Vandalism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Vandalism PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 8c030-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Vandalism

Description:

http://en.epochtimes.com/news/6-6-4/42323.html. Vestermar and Blauvelt (1978) ... or defacement of, things of beauty, as works of art, literature, historical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:527
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 100
Provided by: Remo8
Learn more at: http://www.psych.yorku.ca
Category:
Tags: vandalism

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Vandalism


1
Vandalism
Remonda Ibrahim, Farhana Jiwan, Narina Mejloumian
2
WHAT IS VANDALISM?
  • Most basic definition Damage to property
  • Form of deviance
  • Common among youth (gangs)

3
EXAMPLES OF VANDALISM
4
(No Transcript)
5
DOWNSIZING DEVIANCE
  • Too much attention is put towards larger, more
    serious crimes.
  • Vandalism is seen as a minor issue or small
    crime.
  • Vandalism is treated as a low level act of
    aggression such as bullying, cursing and
    harassment.

6
WHY STUDY VANDALISM?
  • Study it to reduce it and other aggressive
    behaviours.
  • Studies have found that juvenile youth learn
    through modeling-the experience they get after
    each behavior.
  • Motivations?
  • Rewards?
  • Punishments?

7
(No Transcript)
8
FREQUENCY
  • Underreported
  • Downsizing has its costs
  • Only 3-4 of vandalistic acts lead to prosecution
  • Studied to see whether definition causes
    underreporting.
  • Damage to property-if reported can reflect poorly
    on management skills-denials occur.

9
Studies
  • Sturman (1978)
  • Vandalism across public locations was shown to be
    14-15 times greater than reported to police.
  • More studies are being made
  • Data collection
  • Schools School vandalism incidence data
  • School Safety and Law Enforcement Oficers.

10
COSTS AND CONSEQUENCES
  • Vandalized traffic signs costs states, counties
    and cities 50 million/year.
  • Vestermark and Blauvelt (1878) suggested the
    following expenses to be included
  • Cost of supervision or workers doing repair work
  • Cost of vehicles needed to transport workers and
    materials to job sites
  • Cost of preparation of work orders and ordering
    material
  • Difference between replacement cost of equipment
    and original purchase price
  • Custodial labor to clean debris of vandals
  • Costs associated with security investigation of
    the act.

11
COSTS
  • Grimdisth (1973) suggested other hidden costs
  • Destruction of valuable and irreplaceable records
  • Cost of transporting students to their schools
  • Loss of classroom availability during repairs
  • Cost of specialized teaching facilities
    (laboratories and gymnasiums)
  • Loss of income from cancelled athletic events

12
COSTS
  • Coffeild (1991) estimated that the total current
    vandalism costs in the United States exceeded 1
    billion dollars.
  • Annual monetory cost of vandalism in mass transit
    systems
  • Germany--35 million
  • Netherlands-- 30 million
  • London--20 million
  • French National Railways--14 million

13
(No Transcript)
14
SOCIAL COSTS
  • Reilly (1978)
  • There is also an enormous human cost. The
    victim of vandalism experiences a sense of having
    been singled out by an unkind fate, a heightened
    sense of vulnerability, of not being safe even on
    his own grounds There is a sense of impotent
    range and desire for revengebut often, as most
    vandals are never caught without a specific
    target of blame. The victim of vandalism becomes
    more and more alienated from his neighborsmore
    fearfuland more hostile and suspicious of
    strangers, especially young people.

15
YORK UNIVERSITY VANDALISM
  • http//www.excal.on.ca/cms2/index.php?optioncom_c
    ontenttaskviewid4044Itemid2

16
SOCIAL IMPACT
  • Impacts on economic and community lifestyle
  • Consequences of new housing, new businesses, new
    land
  • Stress enhancing effect of vandalism
  • Feelings of abandonment and insecurity
  • Act of incivility
  • Communicates a sense of disorder and decline.
  • http//en.epochtimes.com/news/6-6-4/42323.html

17
Vestermar and Blauvelt (1978)
  • Suggested that social costs of vandalism is the
    summation of
  • 1) Its impact on the schools educational
    program
  • 2)Its psychological impact on both students and
    adults
  • 3)Its degree of disruptiveness of group or
    intergroup relations.

18
(No Transcript)
19
WHY STUDY VANDALISM?
  • If ignored, encourages its continuation and
    escalation
  • Frequent in community settings such as parks,
    libraries, museums, forests, farms,
    transportation facilities
  • Fear of crime
  • Costly-monetarily, socially, educationally

20
DEFINITIONS DEMOGRAPHICS
  • Hostility to, or wilful destruction or defacement
    of, things of beauty, as works of art,
    literature, historical monuments, etc.
    (Websters, 1984)
  • Intentional hostile behavior aimed at damaging
    environmental objects (Freshbach, 1964)
  • An intentional act aimed at damaging or
    destroying an object that is anothers property
    (Moser, 1992)
  • All forms of property destruction, deliberate or
    not (Baughman, 1971)

21
DEFINTIONS
  • INTENTIONALITY
  • DESTRUCTIVENESS
  • PROPERTY OWNERSHIP

22
COHEN (1974)
  • Three accepted circumstances.
  • The illegal destruction or defacement of property
    belonging to someone elsedoes not invariably
    lead to its classification as the deviant act,
    vandalism

23
COHENS EXCEPTIONS
  • RITUALISM On certain ritual occasions property
    damage is expected or even encouragedNew Years
    Eve.
  • PROTECTION Certain groups-high school
    students-are given a collective license to engage
    in property destruction
  • PLAY Among small children, rule breaking is not
    regarded as deviant behaviour.

24
PITT and ZUBE (1991)
  • Otherwise acceptable behaviour in an in
    appropriate context
  • Is graffiti a form of art?
  • Street artists art viewed as invasion,
    disfigurement-vandalism
  • Attractive decoration? Work of art?
  • Illegal? Destructive? Invasion?
  • http//www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/30/40/30_40gr
    affitigirl.html

25
GRAFFITI ART-TORONTO
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vfWvqKq_UGLo
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vs86RWhNC1Lk

26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
CHRISTENSEN AND CLARK (1978)
  • What is classified as vandalism?
  • Intent
  • Depreciative acts are unintended
  • Vandalism is intended
  • Vandals are aware of the consequences.
  • New definition created Vandalism is an
    intentional act of destruction or defacement of
    property not ones own.

29
THE VANDAL
  • Behaviour that is motivated
  • More likely to be male and white
  • Vandalistic acts by children are usually
    committed in small groups
  • Reaches peak in seventh grade
  • Middle-class from a low-income family
  • Suspended students, retained youth

30
YOUNG VANDALS
  • Poor understanding of consequences
  • Concerned with getting caught
  • Public property belongs to no one
  • No sense of community or belonging

31
ARSON
  • Very costly
  • 25-50 of all fires begin by arson
  • 66 are age 20 or younger
  • Child under 10-experimentation or play
  • Adolescent is motivated by life crises, peer or
    family concerns, attention seeking.
  • Below average intelligence, poor academic
    achievement, school failure
  • Large family, unstable home
  • Social, marital, employment problems

32
FIRE SETTERS
  • Rothenstein (1963) profiled the typical fire
    setter.
  • Solitary fire setter
  • Group fire setter
  • Pyromaniac fire setter
  • Pathological schizophrenic fire setter
  • Bradshaw and Huff (1985)-out of 90 arsonists
  • 52 for revenge
  • 12 for excitement
  • Others to cover a crime, for profit or for no
    reason

33
(No Transcript)
34
THE ECOLOGY OF VANDALISM CONTEXT AND TARGET
  • The setting or contexts shown to be promotive or
    least frequently associated with vandalism
  • Specific targets of such behaviour
  • Person-environment event
  • Aggression derives from the person and the
    physical and social context

35
STAGES
  • 1) Waiting for something to turn up
  • 2) Removal of uncertainty or the exploratory
    gesture
  • 3) Mutual conversion
  • 4) Joint elaboration of the act
  • 5) Aftermath and retrospect

36
LOW SCHOOL VANDALISM
  • Better aesthetic quality and maintenance
  • Located in more densely populated areas with
    higher activity levels
  • More obstructed view of school property by
    surrounding residents
  • Better illuminated neighborhood areas
  • Schools are prime ecological context for
    vandalism
  • School vandalism is correlated with community
    crime levels.

37
WHEN DOES IT OCCUR?
  • After school hours
  • Nights
  • Weekends
  • Vacation period
  • Later in the school week or later in the year
  • Halloween
  • Graduation time and end of school year
  • First warm day of spring

38
(No Transcript)
39
Causation
  • Why
  • Vandalize?!

40
Motivational Typologies
  • Martin- proposed a three part typology.
  • 1) Predatory Vandalism
  • 2) Vindictive Vandalism
  • 3) Wanton Vandalism

41
  • Weinmayr
  • - proposed a 7 part typology
  • - ecological view
  • 1) Vandalism of overuse
  • 2) Conflict Vandalism
  • 3) Curiosity Vandalism
  • 4) Leverage Vandalism
  • 5) Deleterious Vandalism
  • 6) Irresistible temptation vandalism
  • 7) No-other-way-to-do-it
    vandalism

42
  • Cohen
  • - Most frequently quoted in Vandalism
    literature.
  • Aquisitive Vandalism
  • Tactical Vandalism
  • Ideological Vandalism
  • Vindicative Vandalism
  • Play Vandalism
  • Malicious Vandalism

43
  • Coffield
  • - Motivational basis
  • Financial Gain
  • Peer-group pressure
  • Pleasure
  • Excitement

44
  • Are these typologies reliable?
  • Informal and unsystematic ways
  • No formal theory
  • Lack of Systematic observation

45
  • WeinMayers Intervention schema
  • The real vandals in our society are the
    designers
  • Vandalism of overuse
  • Conflict Vandalism
  • Curiosity vandalism
  • Leverage Vandalism
  • Deleterious vandalism
  • Irresistible Temptation vandalism
  • No-other-way-to-do-it vandalism

46
  • What is the central behavior that constitutes
    VANDALISM??
  • AGGRESSION!!!!!

47
  • Although there are multiple theories such as
  • 1) Social learning theory
  • 2) Social interactional theory
  • 3) Cognitive Script theory
  • concerning aggression, theorists have not
    bothered to understand or explain the effects
    and causes of vandalism.

48
  • Today there exists three theories for vandalism
  • Enjoyment Theory
  • Aesthetic Theory
  • Equity-Control Theory

49
  • Enjoyment Theory
  • Csikszentmihalyi Larsen
  • Vandalism increases in school settings due to
  • 1) The extrinsic reward system
  • 2) The means-ends relationship
  • 3) The level of intrinsic motivation
  • Based on earlier work Csikszenmihalyi Larsen
    position is founded on studies that have looked
    at 1) optimal arousal levels in human functioning
  • 2) Intrinsic Motivation

50
  • According to Csikszentmihalyi Larsen
  • ? When students experience a lack of FLOW
    STATE, vandalism is triggered.
  • Many young adults do not experience flow in
    school due to its lacking structure.
  • In the studies that were conducted, adolescent
    students rated themselves as most bored in the
    school setting opposed to any other setting.

51
  • Aesthetic Theory
  • Allen Greenberg
  • Several factors are the cause of the pleasure
    that is associated with aesthetic experience.
  • Five qualities include 1) Complexity
  • 2) Predictability
  • 3) Novelty
  • 4)
    Intensity
  • 5) Organization

52
  • How did they support their theory?
  • 1) analog investigations
  • 2) retrospective interview studies
  • They then concluded that there are three stages
    in which vandalism occurs
  • - before
  • - during
  • - after destruction

53
  • For the vandal, the appearance of an object may
    be
  • 1) an eliciting cue
  • 2) a discriminative cue
  • Complexity serves as a discriminative cue for
    choice of vandalism targets. Research subjects
    opted to destroy complex buildings when given the
    choice.
  • Evidence indicates that the theorys predictions
    concerning the influence of novelty and
    organization on destruction-associated pleasure.

54
  • Equity Control Theory.
  • Fisher and Baron
  • Perceived inequity
  • Equity restoration
  • Two-factor social psychological theory
  • Acts of vandalism can be displayed along an
    instrumental-expressive continuum.
  • Studies confirm the equity-control theory.

55
  • Toronto Police Service To serve and
    Protect
  • Graffiti Eradication Program
  • Program solution consists of an operational
    equation known as 5/5/5
  • 5 requisite program activity
  • 5 requisite program partners
  • 5 actions to be taken

56
vandalism on Toronto transit systems
57
Alternative strategies
  • Arnold Goldstein every act of aggression, either
    toward persons or property, is a
    person-environment event.
  • All acts of vandalism a combined result of
    qualities of the vandal (person) and
    characteristics of the physical and social
    environment in which vandalism occurs.

58
Alternative strategies
Interventions used oriented more toward either
environmental solutions or person-focused
(vandal-focused) solutions. Those that focus
on either environmental or person interventions
are equally limited in how effective they are.
(Nature-Nurture phenomenon).
59
Alternative strategies
  • The Person-Environment Duet
  • An interactionist perspective/model the
    initiation and direction of behaviour come
    primarily from the continuous interaction between
    the person and the situations that one encounters.

60
Alternative strategies
  • History behind the Person-Environment Duet
  • Lewin and Murray one of the first to study the
    interaction between the person and his/her
    environment.
  • Lewins (1935, 1936) formula, B f (p,e).

61
Alternative strategies
  • Murray (1938) a similar position in his
    description of behaviour as a joint outcome of
    both the individuals needs (person-variable) and
    environmental press or need satisfying potential
    (situation-variable).
  • Others Murphy (1947) developed organism-field
    perspective Rotters (1954) and Mischels (1968)
    social learning positions, Angyals (1954)
    phenomological theory emphasizing the
    inseparability of organism and environment and
    the subjectivity of environment in shaping human
    behaviour.

62
Alternative strategies
  • Third view advancing interactionism emerged,
    referred to as ecological psychology and
    environmental psychology.
  • Roger Barker- studies of stream of behaviour a
    major classification of the effects of diverse
    real-world behaviour settings on behaviour
    also a significant step forward in determining
    how environment might be optimally defined,
    classified and measured.

63
Alternative strategies
  • Further investigative support for a
    person-environment stance regarding the sources
    and reduction of aggressive behaviour has also
    been amply forthcoming.
  • P-E duet person and context interaction at the
    heart of interactionist position taken here are
    both probabilistic and reciprocal.

64
Alternative strategies
  • Probabilism contrasts with
  • Determinism
  • Possibilism
  • Probabilism an environment as neither
    determining nor
  • nearly providing possibilities. It does make
    certain
  • choices more likely, enlarges, reinforces it

65
Alternative strategies
  • And according to Krupats view,
  • Relationship of person to environment is
    dynamic, rather than static. There is a give and
    take, with each part of the system providing
    reciprocal influences on each other. We shape our
    environments and in turn are shaped by them in an
    never-ending cycle of mutual influence.

66
Alternative strategies
  • Changing the Physical and Social Environment
  • Controlling and reducing vandalism and has
    appeared and reappeared under variety of rubrics
    utilitarian prevention, deopportunizing design,
    and architectural determinism, crime prevention
    through environmental design, situational crime
    prevention, and environmental criminology.

67
Alternative strategies
  • Environment-oriented strategies alter the
    physical setting, context, or situation in which
    vandalism might occur so that the potential or
    actual vandals opportunity to perpetrate such
    behaviour is reduced.
  • School districts, mass transit systems, museums,
    shopping malls, national and provincial parks,
    etc. opted for target hardening, access
    controlling, offender deflecting, entry-exit
    screening, surveillance increasing, inducement
    removing, and other similar tactical
    concretizations of an environment-altering
    intervention strategy as their first, and often
    only, means of defense against vandalism.

68
Alternative strategies
  • Environmental alterations invite vandal-to-be to
    challenge his/her vandalistic skills? Increase
    vandalistic behaviour!
  • (examples fence around school, graffiti
    resistant wall surface, theft- proof parking
    meter, aisle store cameras)

69
Alternative strategies
  • - Advantages of changing physical and/or social
    environment
  • Design innovations may be relevant to
    deopportunizing vandalism in more than one way.
  • Wiesenthal (1990) property damage can be
    avoided by design elements that do more than
    resist attack design can be used to subtly steer
    the user away from destruction or defacement.
    (p.289) (example ply-wood road signs, which
    thunk when hit by a target practice bullet may
    be less attractive to vandalism targets than
    signs made of metal, which create a louder noise
    when so hit)

70
Alternative strategies
  • Levy- Leboyer (1984) some locations are more
    prone to be vandalized than others.
  • The previously vandalized places and damaged
    places by something other than vandalism, as well
    as locations in low-status institutions and
    venues providing inadequate service, are each
    common targets, and thus desirable sites for
    environmental alteration.

71
Alternative strategies
  • Social environment micro and macro levels.
  • At the micro, immediate level the central,
    socio-ecological intervention concept is
    surveillance, both perceived and actual.
  • Vandalism, it is held, is less likely to occur if
    the potential perpetrator believes he/she will be
    observed and perhaps apprehended

72
Alternative strategies
  • Blauvelt (1980) make the school occupied To
    control and/or reduce the acts of vandalism, he
    said, we need to make the school a place that is
    continuously occupied by some form of human or
    mechanical presence. The sense of presence
    which defines the building as no longer being an
    inert target.

73
Alternative strategies
  • Sturmans investigation of surveillance and bus
    vandalism has showed that
  • 1.the greatest amount of vandalism occurred on
    buses with no conductor
  • 2.across arrangements, the magnitude of
    vandalism was greatest in those bus locations
    with least personal supervision.
  • Added bus conductors, real and dummy TV cameras
    in stores, neighborhood watch programs, improved
    neighborhood lighting, and an increased number of
    store employees are each examples of
    vandalism-opportunity-reducing,
    surveillance-increasing social ecological
    interventions.

74
Alternative strategies
  • Porters (1980) place defense model a taxonomy
    of means for citizens in general, and not only
    institutional personnel, to join the social
    ecological intervention effort against vandalism.
  • These are
  • Incident- specific personal confrontations
  • Incident- specific appeals to authority.
  • Incident- specific social intervention.

75
Alternative strategies
  • Shaw (1973) with his macroenvironmental
    observation on vandals social ecology, noted
  • Vandalism is a rebellion with a cause. To
    prevent it, we must combat social indifference,
    apathy, isolation and the loss of community,
    neighborhood and family values. We must reaffirm
    the principle that human rights are more
    important than property rights, and property
    rights are acknowledged by all when all have a
    share in them. (p.18)

76
Alternative strategies
  • Changing the Vandal
  • The intervention target is the vandal himself or
    herself.
  • Cohen (1974) suggested three such person-oriented
    strategies
  • Education
  • Deterrence and retribution
  • Deflection

77
Alternative strategies
  • Person-oriented efforts alter motivation.
  • Punishment an especially frequent
    person-oriented strategy implemented.
  • Butevidence heavy reliance on such a strategy
    may frequently result in an increase, not a
    decrease, in the frequency of vandalism. Report
    in decrease in vandalism as punitiveness
    decreased and such interventions as increased use
    of teacher approval for desirable student
    behaviors increased.

78
Alternative strategies
  • Csikszentmihalyi and Larsen (1978) reorientation
    of school procedures and curriculum in a manner
    designed to stimulate and respond to youths
    intrinsic motivation for challenge, for extension
    of their skills, for mastery, for growth, and
    for, in these authors terms, the experience of
    flow in order to reduce school crime but also
    accomplish the goal of teaching youth how to
    enjoy life in an affirmative way.

79
Alternative strategies
  • Externally imposed incentives and intrinsic
    motivators cause of vandalism reduction as well.
  • The Mayer et al. (1979, 1983, 1987) extrinsic
    reward studies, and the intrinsic motivation
    studies cited earlier, stand in support of the
    value of both orientations to enhancing vandal
    prosocial motivation. Both who the vandal is and
    the level of his/her vandalistic behavior will
    ideally, in part, determine the nature of the
    intervention implemented.

80
Alternative strategies
  • In summary, every act of vandalism spring from
    BOTH, person and the environment sources, a
    dualism that must similarly characterize efforts
    at its prevention and remediation.

81
Implementing Tactics
  • Incorporated intervention tactics employed in
    schools, business, mass transit, parks, museum,
    and other settings.
  • have been built upon Clarkes (1992) taxonomy
    for categorizing methods of situational crime
    prevention.
  • Items 1-11 physical and social
    environment-oriented vandalism interventions.
  • Categories 12-17 directly or indirectly targeted
    on changing the potential or actual vandal
    himself/herself.

82
Implementing Tactics
  • 1. Target Hardening
  • This situational crime prevention approach
    involves the use of devices or materials designed
    to obstruct the vandal by physical barriers.
  • 1.This situational crime prevention approach
    involves the use of devices or materials designed
    to obstruct the vandal by physical barriers.
  • 2.Toughened glass (acrylic, polycarbon, etc)
  • 3.Window-cover latticework or screens
  • 4.Fire retardant paint
  • 5.High impact plastic or steal fixtures

83
Implementing Tactics
  • 2. Access Control
  • These are architectural features, mechanical and
    electronic devices, and related means of
    maintaining control over the ability to gain
    entry
  • 16. Key control systems
  • 17.Locked gates, doors, windows.
  • 18.Electromagnetic doors un-opennable from
    outside
  • 19.Deadbolt and vertical bolt locks
  • 20.Metal door and window shutters

84
Implementing Tactics
  • 3. Deflecting Offenders
  • This is the channeling of potentially criminal
    or aggressive behaviour in more prosocial
    directions by means of architectural, equipment,
    and related alterations
  • 35.Street detours
  • 36.Graffiti boards and mural programs
  • 37.Schools and studios for graffiti-writer
    exposure and recognition
  • interesting wallpaper, daily newspaper, or
    chalkboard on bathroom walls
  • 38.Litter bins
  • 39. Placing of wash fountains and towel
    dispensers in school hall

85
Implementing Tactics
  • 4. Controlling Facilitations
  • This is the alteration of the means of criminal
    or aggressive behaviour by making such means less
    available, less accessible, or less potentially
    injurious
  • 43.Sales control of spray paint and indelible
    marker
  • 44.Removal of debris from construction and
    demolition sites
  • 45.Removal of waste paper, rubbish, and other
    combustibles
  • 46.Use of tamper-proof screws
  • 47.Placement of permanent signs, building names,
    and decorative
  • hardware out of reach from ground

86
Implementing Tactics
  • 5. Exit- Entry Screening
  • Rather than seeking to exclude potential
    perpetrators, as in access control, this set of
    tactics seeks to increase the likelihood of
    detecting persons not in conformity with entry
    requirements (entry screening) or detecting
    objects that should not be removed from protected
    areas (exit screening)
  • 50.Closed-circuit TV
  • 51.Metal detectors
  • 52.Vibration detectors
  • 53.Motion detectors
  • 54.Perimeter alarm system

87
Implementing Tactics
  • 6. Formal Surveillance
  • This is surveillance by police, guards,
    monitors, citizen groups, or other paid or
    volunteer security personnel
  • 57.Police, citizen, senior citizen, tenant, and
    parent patrols
  • 58.Neighborhood Watch, School Watch, Block Watch
    and Rail Watch
  • 59.Provision of on-site living quarters for
    citizens or security personnel, for example,
    school sitters, and campground hosts
  • 60.Informant hotlines, for example,
    rat-on-a-rat program or secret witness
    program
  • 61.Crime Solvers Anonymous reward program

88
Implementing Tactics
  • 7. Natural Surveillance
  • This is surveillance provided by employees, home
    owners, pedestrians, and others going about their
    daily life activities
  • 66.Community after-school use
  • 67.Reduced teacher-student ratio
  • 68.Increased number of employees, for example,
    playground supervisors, bus conductors, and
    teachers
  • 69.Twenty-four-hour custodial staffing
  • 70.Live-in custodian or caretaker

89
Implementing Tactics
  • 8. Target Removal
  • The physical removal or enhanced inaccessibility
    of potential vandalism targets
  • 78.Use of graffiti dissuaders
  • Teflon, plastic, laminate, fiberglass, or
    melamine covering
  • Rock, cement, slanted siding, or deeply grooved
    surfaces
  • Paint-outs or paint with contrasting colors in
    patterned surfaces
  • Fast-growing wall vines or shrubbery or built
    wall barriers
  • 79.Removal of archaeological art from site to
    museum
  • 80.Nondisclosure of archaeological sites
  • 81.Removal of pay phones from high loitering
    areas
  • 82.Removal of corner bus seats, hidden from
    (drivers) view

90
Implementing Tactics
  • 9. Identifying Property
  • This is the physical identification marking of
    potential vandalism targets
  • 92.Property marking with school district ID
  • 93.Property marking with business logo
  • 94.Property marking with identification seals
  • 95.Property marking with organization stencil
  • 96.Property marking with social security number

91
Implementing Tactics
  • 10. Removing Inducements
  • This is the physical alteration of potential
    vandalism targets
  • 97.Rapid repair of damaged property
  • 98.Rapid removal of graffiti
  • 99.Use of small windowpanes
  • 100.Use of plywood road signs
  • 101.Elimination of school washroom and tolilet
    stall doors

92
Implementing Tactics
  • 11. Rule Setting
  • This is the making of explicit prior statements
    of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, as well
    as penalties for noncompliance
  • 107.Federal Antiquities Act of 1906
  • 108.Federal Historical Sites Act of 1935
  • 109.Federal Archaeological Resources Protection
    Act of 1979
  • 110.Model Hate Crime Bill
  • 111.Antivandalism laws

93
Implementing Tactics
  • 12. Education
  • These are direct efforts to inform and persuade
    potential and actual vandals regarding vandalism
    costs, consequences, and alternatives
  • 119.Vandalism education programs
  • 120.Arson education programs
  • 121.Vandalism awareness walks
  • 122.Vandalism case-study classroom discussions
  • 123.Classroom brainstorming on vandalism
    reduction

94
Implementing Tactics
  • 13. Publicity
  • These are indirect efforts to inform and
    persuade potential and actual vandals, as well s
    the general public, regarding vandalism costs,
    consequences, and alternatives
  • 134.Antivandalism advertising
  • 135.Antivandalism news releases
  • 136.Milk-carton and grocery-bag antivandalism
    messages
  • 137.Antivandalism decals on mass transit
    vehicles
  • 138.Antivandalism slogan contests

95
Implementing Tactics
  • 14. Punishment
  • These are negative experiences directed to
    perpetrators consequent to their vandalistic
    behaviour
  • 143.Suspension from school
  • 144.Monetary fines
  • 145.Restitution
  • 146.Student vandalism account
  • 147.Group billing for residences hall damage

96
Implementing Tactics
  • 15. Counseling
  • These are remedial experiences directed to
    perpetrators consequent to their vandalistic
    behaviour
  • 148.Student counseling programs
  • 149.Conflict-negotiation skills training
  • 150.Moral-reasoning training
  • 151.Interpersonal skills training
  • 152.Aggression replacement training

97
Implementing Tactics
  • 16. Involvement
  • These are efforts to increase the sense of
    involvement with and ownership of potential
    vandalism targets
  • 154.Encouragement of college students to
    personalize (paint and
  • furnish) their dormitory rooms
  • 155.Permission for college students to retain
    same dormitory room several semesters
  • 156.Student participation in school decision
    making
  • 157.School administration collaboration with
    student organizations
  • 158.School-home collaboration

98
Implementing Tactics
  • 17. Organizational Climate
  • These are the procedures for enhancing the
    quality of the potential or actual vandals
    social, education, and daily living context
  • 161.Teacher or staff approval or reward for
    student prosocial behaviour
  • 162.Teacher respect for students
  • 163.Teacher and parent modeling of respect for
    others and for property
  • 164.Regular visible presence of school principle

99
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?voCNcUNAk-Igfeature
    related
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4NZshEEDH0c
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvSG4Cml7HXs
About PowerShow.com