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Dynamic Assessment: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis and Instruction of High Incidence Special Lear


... interactive process that fosters cognitive intervention and learning success ... Not content orientated; rather, focused on development of cognitive processes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dynamic Assessment: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis and Instruction of High Incidence Special Lear

(No Transcript)
Dynamic Assessment A Practical Approach to
Diagnosis and Instruction of High Incidence
Special Learners
Dr. Harry FullwoodTexas AM
University-CommerceDepartment of Psychology and
Special EducationCommerce, Texas
Significant Changes
  • The re-authorization of IDEA and No Child Left
    Behind are expected to require less testing and
    increased use authentic measures (dynamic
  • Dynamic assessment may be defined as an
    interactive approach to conducting diagnosis
    focusing on the ability of the learner to respond
    to intervention.

Our purpose
  • Operational model of dynamic assessment will be
  • Examples of the model demonstrated through the
    Play Book approach
  • Practical experience with the model during the
    presentation for those who wish to participate

Basic Postulates
  • Accumulated knowledge in not the best indication
    of ability to acquire new knowledge
  • We all function at less than 100 percent of our
  • The best test of performance is a sample of that
  • There are many obstacles that mask ability

Dynamic Assessment (DA)
  • A subclass of interactive assessment
  • .the activity and intervention of examiners
    designed to produce a temporary change in the
    cognitive function of the consumer
  • The term dynamic implies change

DA The Goal
  • assess processes of thinking (cognition) that
    are themselves always changing
  • Examiners may engage in specific teaching to
    facilitate change
  • The basic datum in DA is a change variable

DA Another Definition
  • DA refers to assessment of thinking, perception,
    learning, and problem solving by an active
    teaching process aimed at modifying cognitive

Static Testing
  • By contrast, static testing requires the examiner
    to present problems or questions, record the
    response and offer no attempt to intervene in
    order to change, guide or improve the consumers'
    performance.(Haywood Tzuriel, 2002)

Bottom Line
  • DA is an interactive process that fosters
    cognitive intervention and learning success
  • Excellent for intervention with disadvantaged and
    special need learners
  • Based on mediated learning
  • Defeats pessimistic predictions derived from
    results of static testing

Research Conclusions
  • Test performance improves after teaching and
  • Mediation of logic strategies leads to greater
    performance improvement
  • Transfer of mediated strategies
  • DA interested in defeating pessimistic
    predictions made for learners on the basis of
    static assessment

  • Teachers gain useful knowledge need to teachno
    one suggests that IQ scores aid in selection of
    appropriate content or teaching strategies.
  • Knowledge obtained by DA possible in special
    learners and not accessible during static testing
  • Useful for habilitation and rehabilitation
  • Useful in defeating pessimistic predictions
    regarding special learners

DA and Cognitive Education
  • This presenter is an absolute advocate of DA as
    the essential tool for cogitative based
  • The consumer must learn how to learn
  • Philosophic framework DA based on theories from
    works of Haywood, Feuerstein, Piaget and

Bright Star Program
  • For preschool and early elementary grade
  • Objectives a) increase learning effectiveness,
    b) develop efficient cognitive processes and
    thinking skills, c) enhance task-intrinsic
    motivation and d) prepare children for school

  • Not content orientated rather, focused on
    development of cognitive processes and
    metacognitive operations that appear to be
    prerequisite to academic learning in early grades
  • Children are expected to demonstrate higher
    skills of learning to learn than average peers

  • Research outcome from investigations suggested
    that Bright Star children scored higher than did
    the comparison children not only in the
    pre-teaching phase but also in the post-teaching
  • In English BS children demonstrated greater
    benefit from mediated instruction

Problems with DA
  • NEW
  • Metric (measuring) problems
  • Reliability because the process sets out to
    change the very learning characteristics that are
    being assessed
  • Validity subjects and approaches change in
    unique and unpredictable fashion

  • DA not taught in certification programs or
    graduate assessment courses
  • Requires intensive training and practice
  • Hard to do, time consuming and (at first) not
    liked by examiner nor examinee
  • Resistance to change from what we already do

Examples of Mediated Instruction
  • Intervention in the learning task of another that
    results is transfer of what is learned and now
    understood to what was already know and in a
    usable way. Mediated learning hooks new things
    learned to old things already known and

  • Your mother and fatherand all the things they
    taught yousmileand are still trying to get
  • Instructions with associated video tape that lead
    to assembly of your recently purchased Char
    Broiler Grill
  • Mediated instruction requires active interaction,
    communication, strategy selection, the behavior
    and related evaluation

  • The thousands of time you have interacted with a
    learner in your classroom, leading the subject to
    step-wise processing and success. EX long
  • Some real time examples

Solve these problems
  • Jane has 6 fewer dimes today than she had
    yesterday. If she had 12 dimes yesterday, how
    many dimes does Jane have today?

  • Determine the number of Modos in a game of
    Boboball if there are 20 Hodos, there are 8
    fewer Modos than Hodos, and there are 82 players
    in all.

  • Dave gave Charlotte half of his pogs. Charlotte
    gave Jonnie half of the pogs she received from
    Dave. Jonnie kept 8 of those pogs and gave the
    remaining 10 to Dana. How many pogs did Dave
    give Charlotte?

Dynamic Assessment A Cognitive Approach to
Instruction of Individuals with Special Learning
Cognitive Model (IPP)
  • Information Processing Paradigm
  • Input
  • Process
  • Output

  • Input through attention to Short Term Memory
  • Large amount of date taken in
  • Vision often our favorite tool
  • Data recorded as photographs
  • Detail limited
  • Picture a large funnel

  • Process to Working Memory
  • Working memory limited
  • One bit at a time
  • The small end of a funnel
  • Decisions regarding what to keep and what to
  • What photographs go in the album (schemata)

  • Long term memory
  • Unlimited read-able and write-able storage
  • Organized according to existing photo albums (a
    new album or sub-album may be required)
  • What we already know retained (LTM)
  • Can be fetched if album location known
  • Dynamic-always under reconstruction

  • Executive Control Intellect
  • The CEO
  • Responsible for system decisions
  • Limited by experience, training, insult, injury
    and/or disease
  • Strategy orientation-stepwise in nature
  • A significantly critical element in cognition

Executive Control Function(ECF)
  • Human store traces of earlier cognitive acts, not
    the products. Pictures are not just drug out in
    tact, but fragments of such are used to support
    new construction.
  • Retrieval of information is directed by executive
    routines or mental activities the order of which
    is governed by ECF

Stages of Information Processing
  • Encoding matching pictures to know photos
  • Elaboration making connections to know photos
  • Transformation applying rules to know photos
  • Storage addition of pictures to photo album
  • Retrieval finding previously stored photos
  • Searching assessing photos for properties
  • Comparing photos are either old or new
  • Reconstruction modification of photo collection

  • Knowledge systems
  • Declarative (shared factual information) unique
    learners appear like but different in extent to
    normally achieving peers.
  • Procedural (how to knowledge)
    proceduralization and compositional strategies
    appear limited in unique learners
  • Conditional (knowing when to use strategies or
    acquired information) executive control models
    appear limited in unique learners.

The Main Concepts
  • Leaning is active not passive
  • Shift from product to process
  • Most important thing to know about a learner is
    what he/she already knows
  • Watch learner learn

  • Watch learner monitor
  • Develop Talk Aloud Protocol
  • Develop Cognitive Portfolio

Who Are Those Guys
  • Perceptual-motor or psychological process model
    (cracked kid syndrome)
  • Medical model-rooted in work with brain-injured
    and still a possibility
  • Behavioral
  • Ability deficit, then skill deficit, finally
    inactive kid

Types of Strategy Based Learners
  • Strategy Efficient solve problem to mastery
  • Strategy Inefficient demonstrates some strategy
    selection and problem movement but farklesat
    some point in task steps and fails to reach
  • Strategy Deficient no clue..no start..no mastery

Strategy Deficient Learners(SDL)
  • SDL appears to
  • utilize inappropriate strategy selection
  • demonstrate ineffective strategy execution
  • Useful information must be linked to prior
  • SDL does not elaborate material spontaneously
    nor develops short definitional information

  • Leaning disabilities may be the result of complex
    multiple processes including strategy
    inappropriateness, higher-order activities (ECF)
    and inefficient retrieval constructs. It is not
    just an inability to spell, read or do
    mathematical calculations.

Photo Album Model
  • Learning a reasonable permanent change in
    behavior behavior not explained by organic states
    or conditions.

Input Taken Rolls of Pictures
  • Input date taken in through human receptors
  • see, hear, smell, taste and touch
  • Taking photographs

Short Term Memory Which Pictures to Keep?
  • Executive Control System must decide what to keep
    and then discard
  • What photographs will I keep?

Working Memory Fetch Albums I Have
  • What Albums do I have that contain similar
  • Fetch them (scratch pad memory)
  • Compare and contrasts present and new pictures

Long Term Memory My Own Album Collection
  • Family pets my first dog, cat, fish-will include
    all family pets and information concerning that
  • Organized into cognitive model

A Real Time model
  • Think of the knowledge systems and long-term
    memory as the contents of photo albums you have.
    (children, pets, trips)
  • Recall the stages of development used to
    construct these albums.
  • Think of newly added pictures and those that are
    worn and faded from time.

  • From the sensory registers, information is
    transferred into limited-capacity short-term
    memory to decay unless elaborated.
  • Long-term memory is permanent storage with
    unlimited capacity. Information is stored by use
    of links, associations and general organizational
    plans, is semantic and decays because of loss or

Working Memory
  • Much more dynamic than short-term memory while
    sharing some of the same characteristics.
  • Working memory is an active process that involves
    the mental activities leading to long-term memory
    store. (Photo development, organization and

  • Organizational strategies to long-term memory
  • chunkinggrouping for completing of a series of
  • clustering organization into categories
  • mnemonics GBDFA and HOMES
  • coding images and pictures for words

Learning Disabilities and Strategy
  • Focus is placed on what is modifiable
  • Rule creating and metacogntive models
  • Environmental factors dictate strategy selection
    and use
  • Active rather that passive interaction with pupil
  • Maximize strategy use through instruction

Principles of Strategy Instruction
  • Strategies serve different purposes
  • Strategies must operate on the law of parsimony
    (reduced to simplest order)
  • Effective strategies for student without learning
    disabilities are not not necessarily good for
    students with learning disabilities.
  • Strategy instruction does not eliminate
    processing differences

  • Strategies must be considered in relation to a
    students knowledge base and capacity.
  • Comparative strategy use may not eliminate
    performance differences.
  • Strategies taught do not necessary become
    transformed into expert strategies.

  • Where to begin?
  • Six elements of Think-Aloud Protocol
  • task to be accomplished
  • instructional procedures and material
  • specific strategy(s) ltrulesgt will be used by
  • strategy management technique to be taught
  • outcome of training
  • Statement for Cognitive Portfolio

Think-Aloud Questions
  • How would you start to solve this problem?
  • Do you have a plan?
  • Why do you think that approach will work?
  • How will you tell if your plan is working?
  • What were you thinking then?
  • Can you think of another way to do that?

  • A variety of learning situations must be observed
    to form a generalization concerning strategy
  • A picture begins to form of the strategy
    capabilities of the student and effective ways to
    approach and facilitate instruction.

Cognitive Portfolio
  • Case specific and subject specific observations
    through Think-Aloud Protocol
  • Determination of strategy usage and
  • Methods of instruction selected by the teacher,
    learning environment or school district
    concerning content remain in tact

  • If cognitive data is collected each year by the
    instructional and diagnostic staff, a compressive
    picture of the learner forms and is available for
    future placement.
  • This model requires complete commitment board
    level, administration, diagnostic teams,
    instruction and parent.
  • Pre-service and in-service training will be
    required for all players.

The Bottom Line
  • Learning disabilities, at best, has no single
    cause to treat and each individual is unique unto
    his/her own cognitive needs.
  • In order to function in an included setting, this
    individual requires instructional models that
    allow for independent and successful outcomes in
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