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Title: Curriculum%20Development%20Teaching%20Modules


1
Curriculum DevelopmentTeaching Modules
8-Mar-2005
PICT, Final WP6
  • ALEX DEFFNER
  • VASSILIS BOURDAKIS
  • Dept. of Planning and Regional Development,
    School of Engineering,
  • University of Thessaly (UTH), Volos, Greece

2
Contents
  1. PARTICIPANTS CLASSIFICATION
  2. 4 CORE TEACHING MODULES
  3. 4 TEACHING MODULES FOR THE PUBLIC
  4. 3 TEACHING MODULES FOR THE PLANNERS

3
I. PARTICIPANTS CLASSIFICATION
categories Peculiarities of the Greek case study Peculiarities of other case studies
Age group High of elderly
Educational level Very low, 50 illiterate, 21 school drop-out
Income level Very low, 50 below poverty line
Employment status 24 much higher than the region
Household type Many single parent families
ethnic minorities 15 Roma, refugees and economic immigrants
4
II. 4 CORE TEACHING MODULES (6 units)
  • Introductory
  • Introduction to PICT(0,5 unit0,5 teaching hour)
  • 1.1. What is PICT (0,1 unit)
  • PICT (Planning Inclusion of Clients through
    e-training) is a transnational project financed
    in part by the European Commission in the context
    of Leonardo Da Vinci's Community Vocational
    Training Action Programme. It is implemented by
    local authorities, universities, private
    consultancies and social partners in four
    European countries Belgium, Greece, Hungary and
    the United Kingdom

5
Core 2
  • 1.2. Project aims (0,1 unit)
  • The project aims to promote effective public
    participation in planning, through the
    development and use of advanced ICT (Information
    Computer Technology) applications that may
    promote interaction and dialogue between planners
    and the public

6
Core 3
  • 1.3. Who can benefit? (0,1 unit)
  • The citizen who cares about planning and wants to
    be involved in the decisions
  • The local entrepreneurs who are affected by
    planning decisions and would like to take part in
    the planning process
  • The planners who want to promote participatory
    procedures through an effective dialogue with the
    local stakeholders and improve their skills on
    new planning and design technologies

7
Core 4
  • The local competent authorities who can set the
    course for a democratic planning process and
    train planning personnel to that effect
  • The universities which can jointly formulate
    learning material, develop further and test
    laboratory applications of "user-friendly" design
    and mapping tools, for public participation and
    teaching purposes at the national and European
    level

8
Core 5
  • 1.4. Actions planned and expected results (0,2
    unit)
  • Step 1 Define the conceptual and operational
    framework for public participation in planning.
  • To that effect the project reviews and encodes
    theory and practice of public participation
    across Europe and compiles characteristic
    examples of good or not so good practice and
    legislation
  • Step 2 Set up four pilot projects, one in each
    participating local authority.
  • The pilot projects are launched by determining
    the needs of citizens and planning professionals
    in order to encourage dialogue between them

9
Core 6
  • Step 3 Focus the participatory procedure on a
    planning issue and develop suitable ICT
    applications.
  • Information Computer Technology applications are
    used to illustrate points for discussion and
    interaction between the public and planners. A
    learning methodology is also compiled to enable
    all stakeholders involved to increase their
    capacity for participation
  • Step 4 Self-manage the process.
  • Each pilot area establishes a Local Consultative
    Committee and a "task force" to offer advice and
    practical help to individuals
  • Step 5 Host local workshops and an international
    conference.
  • The purpose is to raise public awareness and to
    widely announce project products and results

10
Core 7
Project partners
  • United Kingdom
  • Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council (Project
    Contractor)
  • Liverpool John Moores University, School of the
    Built Environment
  • European Council of Town Planners (ECTP)
  • Greece
  • PRISMA Centre for Development Studies (Project
    Coordinator)
  • Municipality of Agia Varvara in the Prefecture of
    Athens
  • University of Thessaly, Dept of Planning
    Regional Development

11
Core 8
Project partners
  • Belgium
  • Hogeschool voor Wetenschap Kunst Sint Lucas
    Architectuur
  • Project duration
  • The project started in November 2002 and will end
    in October 2005
  • Hungary
  • Budapest University of Technology and Economics
  • WEBhu Kft. ICT Consultancy
  • For more information
  • please visit the project website
  • www.e-pict.co.uk

12
Core 9
  • B. Planning participation (2,5 units)
  • 2. Planning (1,5 units)
  • 2.1. General concepts of urban planning (1 unit)
  • 2.1.1. Space, time and culture (0,5 unit)
  • Avoidance of spatial determinism urban
    interventions can strengthen or weaken already
    existing social tendencies BUT they cannot by
    themselves create new ones

13
Core 10
  • Importance of temporal dimension Focus on daily
    life but also raising attention for a prospective
    view over longer periods of time
  • Multiculturalism in a multicultural area it is
    easier to argue for the importance of culture.
    e.g. in Brussels the different ethnic groups are
    rather large connected, though not often
    integrated in a context of diversity

14
Core 11
  • 2.1.2. Creativity, innovation and leisure (0,1
    unit)
  • Use of creativity (process from consumption to
    production) as a dynamic tool for urban
    innovation and imaginative action, focusing on
    culture
  • Having an open mind for innovative practices (as
    well as theoretical approaches)
  • Importance of leisure activities especially for
    areas that have unemployed people who are rich in
    time (they have more, albeit forced, leisure
    time) and poor in money a general contradiction

15
Core 12
  • 2.1.3. Sustainability (0,8 unit)
  • Three dimensions of sustainable development in
    planning
  • Social Economic Environmental
  • Definition of a sustainable city
  • organised so as to enable all its citizens to
    meet their own needs and to enhance their
    well-being without damaging the natural world or
    endangering the living conditions of other people
    now or in the future (

16
Man made city (Tokyo)
17
Reckless urban sprawl (Phoenix, Arizona))
18
The endless city (Mexico City)
19
Chinas urban miracle? Shenzhen
20
Core 13
  • Attributes of a sustainable city
  • just, beautiful, creative, ecological, of easy
    contact mobility, compact polycentric,
    diverse
  • Initial considerations of sustainability
  • sustainability is future preservation involving
    actions ethically or aesthetically accepted, so
    that they become satisfying things to do now as
    historical preservation requires the disposal of
    the irrelevant past, so future preservation
    requires the elimination of the irrelevant future

21
(No Transcript)
22
Curitiba Brazil, promoting urban sustainability
(the first university of the environment)
23
Core 14
  • Peoples Needs as a Starting Point
  • Clean air water, healthy food, good housing
  • Quality education, vibrant culture, good health
    care, satisfying employment or occupation
  • Safety in public spaces, equal opportunities,
    supportive relationships, freedom of expression
  • Meeting the special requirements of the young,
    the old and the disabled

24
Core 15
  • culture of sustainability development of
    concepts of real sustainability
  • Involve the whole person
  • Place long term stewardship above short term
    satisfaction
  • Ensure justice and fairness informed by civic
    responsibility
  • Identify the appropriate scale of viable human
    activities
  • Encourage diversity within the unity of a given
    community
  • Develop precautionary principles,anticipating the
    effects of our actions
  • Ensure that our use of resources does not
    diminish the living environment

25
Core 16
  • Sustainable cities-best practice initiatives
    according to International Council for Local
    Environment Initiatives (ICLEI)
  • Improved production/consumption cycles
  • Gender social diversity
  • Innovative use of technology
  • Environmental protection restoration
  • Improved transport communication
  • Participatory governance planning
  • Self-help development techniques

26
Core 17
  • Checklist of key questions for sustainability
  • Does my city-
  • Compile an annual environmental report?
  • Use life cycle analysis in its own purchasing
    decisions?
  • Support public environmental education?
  • Create jobs for environmental regeneration?
  • Have polices for transport integration and
    pedestrianisation?
  • Encourage ecological businesses?
  • Support ecological architecture and urban
    villages?

27
Core 18
  • Commission of the European Communities (1998) - 4
    policy aims
  • strengthening economic prosperity and employment
    in cities
  • Promoting equality, social inclusion and
    regeneration in urban areas
  • Protecting and improving the urban environment
    towards local global sustainability
  • Contributing to good urban governance and local
    empowerment

28
Core 19
  • 5 lessons for policy development according to
    Wally N Dow, former Dir. Gen. of UNCHS (United
    Nations Centre for Human Settlements)
  • Use the power of good examples
  • Understand the complexity of urban issues
  • Local level action has large scale repercussions
  • Exchanges take place between (similar) peer
    groups in different cities
  • There is a need to change the way urban
    institutions work

29
Core 20
  • Local Agenda 21 as a tool for sustainability
  • Process of developing local policies for
    sustainable development and building partnerships
    between local authorities and other sectors to
    implement them
  • Product of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit (UNCED)
    endorsed by 150 nations
  • Integrative goal seeking to break down barriers
    between sectors in both public and private life
    it is a continuing process

30
Core 21
  • Range of practised methods traditional
    consultation on draft plans, public meetings,
    bringing together of representatives from
    different interests, round tables, focus groups
  • Sustainability indicator asking people to
    identify specific measurable aspects, parts of
    their living environment which, to them, indicate
    their health
  • Support mechanism no setting out by Local Agenda
    21 but local authorities have been leaders among
    governments in addressing sustainability issues
    (even before the adoption of LA 21)

31
Core 22
  • 2.2. Vision for local development Community
    Planning (0,5 unit)
  • 2.2.1. Vision for local development (0,1 unit)
  • Abony quality of roads in questionnaire
  • Developing a sense for integrated local
    development (housing AND public space AND
    social-economic background)
  • Importance of local economic development new
    localism from outward- to inward-looking
    societies

32
Core 23
  • 2.2.2.Community planning (0,4 unit)
  • Focusing on the needs of particular groups (e.g.
    elderly and Roma in A. Varvara the first, along
    with housewives, are willing to participate in
    PICT but are IT illiterate-on the other hand,
    young people are IT literate but do not seem
    willing to participate in PICT)

33
Core 24
  • Principles of community planning
  • Agree to the rules and boundaries
  • Be visionary yet realistic
  • Build local capacity
  • Encourage collaboration
  • Have fun
  • Learn from others
  • Have personal motivation and take initiatives
  • Respect the cultural context of others
  • Be receptive to training
  • Visualisation of result

34
Core 25
  • 3. Participation (1 unit)
  • 3.1. General concepts of public participation
    (0,7 unit)
  • 3.1.1. Methodology various concepts (0,3 unit)
  • Developing an appropriate methodology of
    discussion between the public and the planners
    (two separate groups, and then together, e.g.
    assembly in Brussels)
  • combination of simplified versions of SWOT
    Analysis Delphi method (internal environment
    Strengths, Weaknesses, external environment
    Opportunities, Threats)

35
Core 26
  • Synergetic distribution of information
    Integration of different sorts of communication
    channels to invite and inform people, in respect
    of the existing of associations, planners and
    authorities
  • Self-help and independence Enable involvement by
    providing means to inform oneself (empowering
    ones viewpoints and points of view)
  • Joined development Enable interaction and
    discussions

36
Core 27
  • different views of Public Participation (pp)
    depend on the degree of involvement of the
    experts and the criteria of the representing the
    public
  • lack of experience and consequently of
    participatory culture in Greece (however,
    participatory experience in A. Varvara)
  • Brussels in respect connected to the existing
    strong elaborated participatory fabric
  • Abony inviting the public to participate in
    planning decisions consultation with public
    (result of questionnaire)

37
Core 28
  • 3.1.2. Schema of Public Participation (0,2
    unit)
  • Hampton-two major objectives behind the
    introduction of greater public participation in
    planning during the late 1960s
  • policy-making and decisions can benefit from
    better information about public preferences and
    residents concerns.
  • Public participation can draw people into a
    stronger and longer-term relationship with
    government and enhance their current and future
    ability to play a significant role in
    policy-making
  • Relationship of specific techniques to subsidiary
    objectives in public participation

38
Core 29
  • the involved groups are distinguished in
  • major elites (e.g. local business groups, major
    employers, Chambers of Commerce, trade unions)
  • minor elites (local interest groups, community
    associations, action groups
  • public as a collection of individuals

39
Core 30
  • 3.1.3. Equal Opportunities Guide (0,1 unit)
  • London Government Management Board -conditions
    for success within LAs, selection of relative
    factors
  • race
  • women
  • disabled
  • elderly
  • children
  • part time casual workers

40
Core 31
  • 3.1.4. Key principles for good practice in pp
    (0,1 unit)
  • Clear aims of participation at the outset
  • insurances of the central role of local
    politicians at the programme
  • link of motives, objectives and intentions of the
    participation programme with the appropriate
    techniques
  • interpretation of the nature and implications of
    policies and plans for the users
  • identification of the procedures for information
    collection from the public in order to evaluate
    and act

41
Core 32
  • 3.2. Key skills (0,3 unit)
  • 3.2.1. Citizenship, democracy participation
    (0,1 unit)
  • definitions
  • changing patterns
  • new arrangements

42
Core 33
  • 3.2.2. Alternative viewpoints (0,1 unit)
  • stakeholder mapping
  • equality of opportunity
  • conflict and diversity

43
Core 34
  • 3.2.3. Negotiation and conflict resolution (0,1
    unit)
  • the skills
  • the process
  • Civil rights perception

44
Core 35
  • C. IT (6 units)
  • 4. Methods techniques
  • 4.1. Methods for helping people to get involved
    in planning (3 units)
  • e.g. electronic map, gaming, simulation

45
Core 36
  • Technology support having group sessions in
    which tools and technologies play a supportive
    role.
  • Space and time Combining scheduling tools with
    spatial models ('4D-viewer'),
  • Joined perspectives Combining eye-level views
    and birds-eye views ('3D-projection')

46
Core 37
  • Complementary expertise Considering different
    background of people (literacy of architectural
    concepts, drawing and imaging techniques),
  • Compact information and complexity delimitation
    Considering universal limits and characteristics
    of human perception (e.g. mind can only keep
    seven plus or minus two chunks of information
    in the short term memory at a time)

47
III. 4 TEACHING MODULES FOR THE PUBLIC (6,5 units)
48
Public 2
  • 1.2. Definition of planning (0,1 unit)
  • deliberate social or organizational activity of
    developing an optimal strategy of future action
    to achieve a desired set of goals, for solving
    novel problems in complex contexts, and attended
    by the power intention to commit resources to
    act as necessary to implement the chosen strategy

49
Public 3
  • 1.3. Perception of planners job (0,1 unit)
  • in A. Varvara association with technical services
    authority that controls building construction and
    grants building permissions, rather vague concept
    of designing towns, streets layouts traffic
    management
  • Halewood negative view of planning, confusion
    (need for more consultation with the community)
  • Abony no knowledge of what a planner does

50
Public 4
  • 1.4. Definition of the problem (0,1 unit)
  • It depends on the analytical orientations of the
    individual
  • academic expert if the shoe fits, wear it
  • strategic expert the shoe youre wearing
    doesnt fit, and you should try one like this
    instead
  • clinical expert if the shoe doesnt fit, then
    theres something wrong with your foot

51
Public 5
  • 1.4. Urban planning functions (0,1 unit)
  • Four main functions according to Le Corbusier
  • housing
  • work
  • leisure
  • transport

52
Tokyo (the biggest city in the world, home to
nearly 30 million people)
53
Public 6
  • 1.5. Making cities work (0,2 unit)
  • Venice as classic case study (even if few, if
    any, cities have canals) since its working
    principles can be applied to modern day cities
  • Making cities work depends on best practice
    examples of
  • arriving in the city (transport) most successful
    gateways and transport interchanges, first (and
    lasting) impressions really count, cities are not
    just places where people live but they are
    destinations that many people visit for brief
    period

54
Venice (the classic case study)
55
The Golden Gate, San Francisco TGV
Méditerranée Station, Valence, France
56
Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong
57
Nils Ericson Bus Station, Gothenburg, Sweden
58
Yokohama Ferry Terminal, Japan
59
Salamanca Train Station, Spain
60
Public 7
  • getting around the city (transport) great
    challenge for most urban leaders how to move
    people around in safety, comfort and speed, acute
    political trade-offs pedestrian vs car,
    pollution vs clean air, communities vs roads, a
    matter not only of huge public investment but
    also of ideas and good operating practices

61
Edinburghs Greenways, Scotland
62
Edinburghs Greenways
63
Bristol, the legible city, England
64
Bristol, the legible city
65
Cycling in Rennes, France
66
Curitiba, Brazil, bus shelters
67
Strasbourg LRT (Light Rapid Transit), France
68
Portland Streetcar, Oregon, USA
69
Brisbane Busway, Australia
70
Singapore Electronic Road Pricing Scheme
71
ULTra System, Cardiff, Wales
72
Public 8
  • enjoying the city (leisure) ingenious approaches
    that are taken to parks, shopping malls and
    public spaces, large number of (usually)
    small-scale amenities that make a city fun to be
    in
  • working in the city (work)
  • living in the city (housing)

73
Marbella Old Town, Spain
74
(No Transcript)
75
South Bank, Brisbane, Australia
76
Copenhagen squares and spaces, Denmark
77
Faneuil Hall Marketplace, Boston, USA
78
Toronto Mall, Canada
79
Toronto Mall (Calatravas galleria)
80
?ew Rondas and Ramblas, Barcelona, Spain
81
Circular Quay and the Rocks, Sidney, Australia
82
Vancouver Downtown, Canada
83
Public Realm, Glasgow, Scotland
84
Post Office Park, Boston, USA
85
Public 9
  • Main issues cities have to find a solution to
    the car (road space has to be rationed since it
    is not a free public good), even the most
    spectacular developments have to be on a human
    scale, information is the key, it is people
    (often one individual) that make things happen
  • It is a cumulative effect of visionary ideas,
    sometimes small, that make cities work

86
Laissez-faire planning
87
(No Transcript)
88
Streets for people, Central London, England
89
(No Transcript)
90
Public 10
  • 1.7. Various concepts (0,1 unit)
  • Human action a material process indicative of
    mental processes starting from perception,
    passing through knowledge and appropriation and
    leading to consciousness - development of a
    consciousness for the collective good (A.
    Varvara)
  • Space focusing on the mental process starting
    from perceiving buildings, ones district, the
    neighbouring district, understanding the larger
    context of the municipality, to town, region and
    nation

91
Public 11
  • Open green spaces tree planting as
    improvement of the quality of life (A. Varvara)
  • Cultural activities from popular culture to high
    culture
  • Art as a cultural function in the city
  • Time focus on the present (solutions of
    problems), but also importance of interventions
    with long-term impacts
  • Urban furniture (e.g. lighting) as an enrichment
    of security at night discouragement of drug
    dealing (A. Varvara)

92
Public 12
  • Regaining trust and belief in the potential of
    urban interventions, learning about results of
    previous best practices (e.g. development of
    trust to the authorities in A. Varvara)
  • Changing the shape of the area
  • Pros and cons, alternative actions
  • Simulation game
  • Involvement of unemployed in urban development
    projects and cultural activities

93
Public 13
  • 1.8. Visualization plan map reading (0,1 unit)
  • A. Varvara some apprehension after explanation
  • Brussels abstract, 2D reduction time aspect
    missing in reading plans
  • Abony inability questions asked about
    familiar buildings
  • examples of cities representation in cinema the
    city in cinema as a real life scene of applying
    planners ideas, and the planner as a director
    of everyday life

94
(No Transcript)
95
Public 14
  • 2.Participation (0,5 unit)
  • 2.1. Introductory themes to public participation
    (0,4 unit)
  • 2.1.1. The idea of pp (0,1 unit)
  • One of the three main ideologies of planning
    alongside property and the public interest
  • Pp in the policy making process is easier for
    some groups in society than for others
  • p. in government by adults is an aspect of
    democracy

96
Public 15
  • The representative principle of government is
    built on the assumption that it is difficult, if
    not impossible, for the public to take part in
    making the decisions that crop up every day in
    government and administration
  • There are circumstances when governors believe
    that people should have the opportunity directly
    to take part in decision-making rather than rely
    on MPs or councillors to take decisions on their
    behalf

97
Public 16
  • Distinction between politics government
    politics is an activity where the merits of
    alternative forms of action to deal with problems
    in the public sphere can be publicly debated as a
    prelude to choice, government is where decisions
    are formally made on behalf of all
  • P. in planning can span a spectrum of
    consultation and debate, where the public is
    engaged in discussion but has no right to decide
    policy (politics), through to more direct forms
    of decision-making about planning and
    environmental issues (government)

98
Public 17
  • General extension of politics and pp beyond use
    of ballot box are usually made on the basis that
    society and public opinion is becoming more
    diverse, government procedures have severe
    shortcomings, profound changes are occurring in
    all spheres of life, and politicians and
    professionals cannot keep abreast of the growing
    diversity of needs and interests within the
    population
  • Others claim that decisions about physical
    development are much too important to be left
    solely to elected politicians in their seclusion
    of parliament or council offices
  • LA 21 is an example of a world-wide programme
    intended to extend citizen involvement in
    environmental politics (see CORE 2.1.3., slide 21)

99
Public 18
  • Definition of pp in planning range of
    opportunities and mechanisms for the public to
    engage directly in the land-use and environmental
    policy process, either as a form of politics or
    as a limited form of direct engagement in
    government
  • Restricting the definition of pp in planning to
    these formal channels of engagement in the policy
    process is not intended to suggest that informal
    or unscripted action by members of the public
    is not legitimate

100
Public 19
  • 2.1.2. Types forms of pp in planning (0,2 unit)
  • a well known typology appeared in the 1960s at a
    time where there was a broader, world-wide
    eruption of interest in citizen involvement and
    political action intended to make governments sit
    up and listen (France 1968, anti-Vietnam War
    demonstrations)
  • Arnsteins ladder of participation has frequently
    been reproduced or adapted since it first
    appeared in 1969 degrees of citizen power
    (citizen control, delegated power, partnership),
    degrees of tokenism (placation, consultation,
    information), non-participation (therapy,
    manipulation)

101
Public 20
  • Shortcomings not least its apparent elevation of
    one set of interests (the public) in the policy
    process above all others-it fails to distinguish
    between politics and government
  • Main value of the typology is to show that pp
    initiated by government can include public
    relations and manipulations with no release of
    power to the public
  • Local public opinion can be parochial and not
    always in the broader interest such as NIMBY
    (not in my backyard) protest against, say, the
    provision of new affordable housing in country
    towns and villages

102
Public 21
  • attempting to understand Arnsteins ladder
    introduces the idea of power within the policy
    process an important component of the politics
    of planning
  • Individual and group participants in the planning
    process have different amounts of power
  • Power is a complex and contested concept but a
    simple definition suggests it is getting your
    own way

103
Public 22
  • 2.1.3. Aspects of co-operation (0,1 unit)
  • Openness towards change
  • Skills for structured debate
  • Understanding the change of perspective from
    in-site insights to overview

104
Public 23
  • 2.2. Benefits of involvement in planning matters
    of the community (0,1 unit)
  • democratic credibility community involvement in
    planning accords with peoples right to
    participate in decisions that affect their
    lives-it is an important part of the trend
    towards democratisation of all aspects of society

105
Public 24
  • professional education working closely with
    local people helps professionals gain a greater
    insight into the communities they seek to
    serve-so they work more effectively and produce
    better results
  • Sustainability people feel more attached to an
    environment they helped create-they will
    therefore manage and maintain it better reducing
    the likelihood of vandalism, neglect and
    subsequent need for costly replacement

106
Public 25
  • Additional resources
  • Better decisions
  • Building community
  • Compliance with legislation
  • Easier fundraising
  • empowerment
  • More appropriate results
  • Responsive environment
  • Satisfying public demand
  • Speedier development

107
Designing in public
108
Taking to the streets
109
Table scheme display
110
Academic resource
111
Public 26
  • B. IT (5 units)
  • 3. Key skills (3 units)
  • 3.1. Computer literacy (1,5 units)
  • IT illiteracy
  • A. Varvara 60 people asked are willing to learn
  • Brussels large with no PC at home
  • Halewood, Abony not willing to communicate
    through the internet with planners but willing to
    attend PC seminars-73 use PC mostly at home

112
Public 27
  • Start with the basics
  • Operating the computer (h/w s/w)
  • I/O
  • Text editing
  • Data manipulation
  • Project specific tasks Need to develop metaphors
    that will facilitate learning and engagement for
    all
  • Images/photomontages
  • Animations, video supporting material
  • Panoramas, montage of real virtual (proposed
    intervention)
  • High density, mix of building types

113
Public 28
  • 3.2. Use of internet (1,5 units)
  • History, development of networks
  • Current state
  • Capabilities of the medium
  • Access to Information
  • Communication
  • About the technology, availability, usability
  • Involving the uninitiated

114
Public 29
  • Access to Information
  • Typology of information
  • Documents (text, images)
  • Graphs
  • Photographs
  • Drawings
  • Access Methods
  • File Transfer Protocols (FTP)
  • World Wide Web (WWW)

115
Public 30
  • Importance of electronic communication (there
    exist crucial gaps in information) especially for
    people not living in the area
  • Synchronous media
  • Talk, WebPhones, MSN Messenger, VideoPhones
  • Internet Relay Chat
  • Asynchronous media
  • Email
  • Newsgroups
  • Discussion fora
  • Role playing, text-based Multi-user Systems

116
Public 31
  • 4. Virtual Reality (2 units)
  • Definition of Virtual Reality and Virtual
    Environments
  • Method of visualizing and manipulating complex
    datasets
  • Method of interacting with Computers
  • A Technology not optical illusion or
    hallucination
  • Evolution of the technology from the 60ies up to
    date

117
Public 32
  • Criteria for successful VR systems (Heim)
  • interaction
  • immersiveness
  • information intensity
  • Physiology and Perception of VR
  • Visual
  • Aural
  • Haptic and kinaesthetic
  • Virtual Presence

118
Public 33
  • VR Classification
  • Passive
  • Explorative
  • Interactive
  • VR Interaction Typology
  • Desktop VR (WoW)
  • Video Mapping
  • Immersive Systems
  • Telepresence
  • Mixed Reality / Augmented Reality

119
Public 34
  • VR Tools
  • Hands on
  • Viewing the model
  • Manipulating the model
  • Familiarisation of the particular VR tools
    developed

120
IV. 3 TEACHING MODULES FOR THE PLANNERS (4,5
units)
  • A. Planning Participation (1,5 units)
  • Planning (1 unit)
  • 1.1. Advanced themes in urban planning (0,8 unit)
  • 1.1.1. Strategic planning (0,2 unit)
  • Process of knowledge co-existence of plurality
    and constraints (budgetary, educational
    especially of inhabitants of multi-deprived areas)

121
Planners 2
  • Strategic plan-difference form traditional
    comprehensive (rational) planning
  • Importance on long-term planning regular
    updates
  • They cover a greater range of themes give
    greater emphasis on matters of economy,
    competition, international networks etc.
  • In spite of the larger field they do not aim at
    the full coverage of the whole range of themes
    (as in comprehensive planning), but focus on a
    small number of key-themes
  • They prefer more flexible choices (in contrast
    with the rigid or normative approaches)
  • They give crucial importance to the
    implementation process in which a major component
    is the participation and consensus of the basic
    factors that have an impact on urban development
    (including the organisations of the private
    sector)

122
Planners 3
  • 1.1.2.Urban regeneration (0,2 unit)
  • Key themes of urban change policy relationship
    between the evident physical conditions the
    nature of social political response - need to
    attend matters of housing health - desirability
    of linking social improvement with economic
    progress - containment of urban growth, changing
    role nature of urban policy
  • Evolution of urban regeneration 1950s
    reconstruction, 1960s revitalisation, 1970s
    renewal, 1980s redevelopment, 1990s regeneration
  • Definition comprehensive and integrated vision
    and action which leads to the resolution of urban
    problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting
    improvement in the economic, physical, social and
    environmental condition of an area that has been
    subject to change

123
Planners 4
  • Urban regeneration process inputs (economic,
    social environmental analysis), external
    internal derivers of change-application to an
    area, outputs (neighbourhood strategies, training
    education, physical improvements), outcomes
    (economic development, environmental action)
  • Importance of SWOT analysis S W (e.g.
    institutional context, land-labour-capital), O
    T (e.g. technological, public policy)
  • Outcomes of interactions growth, employment
    competitiveness-sustainability/environment-social
    cohesion- effective infrastructure
  • lack of experience in Greece, difficulty of
    public-private sector co-operation, e.g.
    partnerships

124
Planners 5
  • 1.1.3. Cultural leisure planning (0,1 unit)
  • cultural planning definition (Bianchini) the
    strategic use of cultural resources for the
    integrated development of cities, regions and
    cultures.
  • It implies a cultural approach to urban planning,
    which uses an infrastructure system of arts
    planning
  • The impact of cultural planning covers many
    aspects a) cultural tourism (both domestic and
    international) b) education and, generally, the
    cultural level of the inhabitants, i.e. their
    cultural capital according to Bourdieu c)
    leisure (both block, i.e. weekend or holiday, and
    piece, i.e. daily leisure) d) movements
    (especially daily) e) the incorporation of art
    in the city (Sitte) f) the greater
    familiarisation, or even attachment, of the
    residents with culture and, g) the latent demand
    for high quality events and activities (relating
    both to high and popular culture)

125
Planners 6
  • Leisure most neglected function of urban planning
  • growing importance of leisure, not necessarily in
    quantitative terms
  • Leisure activities cultural, sport, tourism,
    entertainment social life
  • 5 basic questions in leisure planning what is to
    be provided and for whom? How much should it be
    provided?, where should it be provided?, how
    should it be provided?, why should it be
    provided?
  • Open green spaces as part of leisure
    infrastructure (A. Varvara)

126
Planners 7
  • 1.1.4.Time planning (0,2 unit)
  • focus on the future (exploitation of
    possibilities, strategic planning, time planning)
  • Theory dimensions of time in the city are varied
    and mainly reflected in the following factors a)
    age (phases of the cycle of life) b) gender
    (poverty of time for women) c) time distance
    (between locations) d) paths of people and
    goods, either by means of foot or transportation
    (mobility and movement) e) city rhythms
    (biological etc.) f) timetables (of shops,
    services etc.) g) the expansion of
    telecommunication (indicating the domination of
    time over space) h) virtual world (where the
    actual reality of space is minimised in favour of
    an uncertain future) i) mixing (of social
    groups, uses etc.) j) the creation of
    infrastructures (focusing on the long durée) k)
    time as a factor of planning theory and
    methodology, e.g. the larger amount of time
    needed in collaborative planning

127
Planners 8
  • Policy The sectors of urban planning that mostly
    relate to time are services, transport, work and
    leisure thus the obvious central aim of any time
    policy must be the amelioration of quality of
    life
  • Time Use Plan its implementation (and not
    elaboration) has more social than economic cost.
  • Basic elements recording of timetables recording
    mapping of elements of urban infrastructure,
    time use research of residents
  • Issues of basic proposals rearrangement of
    timetables of specific shops services, general
    traffic proposals, proposals for covering the
    lack in public spaces
  • expansion of the city in time rather than in
    space?
  • 24 hour city (e.g. Athens Olympics) key
    question does the 24-hour city constitute a
    threat to sustainable development?
  • Time planning must be connected with cultural
    planning, with leisure being the interconnecting
    factor

128
Planners 9
  • 1.1.5. City marketing (0,1 unit)
  • it has become a necessity with regard to the
    processes of global competition of cities,
    tourist attraction, urban management, city
    branding and urban governance
  • main criticism that it substitutes for planning -
    marketing can contribute to the sense of place
    must be inter-connected with planning
  • Implementation mostly after the results of
    participation in the intervention) creation of a
    friendlier place to live work (discussion in A.
    Varvara)
  • Crucial role of secondary elements of the city
    not only for planning but also marketing
  • Urban furniture with lighting as a typical
    example (as contributing to the temporal increase
    of liveliness in a city)

129
Planners 10
  • German model of a city marketing plan (most
    elaborated)
  • 5 phases Attraction of interest, analysis,
    construction of a vision, implementation (various
    fields e.g. economy commerce, town centre
    local centres, social life groups of
    civilians), efficiency control
  • Case studies SWOT analysis based on the
    following sectors urban atmosphere (in the
    general sense), economy, transport,
    culture-leisure-tourism, supply of municipal
    services

130
Planners 11
  • 1.2. Scenarios governing some common development
    situations (0,2 unit)
  • realistic, optimistic, pessimistic scenarios
  • SWOT analysis
  • combination of methods with an overall strategy
  • Use of inspiration, not as blueprints
  • In each case there is a plurality of ways of
    achieving the same objective

131
Planners 12
  • inner city regeneration
  • Regeneration infrastructure
  • Town centre upgrade
  • Planning study
  • community centre
  • local neighborhood initiative
  • New neighbourhood

132
Planners 13
  • Urban conservation
  • Derelict site re-use
  • Industrial heritage re-use
  • Disaster management
  • Environmental art project
  • Housing development
  • Shanty settlement upgrading

133
Planners 14
  • 2. Participation (0,5 unit)
  • 2.1. Advanced themes in participation (0,5 unit)
  • 2.1.1. Type of participation (0,1 unit)
  • Realistically, functional participation
  • Achieve goals
  • Reduce costs
  • Comply with procedural requirements
  • Attempt, interactive participation
  • Involvement in the earlier stages of design
  • Cooperating with external agencies
  • Contributing throughout implementation
  • Willingness expressed in A. Varvara Halewood

134
Planners 15
  • 2.1.2. Aspects of co-operation (0,1 unit)
  • learning about the existing associative fabric
    and civic society
  • learning about previous best practices
  • understanding the necessity and richness of
    participation in local urban interventions

135
Planners 16
  • understanding the change of perspective from
    overview to in-site insights
  • promoting contextual as well as locally specific
    information embeddedness of information
  • Openness towards public-private partnerships
    (especially as part of urban regeneration
    processes)
  • Focus on basic needs is not connected to trivial
    design

136
Planners 17
  • 2.1.3. Governance local governments (0,2 unit)
  • Government confined to the formal structure of
    representatives and officials established to
    coordinate and oversee this function
  • Governance (Gilbert et al.) refers to the
    process of government and, more broadly, to the
    ways in a which a society manages its collective
    interests. It includes functions that may be
    helped by government actions strengthening
    institutions for collective decision-making,
    facilitating forming partnerships designed to
    secure collective goals, ensuring the fair
    expression adequate arbitration of a a range of
    interests

137
Planners 18
  • Importance of governance to sustainability
    promotion practice of sustainable resource use,
    regulation of the demand for and supply of land,
    provision of appropriate infrastructure,
    attraction of suitable investment, encouragement
    of partnerships
  • Thinking locally in order to act globally
  • Greece continues to rely on formal mechanisms of
    administration. The actual role of the private
    sector and civic society has to be invented. As
    far as the third sector is concerned, the
    non-governmental organizations are
    underrepresented, and in most cases they
    constitute a one man/ woman show - the public
    sector is unable to press the state and vice versa

138
Planners 19
  • Role of local governments in the urban
    environment
  • They are the only bodies with the mandate,
    responsibility potential to represent act for
    the different often conflicting interests
  • Although they are the bodies with the greatest
    potential to take integrated approaches to the
    environmental social challenges of urban areas
    they often have neither the legitimacy nor the
    capacity
  • Even if this happens there will be effective
    action only if it involves leadership of elected
    officials and participatory inclusive style of
    governing
  • For most issues of urban sustainability work with
    partners, other local governments international
    networks

139
Planners 20
  • 2.1.4. Collaborative planning (0,1 unit)
  • openness towards communicative action and forms
    of collaborative planning or the communicative
    turn in planning (Healey and Forester)
    prerequisites in A. Varvara (PRISMA)
  • a thorough description of the area including
    identification of stakeholders, options and
    sustainable development principles
  • a consensus on strategic decisions for the town
    development perspectives
  • raising awareness on the benefits accrued to
    public participation in planning
  • by-passing of the client relationship between
    local authorities and constituents, a
    relationship that is very much subject to the
    pursuing of personal interests

140
Planners 21
  • B. IT (12 units)
  • 3. Virtual reality (3 units)
  • Definition of Virtual Reality and Virtual
    Environments
  • Method of visualizing and manipulating complex
    datasets
  • Method of interacting with Computers
  • A Technology not optical illusion or
    hallucination
  • Evolution of the technology from the 60ies up to
    date

141
Planners 22
  • Criteria for successful VR systems (Heim)
  • interaction
  • immersiveness
  • information intensity
  • Physiology and Perception of VR
  • Visual
  • Aural
  • Haptic and kinaesthetic
  • Virtual Presence

142
Planners 23
  • VR Classification
  • Passive
  • Explorative
  • Interactive
  • VR Interaction Typology
  • Desktop VR (WoW)
  • Video Mapping
  • Immersive Systems
  • Telepresence
  • Mixed Reality / Augmented Reality

143
Planners 24
  • VR Tools
  • Hands on
  • Viewing the model
  • Manipulating the model
  • Familiarisation of the particular VR tools
    developed
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