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Part 8 Middle Adulthood

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Physical Changes / Health and Fitness. Adapting to the Physical Challenges of Midlife ... Men's hearing declines earlier and at a faster rate than women's. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part 8 Middle Adulthood


1
Part 8 Middle Adulthood
  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Physical Changes / Health and Fitness
  • Adapting to the Physical Challenges of Midlife
  • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Changes in mental Abilities / Information
    Processing
  • Vocational Life and Cognitive Development
  • Adult Learners Becoming a College Student in
    Midlife

2
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
  • Middle age begins around age 40 and ends at about
    60.

40
60
MIDDLE Adulthood
Late Adulthood
A narrowing of life options and sense of a
sharing future as children leave home and career
paths become more determined
3
  • Middle adulthood is difficult to define.
  • Wide variations in attitudes and behaviors exist.
  • It is a product of modern times.
  • Societal forces.
  • Change occurs in manifold ways.
  • Heredity and biological aging.
  • Passing years combine with family, community, and
    cultural contexts.

4
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Obvious sign
  • Hair grays and thins
  • New lines appear on the face
  • A less youthful
  • Fuller body shape is evident and a change in time
    orientation from years since

5
Obscure sign
  • Getting a fatal disease
  • Being too ill
  • Losing mental

Many middle-aged adults fail to mention realistic
alternative as central life goals ---- becoming a
more physically fit person and developing into a
healthy, energetic older adult.
6
VISION
  • The lens loses its capacity to adjust to object
    at varying distances entirely. (presbyopia)
    ??
  • Changes limit ability to see clearly in dim
    light.
  • Yellowing of the lens and increasing density of
    the vitreous limit color discrimination,especially
    at the green-blue-violet end of the spectrum.

7
?LIFE ??????? ??
8
HEARING
  • Presbycusis ?????
  • ? inner-ear structures that transform mechanical
    sound waves into neural impulses deteriorate due
    to natural cell death or reduced blood supply as
    a result of atherosclerosis.
  • The sign is a sharp hearing loss at high
    frequencies.

9
????????? ??
10
????????? ??
11
Mens hearing declines earlier and at a faster
rate than womens.
?
To exposure to environmental noise.
  • Hearing aids.
  • Avoiding intense noise.
  • Using ear plugs.

12
SKIN
  • (1) the epidermis (??)
  • Outer protective layer
  • (2) the dermis (??)
  • Middle supportive layer
  • (3) the hypodermis (??)
  • An inner fatty layer

13
????????? ??
14
In the thirties…
wrinkle loosen
  • Smiling
  • Furrowing the brow
  • Other facial expression

In the forties…
crows - feet
Loses elasticity and begins to sag, especially on
the face arms and legs.
15
After age 50…
age spots
Sun exposure
?individuals who have spent much time outdoors
without proper skin protection look older than
their contemporaries.
?the dermis of women is not as thick as that men,
womens skin ages more quickly.
16
MUSCLE - FAT MAKEUP
  • middle - age spread
  • ?Size of the abdomen increase 6 to 16 percent in
    men, 25 to 35 percent in women from early through
    middle adulthood.
  • SEX DIFFERENCE
  • Men accumulate more on the back and upper
    abdomen, women around the waist and upper arms.
  • Large weight gain and loss of muscle power are
    not inevitable, since continued exercise offsets
    these changes.

17
SKELETON
  • A gradual loss in bone mass that begins in the
    late thirties and accelerates in the fifties,
    especially among women.
  • Reduction in bone density during adulthood is
    substantial ---- about 8 to 12 percent for men,
    20 to 30 percent for women.
  • Height may drop by as much as 1 inch by age 60.

18
  • The weakened bone cannot support as much load.
  • ?Fracture more easily.
  • ?Heal more slowly.

? exercise and adequate calcium intake
When bone loss is very great, it leads to a
debilitating disorder called osteoporosis.
19
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES IN WOMEN.
  • womens climacteric…
  • During the production of estrogen drops.
  • Menopause ---
  • The end of menstruation and reproductive
    capacity.
  • From 42 to 58
  • Estrogen declines further.

20
HRT(hormone replacement therapy)
  • Involving daily doses of estrogen, for
    postmenopausal women.
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Protection against bone deterioration
  • Protection against cardiovascular disease
  • A reduction in certain discomforts of the
    climacteric
  • Memory and other aspects of cognition.

21
  • PROBLEM
  • ESTROGEN
  • ?
  • An increase cancer of the endomentrium
  • ??
  • ESTROGEN PROGESTERONE
  • ?
  • An increase in incidence of breast cancer

Life style changes
?good diet ?regular exercise ?avoidance of smoking
22
WOMENS PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO MENOPAUSE
How do women react to menopause
  • POSITIVE
  • NEGATIVE

?Social belief, practices.
23
  • REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES IN MEN.
  • Reproductive capacity in men diminishes but is
    retained.
  • No male counterpart to menopause exists.
  • Testosteron production remains stable throughout
    adulthood in healthy men.
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