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Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan


Germany: Lifelong education for everyone. 3) Ubiquitous access. 2) ... 'Lifelong society will be realized.' Bridging the Gap ' ... 2. QA as fitness for purpose ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan

Insung JungInternational Christian University,
Tokyo, Japan
A keynote speech Fifth EDEN Research
Workshop Organized by EDEN in collaboration with
CNED UNESCO 20-22 OCTOBER, 2008 Paris, France
  • ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous
    access to distance education
  • Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs

International Christian UniversityTokyo, Japan
Liberal Arts College About 3,000 students from
40 countries158 full-time
facultyAccredited by MOE (Japan) and the
American Academy for Liberal Education (AALE,
USA)Blended learning
My experiences
  • Korea National Open University
  • Ewha Womans University, Multimedia Education
  • Distance Education/E-learning field/ICT use
    UNESCO, WB, APEC consultant
  • Research policy, quality assurance, evaluation,
    instructional design, Asian distance education
  • Teaching instructional design, distance
    education, e-learning research, media literacy
  • http// (homepage)

  • Latchem, C. Jung, I.S. (2009). Distance and
    blended learning Opening up Asian education and
    training. New York London Routledge (Distance
    Education Series).

Todays Presentation
  • ICT integration in Distance Education
  • Background changes
  • Promises
  • Realities
  • Recent breakthroughs
  • Conclusion

Why ICT integration in DE?
  • 1. Technology development
  • Psychological changes
  • Social, behavioral changes
  • Changes in learning paradigm

ICT Integration E-learning
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source - http//
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source - http//
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Internet users (Least developed countries)
Internet UsersLatest Data
Internet UsersLatest Data
Countries Internet Users
Dec/2000 Angola 30,000 100,000
233 Benin 16,000 150,000
900 Afghanistan 1,000 580,000
57,900 Cambodia 6,000 70,000
Source - http//
Why ICT integration in DE?
1. Technology development
Source - http//
Why ICT integration in DE?
2. Psychological changes
  • Computers arent new technology anymore.
  • The Internet is better than TV
  • Reality is no longer real - more than one
  • Multitasking, a way of life
  • Typing is preferred to handwriting
  • Web, indispensable
  • Zero tolerance for delays
  • Consumer and creator are blurring
  • Network-enabled mobile phones become necessity
  • Sources - Oblinger,
    2002 Jung, 2003

Why ICT integration in DE?
3. Social, behavioral changes
  • Teens
  • - Over 90 Use the Internet for new information
  • - Over 70 use instant messaging to keep in touch
  • - Over 50 contact strangers on the net
  • - Over 40 post own information online to be
  • - Over 30 experienced cyberbullying
  • Overall
  • - 25 of retail stock trades on the Internet
  • - Over 90 Internet users, online shopping
  • (Korea, UK, Germany, Japan, US)
  • - 87 of print journalists connected to the
  • Sources - Lenhart, Simon Graziano, 2001 Jung,
    2003 2007 Pew/Internet research 2008 Nielsen

Why ICT integration in DE?
4. Changes in learning paradigm
ICT adoption E-learning development
Lifelong Learning Society
Knowledge/Wisdom/ Solutions
Singapore Thinking School, Learning
Nation Korea Edutopia Germany Lifelong
education for everyone
Formal Schooling
Fact/Information/ Answers
1) Pedagogical innovation
2) Quality improvement
3) Ubiquitous access
4) High market value
1) Pedagogical innovation
From teacher-centered to learner-centered A
truly learner-centered approach to education will
be realized. The teacher will facilitate
learning. Social constructivistic learning
environment Learning would be engaged in
authentic tasks or real world problem solving
situations. New knowledge will be constructed
collaboratively. Global learning community
building Learning communities will be formed to
create knowledge. Full of multimedia
resources (Bates, 1995 2005 Harasim, 1993
Khan, 1997 Zemsky Massy, 2004)
2) Quality improvement
Improved teaching quality Application of
learner-centered instructional design best
teaching practices Better adaptation to
individual needs. Better management of
learning processes. Improved learning
effectiveness Communication will be improved.
Students will be more actively engaged in
learning. Higher level skills will be
acquired. Improved support 24/7,
individualized support. Added values - ICT
skill improvement, collaboration,
3) Ubiquitous access
Ubiquitous access People would be able to
learn anywhere, any time. Expanded learning
opportunities There will be a boom in adult
education. Lifelong society will be
realized. Bridging the Gap Quality
education will be delivered to remote areas,
underdeveloped regions ICT can lessen the
gender gap in education. E-learning will
bring about educational equity.
4) High market value
Improved cost-efficiency It is a
cost-efficient approach to education.
Economies of scale will be achieved. Revenue-ge
nerating profit-making potentials E-learning
market opportunity will grow drastically. It
would generate revenue for an organization.
There is a global market for e-learning.
Realities Access
  • Achievements
  • Mega Universities
  • From 10 (1996) to over 20 Mega Universities
  • Cross-border DE
  • Australia, UK, USA, and Canada (Exporting
    Countries) - China, India, Malaysia and Singapore
    (Importing Countries in Asia)
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University - Abu
    Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Doha, Kuwait and Sultanate
    of Oman, Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles,
    Vietnam, Myanmar and Singapore

Daniel, 2003 Jung Latchem, 2007
Realities Access
  • Rise of Virtual Universities
  • Jones International University, University of
    Phoenix Online
  • U21Global, Cardean University, Global University
  • Open University of Catalonia
  • Finnish Virtual University
  • Virtual University of Pakistan
  • Syrian Virtual University, Arab Open University
  • Mexicos ITESM Virtual University by Tecnológico
    de Monterrey
  • Masters degrees and doctorate programs
  • Mexico, other Latin countries, USA and Canada
  • from 29,887 in 1999 to 85,000 in 2008
  • Koreas 17 Virtual Universities since 2001
  • Undergraduate, totally online
  • from 6,220 in 2001 to 23,550 in 2006

Studies in the Context of the E-learning
Initiative Virtual Models of European
Universities http//
Realities Access
  • E-learning in Conventional Universities
  • 68 e-colleges in China
  • Over 80 universities in USA
  • Europe (UK, Spain, Finland, France, Germany and
    more), Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia,
  • Consortia
  • Sweden Net University Le Campus Numérique
  • Thailand Cyber University
  • For-Profit DE Providers
  • Global - Thomson Learning (U21Global), Apollo
    International (India China)
  • Local - Kenichi Omae Graduate School of Business
    in Japan Online cram school industries

Realities Access
  • Overall,
  • Most e-education has taken place within national
  • 2) Digital Divide
  • - within country between countries
  • - Gender gap Generation gap
  • 3) Lack of Regulatory Mechanism
  • - Quality issues Mutual Recognition issues

Realities - Pedagogy
  • Achieved
  • Resource sharing
  • High level of mutual support among students
  • Greater dialogue when shared perspectives
  • Sense of community and lower attrition rates
  • when support interactivity, reflection, and
  • when careful instructional design applied
  • Learning by doing e-moderating

Bakardjieva and Harasim, 1999 Bonk, 2002
Harnishfeger, 2003 Jung, 2008 Salomon, 2002
Shank, 2001 many others
Realities - Pedagogy
Examples 1. Innovative teachers - Microsoft
Innovative Teachers Network http//www.innovativet - UNESCO ICT in Education Awards
http// 2.
Case-based, project-based, resource-based -
Case-based e-learning group Univ of Georgia
http// 3.
Competency-based/story-based e-learning program
- Kumamoto University in Japan
http// 4.
Simulations/virtual lab experiments - Virtual
Tel-Aviv University http//
Nachmias, Ram, Mioduser, 2006 Suzuki, 2006
Realities - Pedagogy
  • Underperformed/failed
  • Time-honored instructional model prevails
  • Still teacher-centered Focus on information
  • Text-based, online versions of lectures,
    textbooks and notes
  • 70 providing BBS, but not integrated, closed,
  • Personal learning style, not accommodated
  • Limited interaction due to lack of interaction
    design skills, faculty overload,
    cultural/personal factors

Latchem Jung, 2009
Realities Quality improvement
Contrasting findings Favorable responses
motivating and interesting Negative
responses impersonal, isolating and
frustrating Improved learning gains full
of resources, sharing ideas Not substantial
changes instructional models are same
Latchem Jung, 2009
QA Concerns Emerged
Realities Quality improvement
  • Some politicians and media complain of declining
    educational standards and attribute these to the
    new ideologies and methods.
  • In an era of globalization and competition for
    strategic gains and resources, even the
    longest-established and most successful
    institutions must safeguard their positions
    through continuous improvement.
  • DE providers and advocates of ICT integration
    need to sell the story of their successes.

Jung Latchem, 2007
Realities High market value
Success stories 1) University of Pheonix Online
Campus 2) University of Maryland University
College 3) Canadas Athabasca Univ. Online MBA 4)
Online testing services (SAT TOEFL) 5) Online
cram schools (Megastudy, Korea) 6) Some MBA
programs --- Owe more to past market
success/brand image than to ICT integration
Zemsky Massy, 2004 Latchem Jung, 2009
Realities High market value
Underperformed/failed 1) Fathom and NYU online
gone 2) UK e-University failed 3) Not enough
students in most programs --- Some generating
revenue but not making profit
Garrett, 2004 Zemsky Massy, 2004
Realities High market value
  • Underperformed/failed
  • Over-estimate the market potential and
    under-estimate the educational and logistical
  • Ignore the realities of ICT infrastructure,
    access and costs
  • Over-estimate learner readiness for e-learning
  • Embark on large-scale online learning programs
    and projects without initial try-outs
  • Be insensitive or slow in responding to
    customers expectations
  • Not obtain accreditation
  • Not meet the quality expectations of learners,
    particularly in regard to learner support
  • Not provide incentives for continuous private
    sector involvement in the partnerships

Latchem Jung, 2009
Over a decade experience - Learned from
successes and failures - Now.
Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical
research)Starting small and strategically
Diversifying partnershipsBlended
approachesM-learningQuality assurance and
Recent breakthroughs
Recent breakthroughs
  • Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical
    research cultural, contextual
    considerations)Commonwealth of Learning
    http// Commonwealth Educational Media
    Centre for Asia http// EuroPACE
    http//www.europace.orgUNESCO Bangkok ICT in
    Education http// UNESCO Asia
    Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL http//asiapacific-o
  • e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning

Recent breakthroughs
  • Cataloguing lessons learned (Online journals)
  • Asian Journal of Distance Education
  • European Journal of OD E-learning
  • http//
  • Indian Journal of Open Learning
  • International Journal of Education and
    Development Using Information and Communication
    Technology (IJEDICT, http//
  • The International Review of Research in Open and
    Distance Learning http//
  • The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education

Starting small and strategicallyICT/e-Learning
as a strategic and reform tool- Authentic
learning Student Olympic Magazine (Schools in
UK, Hong Kong China) http//
Homepage.asp?GroupID37650 Start with one
department/program - Kumamoto Univ. Japan
Graduate Program Instructional SystemsNeed-based
programs only MBA Education Health-related
Recent breakthroughs
Diversifying partnershipsSingapore Institute of
Management (SIM) and UKOUCommonwealth Executive
Master of Business Administration and Public
Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and
Wawasan Open University in Malaysia Saudi
Arabias National Centre for E-Learning and
Distance Education -- Open University of
MalaysiaArab Open University (AOU) and
UKOUSchools in Nepal New Zealand LearnZ ---
strategic one-to-one one-to-few regional
Recent breakthroughs
Blended approachesBlending online and F2F
education - Indira Gandhi National Open
University Virtual Campus- Open University of
Malaysia MEd program- Anadolu Univ. English
Language Teaching Program- Blended Tutoring
Blending old and new technologies- Print
Broadcast programs and M-learning- Conventional
DE programs and synchronous technologies (Skype,
e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis)
Recent breakthroughs
M-learningAsia - one billion of the worlds 2.7
billion mobile users Cambodia - the first
country to have more mobile phone than fixed line
subscribers has the worlds highest ratio of
telephone users using wireless University of
the Philippines Open University Shanghai
Jiaotong University, ChinaKanebo Cosmetics,
JapanCity University of Hong Kong--- Bypassing
online learning
Recent breakthroughs
Quality assurance and accreditationCast study
and Surveys QA in DE/E-learning institutions in
the AP region (2004 - 2007) 2009 quality from
learner perspectiveDiscussions / Research
evolving From Quality vs Access to Access
through QualityQuality culture spreadQA system
development early stage - QA/accreditation
guidelines for DE/ICT use - QA approaches
Recent breakthroughs
Quality, QA Accreditation
  • QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
  • India,
  • Distance Education Council
  • Handbook of ODL
  • US,
  • Commission of Institutions of Higher Education
  • Best Practices for Electronically Offered
    Degree and Certificate Programs
  • UK,
  • Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
  • Distance Learning Guidelines

Quality, QA Accreditation
  • QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
  • European Association for Quality Assurance in
    Higher Education Standards and Guidelines for
    Quality Assurance in the European Higher
    Education Area
  • EADLs Quality Standards and Code of Conduct
  • UNESCO/Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN)
  • Open and Distance Learning Knowledge Base
  • Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border
  • National Association of Distance Education
    Organizations of South Africa (NADEOSA)
  • Quality Criteria for Distance Education in
    South Africa

Five Approaches(not mutually exclusive)
Quality, QA Accreditation
  1. conforming to the standards applied to
    conventional education
  2. fitness for purpose
  3. meeting customers needs
  4. continuous improvement
  5. compliance with international standards and

1. QA as conforming to the standards applied to
conventional education
  • Same criteria and standards are applied in
    judging the quality of ODL and conventional
    institutions management, teaching, resources and
  • China, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong

2. QA as fitness for purpose
  • Quality is measured by how well institutions,
    programs or services fulfill their intended
  • - India, Korea and Turkey

3. QA as Meeting Customers Needs
  • The institutional mission statements, policies
    and procedures focus on the learners
    characteristics, needs and circumstances.
  • - ISO9001 (UT, OUM, some Korean Cyber Univ.)

4. QA as continuous improvement
  • The emphasis shifts to input, implementation,
    output and back to input.
  • - UT, OUUK

5. QA as Compliance with international standards
and requirements
  • give students greater confidence in the courses
    and awards and enable their studies to be
  • Athabasca and USQ from USA
  • UT (ICDE)

Three guiding stars for integrating ICT and QA
system in ODEL to supporting ubiquitous access
1. QA as an essential tool
QA as an essential tool for educational
development and ubiquitous access to ODEL
There should be no distinction between QA in
ODEL and conventional education, but there should
be specific guidelines, criteria and methods for
judging the various modes of delivery. The
national level QA for ODEL/ICT use should be as
strong as (not softer than) that of higher
education. There should be a culture of
quality that is shared willingly by all
managers and staff, links internal and external
accountability, builds capacities in QA and
involves open, transparent management and
2. Promoting research
Research is essential for improving
understanding and practice, assuring and
improving quality, informing and influencing
policy-making and ensuring that ODEL is
recognized as scholarly activity in its own
3. Changes in practice
ODEL environments need to be conceived such that
the technology does not simply provide an
information repository but serves as a platform
for student-centered, teacher-facilitated and
collaborative knowledge building. The
instructional design (ID) needs to fully exploit
the potential of ICT. There is also need for ID
models for constructivistic learning environment
Thank you!