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Title: The%20Soft%20Side%20of%20Software%20Engineering%20-%20Part%20I%20Type%20and%20Temperament


1
The Soft Side of Software Engineering - Part
I Type and Temperament
  • Todd Little - INTJ

2
Individual Personality Types
  • Psychological type is a theory of human
    personality developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl
    G. Jung (1875-1961). He observed that human
    behavior is not random, but instead follows
    identifiable patterns.

3
Meyers - Briggs
  • Introduced the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    sorter

4
David Keirsey
  • Introduced the relationship of Temperament to
    Type.
  • OpenSourced the Test and the Answers
  • Web enabled it

5
Beware of the Stereotype
  • "one can never give a description of a type, no
    matter how complete, that would apply to more
    than one individual, despite the fact that in
    some ways it characterizes thousands of other .
    Conformity is one side of man, uniqueness is the
    other.
  • Carl Gustav Jung

6
Why Understand Personality Type?
7
Individual Personality Types
  • Why worry about Type?
  • The point is that people are different from each
    other, and that no amount of getting after them
    is going to change them.
  • Nor is there any reason to change them, because
    the differences are probably good, not bad.

8
Individual Personality Types
  • People are different in fundamental ways. They
    want different things they have different
    motives, purposes, aims, values, needs, drives,
    impulses, urges. Nothing is more fundamental
    than that. They believe differently they think,
    cognize, conceptualize, perceive, understand,
    comprehend, and cogitate differently. And of
    course, manners of acting and emoting, governed
    as they are by wants and beliefs, follow suit and
    differ radically among people.

9
Individual Personality Types
  • These basic differences concern the way people
    prefer to use their minds, specifically, the way
    they perceive and the way they make judgments.
    Perceiving is here understood to include the
    processes of becoming aware of things, people,
    occurrences and ideas. Judging includes the
    processes of coming to conclusions about what has
    been perceived. Together, perception and
    judgment, govern much of an individuals
    behavior.

10
Understanding Type Can be Useful to Individuals
and Teams
  • Understand interpersonal dynamics
  • Tasks team members tend to prefer to do
  • Tasks team members tend to avoid
  • Team diversity to achieve better solutions
  • Communication effectiveness
  • Potential areas of weakness
  • How individual members experience stress
  • Personal growth

11
What Type Can Do...
  • Type can help you better understand yourself and
    help you better appreciate the diversity of
    others.
  • It does not predict
  • Intelligence
  • Maturity
  • Skills
  • Abilities
  • But beware of Adaptive Behavior vs. True Type

12
True Type
  • Sources of Adaptive Behavoir
  • Parents
  • Society
  • School
  • Friends
  • Etc.

True Type
Adaptive Behavoir
Current Behavoir
13
Preferences
  • A key to Type is identifying preferences
  • Preference is not absolute or measurable
  • Preference can be understood by analogy to
    handedness

14
Type Indicator Tools
  • Self-Selection of preferences
  • Sorting Tests
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • Keirsey Temperament Sorter
  • Many others

15
Temperament
  • The 4 Temperaments
  • Idealists
  • Rationals
  • Guardians
  • Artisans

16
Temperament Preferences
17
Idealist
  • Empathy
  • Meaning and Significance
  • Human Potential
  • Authenticity
  • Catalyst and Unity
  • Integrity and Ethics
  • Growth

18
Rational
  • Knowledge and Understanding
  • Insight
  • Competence
  • Concepts and Ideas
  • Strategy
  • Logic
  • Design

19
Guardian
  • Responsibility
  • Membership
  • Traditions
  • Security
  • Useful
  • Service and Duty

20
Artisan
  • NOW! Impulse
  • Impact
  • Aesthetics
  • Tactics
  • Action and Variation
  • Trouble shoot

21
Common Traits of the Temperaments
Idealists
Guardians
Affiliative
Meaning behind behaviors
Sequential
Envisioning
Realistic
Multidimensional
Whats in it for the person
Rationals
Artisans
Pragmatic
22
Favorite Abilities
23
Best Environments
24
Which Temperament is
  • I am looking for an interesting job with a solid
    company. I want the job to last and have
    opportunity for promotion. I work effectively
    when given clear stated, measurable goals.
  • Guardian

25
Which Temperament is
  • I am looking for a position that is suitable to
    my level of expertise and one that is
    intellectually challenging. I do my best work
    when I am given an objective and told to solve
    the problem.
  • Rational

26
Which Temperament is
  • I want a job with lots of variety and action. I
    do great when you give me a project and turn me
    loose. And, oh yes--there had better be some
    challenge to it.
  • Artisan

27
Which Temperament is
  • Im looking for a job in an organization that
    seeks to improve the quality of life. I am
    happiest when I can empower others to be their
    best. And, I must be able to grow.
  • Idealist

28
Which Temperament is
  • This widgets going to set the world on fire.
    Its fun and exciting.
  • Artisan

29
Which Temperament is
  • Wed better be sure all of the concepts
    underlying the construction of this widget are
    consistent with good design.
  • Rational

30
Which Temperament is
  • Im concerned that some people will use this
    widget unethically.
  • Idealist

31
Which Temperament is
  • There should be some rules regulating the use of
    this widget.
  • Guardian

32
Distribution of Temperament
Adaptive Behavoir
33
Distribution of Temperament
34
Type
  • Combination of the following.
  • How you gather information
  • How you make decisions
  • How you are energized
  • Lifestyle preference

35
The Mental Processes
Both are used, one is preferred
Both are used, one is preferred
36
(S)ensing i(N)tuiting
  • When people are using Sensing, they know the
    facts, understand the planning stages, and work
    out implementation details
  • When people are using Intuiting, they see the
    big picture, forge into new areas, and develop
    new possibilities

Both are used, one is preferred
37
(S)ensing i(N)tuiting
  • Sensing
  • Information gathered through concrete use of the
    five senses
  • Sensing
  • Details
  • Present
  • Practical
  • Facts
  • Sequential
  • Directions
  • Repetition
  • Enjoyment
  • Perspiration
  • Conserve
  • Intuiting
  • Information gathered by way of context, linking,
    and totalities
  • Intuition
  • Patterns
  • Future
  • Imaginative
  • Possibilities
  • Random
  • Hunches
  • Variety
  • Anticipation
  • Inspiration
  • Change

38
(T)hinking (F)eeling
  • When people are using Thinking, they discuss
    issues in a logical way, consider pros and cons
    of various alternatives, and spot the
    inconsistencies in a plan
  • When people are using Feeling, they understand
    what is important to people, acknowledge the
    human side of decision making, and help others
    accept decisions

Both are used, one is preferred
39
(T)hinking (F)eeling
  • Thinking
  • Decisions based on logic and objective
    considerations
  • Thinking
  • Head
  • Objective
  • Justice
  • Cool
  • Impersonal
  • Criticize
  • Analyze
  • Precise
  • Principles
  • Feeling
  • Decisions based on personal, subjective values
  • Feeling
  • Heart
  • Subjective
  • Harmony
  • Caring
  • Personal
  • Appreciate
  • Empathize
  • Persuasive
  • Values

40
Orientations
Both are used, one is preferred
Both are used, one is preferred
41
(E)xtraversion (I)ntroversion
  • When people are Extraverting, they are aware of
    the environment, maintain their networks, and
    take action
  • When people are Introverting, they pay attention
    to the infrastructure, conceptualize the problem,
    and look deeply into issues

Both are used, one is preferred
42
(E)xtraversion (I)ntroversion
  • Extraversion
  • Stimulation comes from the outer world of people
    and things
  • Extroversion
  • Active
  • Outward
  • Sociable
  • People
  • Many
  • Expressive
  • Breadth
  • Introversion
  • Stimulation comes from the inner world of
    thoughts and reflections
  • Introversion
  • Reflective
  • Inward
  • Reserved
  • Privacy
  • Few
  • Quiet
  • Depth

43
(J)udging (P)erceiving
  • When people are using Judging, they generate
    systems, provide organization, and act decisively
  • When people are using Perceiving, they are open
    to new ideas, provide insight, and react with
    flexibility if the system breaks down

Both are used, one is preferred
44
(J)udging (P)erceiving
  • Judging
  • Style is decisive, planned and orderly
  • Judgment
  • Organized
  • Structure
  • Control
  • Decisive
  • Deliberate
  • Closure
  • Plan
  • Deadlines
  • Productive
  • Perceiving
  • Style is flexible, adaptable, and spontaneous
  • Perception
  • Flexible
  • Flow
  • Experience
  • Curious
  • Spontaneous
  • Openness
  • Wait
  • Discoveries
  • Receptive

45
Clarity of Preferences
Extraversion
Introversion
Sensing
Intuiting
Thinking
Feeling
Judging
Perceiving
46
Web Resources
  • The Tests
  • Keirsey Temperament Sorter
  • http//www.advisorteam.com/user/ktsintro.asp
  • Fudjack/Dinkelaker Functional Preferences
    Instrument
  • http//tap3x.net/indicators/5level2a.html
  • Keirsey Home Page
  • http//www.keirsey.com

47
Type Preferences
E I
S N
T F
J P
Self-Selected Type
Temperament Sorter
My Best Fit Type Is
48
Relationship of Type to Temperament
  • Idealists NF
  • Rationals NT
  • Guardians SJ
  • Artisans SP

49
Distribution in US Population
50
Distribution of Engineers Ratio relative to US
Population
51
Distribution of Management Ratio relative to US
Population
52
Distribution in Reservoir Integration (population
16)
53
MBTI Types for IT Staff (Myers and McCaulley)
  • INTJs represent just 4 of the population, yet
    form about 10 of computer staff.
  • The other main types in computing are ENTJ, ISTJ,
    and ESTJ.

54
MBTI Types of Software Developers (Steve
McConnell)
  • ISTJ is 25-40 of all software developers
  • Introversion 50-66
  • Sensing/Intuiting 50-50
  • Thinking 80-90

55
What STs Seek
  • Team Tasks STs Seek
  • Monitoring progress with statistics, graphs, and
    charts
  • Managing costs and schedules
  • Showing measurable results
  • Detailed conversation shedding light on how
    something specific works
  • Using proven methods to increase productivity
  • Solving practical problems immediately
  • Figuring out ways to complete or build something
    thats been started

56
What STs Avoid
  • Team Tasks STs Avoid
  • Proceeding with a plan thats not well thought
    out
  • Using untried and unperfected methods
  • Brainstorming with no immediate practical outcome
  • Hypothesizing about the future
  • Not concentrating on work
  • Participating in self-awareness activities

57
What SFs Seek
  • Team Tasks SFs Seek
  • Using tried and true methods
  • Friendly, sociable work relationships
  • Finding practical ways to help out with the work
    and others
  • Applying their experience to practical jobs
  • Treating each other fairly
  • Developing charts that document each persons
    skills or needs
  • Reviewing plans and materials others have
    formulated to see what works best

58
What SFs Avoid
  • Team Tasks SFs Avoid
  • Using new and untested procedures
  • Debating the merits of various theories
  • Analyzing and predicting the outcomes of
    strategic models
  • Criticizing in an open forum, especially in
    relation to a team member they know
  • Treating people as interchangeable parts of a
    machine

59
What NFs Seek
  • Team Tasks NFs Seek
  • Increasing harmony, improving relationships
    interaction in the team
  • Innovation and thinking up new ways to improve
    performance, creative brainstorming,
    conceptual/theoretical discussion
  • Working with systems systems thinking
  • Doing work that provides growth for self and
    others
  • Finding creative ways to communicate effectively
  • Doing things that matter to people
  • Working with diversity to improve output

60
What NFs Avoid
  • Team Tasks NFs Avoid
  • Working with costs, detailed schedules, detailed
    figures
  • Performing control functions like accounting
  • Setting up hierarchies and authority chains
  • Playing politics
  • Having to defend small details to a basically
    sound/creative idea or plan

61
What NTs Seek
  • Team Tasks NTs Seek
  • Positioning the team for the future
  • Linking systems, strategies, and models,
    discussing theory and concepts integrating
  • Developing goals, and general approach to achieve
    the goals
  • Finding opportunities for organizational growth
    and development
  • Conducting long-term impact studies of complex
    problems
  • Debating challenging questions

62
What NTs Avoid
  • Team Tasks NTs Avoid
  • Finishing someone elses work
  • Engaging in popularity contests
  • Working with administrative details
  • Performing repetitious tasks
  • Participating in self-awareness activities
  • Discussions which dont appear to be related to a
    particular purpose

63
Teams - A Definition
  • A team is a small number of people with
    complimentary skills who are committed to a
    common purpose, performance goals, and approach
    for which they hold themselves mutually
    accountable

64
High Performance Teams
  • Clear, common purpose
  • Diverse, complimentary skills
  • Set of compelling, measurable goals
  • Continuously develop critical competencies
  • Understand each others skills, roles and
    responsibilities
  • Commitment to interpersonal support and
    communication

65
Predictions about Teams
  • Similar types tend to understand each other
    sooner
  • Different types are slower at the understanding
  • High similarity quicker decisions, but the
    process will be one-sided
  • Low similarity decisions made more slowly (and
    possibly more painfully), but are likely to be
    better
  • Opposites on all four preferences may have
    special problems in achieving understanding
  • Members who share two preferences from each of
    the opposites may become translators

66
Predictions about Teams
  • One person with a different type from everyone
    else may be seen as out of step
  • One-sided teams should use behaviors from other
    types
  • Good decisions will be made when
  • basic facts and realities have been addressed (S)
  • new possibilities have been discovered (N)
  • unforeseen inconsistencies and consequences have
    been accounted for (T)
  • important values have been protected (F)

67
Questions to ask about Team Dynamics
  • What are the anticipated team strengths?
  • What kinds of task will the team be drawn to?
  • What temperaments and preferences are missing?
  • What are likely blindspots?
  • Who is alone?
  • Who is likely not be be listened to?
  • What conflicts can be anticipated?
  • Who is likely to feel the most frustration?
  • What is needed for the team to be successful?

68
Decision Making Dynamics
  • To include Sensing ask
  • What has past experience shown us?
  • What can be verified?
  • What is observable?
  • What is going on right now?

69
Decision Making Dynamics
  • To include Intuiting ask
  • How do the facts relate?
  • What interpretations can be made?
  • What patterns exist?
  • What are the possibilities?

70
Decision Making Dynamics
  • To include Thinking ask
  • What are the logical consequences?
  • What are the pros, cons, and interesting
    alternatives?
  • What will be most effective?
  • What goal is being served?

71
Decision Making Dynamics
  • To include Feeling ask
  • How can we communicate well with each other?
  • What exceptions for others need to be made?
  • What are other peoples feelings about what we
    think?
  • What important principles and values are being
    served?

72
How to Persuade STs
  • Show me that it works
  • Indicate how it saves time and money
  • Demonstrate a good cost-to-benefit ratio
  • Show how the results can be measured
  • Allow me to try it before I buy it
  • Offer specific applications and benefits
  • Answer all my questions

73
How to Persuade SFs
  • Indicate its practical results for people
  • Show how it will clearly benefit me and those I
    care about
  • Use personal testimonies from those who have
    benefited from it
  • Show that it provides immediate results
  • Set it in a personal context
  • Show respect to me and others in your
    presentation
  • Explicitly state the benefits dont just imply
    them

74
How to Persuade NFs
  • Tie it to a mission or profound purpose
  • Show how it will enhance relationships
  • State how it helps people grow and develop
  • Give me an ideal to reach for
  • Highlight the contributions of people
  • Show how it gives new insights, possibilities,
    and perspectives
  • Point out how it will help me or others find
    meaning
  • Talk about how enjoyable it is

75
How to Persuade NTs
  • Show that it has intriguing and fascinating
    potential
  • Be a credible source of information
  • Discuss its research base
  • Highlight its theoretical background
  • Demonstrate how it fits a strategy or core goal
  • Show how it will increase competency
  • Indicate its broad and far-reaching possibilities

76
Temperament and Work Roles
77
Type Development
  • Type Evolution
  • Dominant Birth - 12
  • Auxiliary Teens
  • Tertiary Twenties-Thirties
  • Inferior 35?-Never?
  • INTJ (Introverted-iNtuiting-Thinking-Judging)
  • Dominant Introverted iNtuiting
  • Auxiliary Extraverted Thinking
  • Tertiary Introverted Feeling
  • Inferior Extraverted Sensing

78
Type Development
79
Type Development
Ego
Personal Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
80
Type Development - Childhood
Ego
Personal Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
81
Type Development - Teens
Ego
Personal Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
82
Type Development - Twenties
Ego
Personal Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
83
Type Development Mid Life
Ego
Personal Conscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
84
Dominant Functions at Their Worst (ISTJ, ISFJ,
ESTP, ESFP)
  • When Sensing is Dominant May be experienced as
  • overemphasizing short term results
  • unwilling to develop broader, significant change
    strategies
  • over-focused on detail at the expense of the main
    intent
  • unwilling to depart from own linear path
  • snap decision-making

85
Dominant Functions at Their Worst (INFJ, INTJ,
ENFP, ENTP)
  • When Intuiting is Dominant May be experienced
    as
  • unrealistic and out of touch, in own world
  • over-emphasis on future possibilities
  • non-action oriented
  • impatient with those who ask for detail or
    evidence for their concept or idea
  • overlooking of important practical details

86
Dominant Functions at Their Worst (ISTP, INTP,
ESTJ, ENTJ)
  • When Thinking is Dominant May be experienced as
  • overly-cautious and risk-adverse
  • too conservative
  • over-deliberating at the expense of action
  • a stumbling block due to over-criticism,
    over-analysis
  • rigid and dogmatic about own thinking

87
Dominant Functions at Their Worst (ISFP, INFP,
ESFJ, ENFJ)
  • When Feeling is Dominant May be experienced as
  • relying too much on gut feel
  • making decisions too much based on the way people
    and things emotionally effect them
  • emotional reactions worn on sleeve at the expense
    of wiser reflection
  • sees their inferences of others and their
    feelings as fact
  • defensive and over-reactive

88
Experiencing Stress (ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTP, ESFP)
When Sensing is Dominant and Intuiting is Least
Preferred
  • Doom and gloom attitude end of the world no
    possible way out The sky is falling
  • Hopelessness and denial

89
Experiencing Stress (INFJ, INTJ, ENFP, ENTP)
When Intuiting is Dominant and Sensing is Least
Preferred
  • Detail-bound stubbornly preoccupied with
    irrelevant facts and fine print
  • Overindulgent Eat, drink and be merry

90
Experiencing Stress (ISTP, INTP, ESTJ, ENTJ)
When Thinking is Dominant and Feeling is Least
Preferred
  • Little things set you off emotions are out of
    control and inappropriate to stimulus may be
    hyperactive
  • Feel worthless, guilty take failure personally

91
Experiencing Stress (ISFP, INFP, ESFJ, ENFJ)
When Feeling is Dominant and Thinking is Least
Preferred
  • Demand that blame be allocated criticize You
    should have
  • Dominate and railroad others treat people as
    pawns or mere numbers

92
Individuation Integration of the Inferior
Function
  • For an INTJ, this may involve developing an
    interest in ESFP-type activities
  • Enjoying relationships for their own sake, rather
    than in joint pursuit of some scientific
    objective
  • Taking up sporting pursuits simply to enjoy them,
    without feeling the need to develop ever greater
    skill and competence.
  • Spending more time with the family and enjoying
    life
  • Developing a much greater appreciation for
    people, despite their lack of competence or
    intellectual ability

93
Prayers for the Types
ISTJ Lord help me to relax about insignificant
details beginning tomorrow at 1141.23 am
c.s.t. ISTP God help me to consider people's
feelings, even if most of them ARE
hypersensitive. ESTP God help me to take
responsibility for my own actions, even though
they're usually NOT my fault. ESTJ God, help me
to not try to RUN everything. But, if You need
some help, just ask ISFJ Lord, help me to be more
laid back and help me to do it EXACTLY right.
ISFP Lord, help me to stand up for my rights
(if you don't mind my asking). ESFP God help
me to take things more seriously, especially
parties and dancing. ESFJ God give me patience,
and I mean right NOW!
94
Prayers for the Types
INFJ Lord help me not be a perfectionist. (did
I spell that correctly?) INFP God, help me to
finish everything I sta ENFP God, help me to keep
my mind on one th- Look a bird- ing at a
time. ENFJ God help me to do only what I can and
trust you for the rest. Do you mind putting
that in writing? INTJ Lord keep me open to
others' ideas, WRONG though they may
be. INTP Lord help me be less independent, but
let me do it my way. ENTP Lord help me follow
established procedures today. On second
thought, I'll settle for a few
minutes. ENTJ Lord, help me slow
downandnotrushthroughwhatIdo
95
Prayers for the Types
Amen
?
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