 3. Knowledge of the subject evident that you
    had read and understand the article. Does not
    have to read the abstract (big loss of points for
    this).
  • 4. Introduction -- Gives good introduction,
    states the descriptive information in the
    introduction (i.e Title, Author)
  • 5. Commentary Show good understanding of the
    article within the context of the discipline and
    shows evidence that you have contemplated the
    relevance of the article.
  • Note You will select two articles of interest to
    you for presentation to the class.

15
Do you know where to begin?
  • Let start with selecting an article based upon
    the title.
  • Number on thru 10 on your paper
  • Place a Y by the corresponding number if it is
    acceptable based upon the title. And place an
    N by the corresponding number if it is not
    acceptable.
  • Be prepared if it is not acceptable to explain
    why.

16
You be the Judge-- 1
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Vocational Further Education and Training for
    British Merchant Navy Ratings The National Sea
    Training Schools, 1942-1972. Author Kennerley,
    Alston Source History of Education v29 n4
    p301-27 Jul 2000

17
You be the Judge--2
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • A Tribute to the Visionaries, Prime Movers and
    Pioneers of Vocational Education 1892 to
    1917. Author Smith, Neville B. Source Journal
    of Vocational and Technical Education v16 n1
    p67-76 Fall 1999

18
You be the Judge--3
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Current Trends in Technology Education and
    Vocational Training in the Former Republics of
    the Soviet Union. Access ERIC  FullText
    Author Bannatyne, Mark W. McK. Publication U.S.
    Nevada No. of Pages 34

19
You be the Judge--4
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Social Welfare and Vocational Education--in
    Progressive Era Cincinnati. Author Lakes,
    Richard D. Source Journal of Vocational and
    Technical Education v11 n2 p12-21 Spr 1995

20
You be the Judge--5
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • The Project Method Its Vocational Education
    Origin and International Development. Author
    Knoll, Michael Source Journal of Industrial
    Teacher Education v34 n3 p59-80 Spr 1997

21
You be the Judge--6
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • A Partial and Informal History of Vocational
    Education in Hawaii 1809-1995. Access ERIC
     Author Broadbent, William A. Publication U.S.
    Hawaii No. of Pages 128

22
You be the Judge--7
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • The History of the American Vocational Education
    Research Association. The First 25 Years. Access
    ERIC  FullText Author McCracken, J. David And
    Others Publication U.S. Ohio No. of Pages 131

23
You be the Judge--8
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Eliminating Sex Bias in Vocational Youth
    Organizations. Summary of Project MOVE's Camp
    Oswegatchie Program, July 8-14, 1978. Author
    Farris, Charlotte J. Publication U.S. New York
    No. of Pages 31

24
You be the Judge--9
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Youth Organizations Aid in Teaching Author
    Johnson, W. T. Source Agr Educ Mag 42, 4, 102,
    69 Oct

25
You be the Judge--10
  • Based only on the title below, is this article
    appropriate for a course like this one?
  • Perspectives on Future Directions in Vocational
    Psychology Author Betz, Nancy Source Journal
    of Vocational Behavior 59, no. 2 (2001) 275-283
    (9 pages)

26
Do you feel ok about looking at titles?
  • Titles are the starting point but they are not
    always correct. Sometimes the title seems ok but
    the article is not.
  • The next step is to quickly review the text to
    see if it looks ok.
  • If it looks interesting and is something that you
    want then dig in and read it and take notes,
    develop an outline, or if working from a copy you
    might highlight sections.

27
You be the Judge Abstract 1How well is it
written?
  • Given the following abstract (Abstract 1) how
    would you rate this using the guidelines provided
    and based upon our class discussions?
  • You may use the check sheet and the grade
    criteria for the written abstract.

28
You be the Judge Abstract 2How well is it
written?
  • Given the following abstract (Abstract 1) how
    would you rate this using the guidelines provided
    and based upon our class discussions?
  • You may use the check sheet and the grade
    criteria for the written abstract.

29
You be the Judge Abstract 3How well is it
written?
  • Given the following abstract (Abstract 1) how
    would you rate this using the guidelines provided
    and based upon our class discussions?
  • You may use the check sheet and the grade
    criteria for the written abstract.

30
Check List 1.___ Does the topic of the article
relate to the course as discussed in class? 2.
___ Is each abstract numbered correctly? 3.___
Does each citation conform to APA style? 4.___
Is each citation complete? 5.___ Is your name on
each abstract? 6.___ Is there proper spacing
between each section (Name,
Citation, and Body of the abstract) 7.___ Is each
article summarized in 2-3 paragraphs? 8.___ Is
the last paragraph of each a commentary? 9.___
Does it show fore though adherence to the rules
of grammar? 10. ___ If someone else read your
abstract would they get the major
points?
Evaluation Criteria for
the Written Plan 1. Organization Placement --
follows the stated guidelines, has all the parts,
and they are in the proper places (each part
is located in proper sequence and in proper place
on the page). 2. Content Easy to read, is well
written, has a logical flow, is a good
summary 3.Follows generally accepted rules of
English -- good grammar, spelling, good sentence
structure, etc. 3. Citations -- Follows APA
Guidelines 4. Selection of article - Article is
on topic is informative
Criteia Possible points Your Evaluation
Organization Placement 10
Content 20
Accepted rules of English 20
Citations 10
Selection of article 40
Total 100
31
The End
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