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School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy: Moving Beyond Information Literacy

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Title: School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy: Moving Beyond Information Literacy


1
School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy Moving
Beyond Information Literacy
  • Ross J. Todd
  • School of Communication, Information and Library
    Studies
  • Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey
  • 4 Huntington Street
  • NEW BRUNSWICK NJ 08901
  • rtodd_at_scils.rutgers.edu
  • www.cissl.scils.rutgers.edu
  • www.scils.rutgers.edu/rtodd

2
Courage to Think Outside the Box
  • Preparing our students today for tomorrow's
    unknown world, being able to predict an uncertain
    future, and moving into it with confidence, takes
    courage and conviction. Indeed, the best way to
    predict the future is to work towards creating
    it, and creating it begins today, not tomorrow.
    This means that although we respect and are
    informed by our past, we also have the courage
    and determination to think and act divergently
  • (Todd, in Effective libraries in international
    schools (Markuson, 1999), 1999, 9)

3
POSITION VACANT Visioneema Valley School
Information-Learning Specialist
  • Primary Responsibilities
  • Through VVS library as a dynamic agent of
    learning, to develop all students as clear and
    effective thinkers and communicators,
    self-directed and independent learners, creative,
    reflective and practical problem solvers, and
    informed citizens.

4
School Library Profile
  • Vision Valley K-12 Day School library is a
    physical and digital learning-centered space that
    fosters effective connection, interaction and
    utilization of information for achieving stated
    learning outcomes
  • it provides space that is structured to
    accommodate multiple learning styles and teaching
    styles
  • it provides space to facilitate multiple pathways
    to information, instructional interventions and
    learning outcomes print and digital
    collections, storytelling, formal
    learning-teaching, technological access

5
Required Qualifications
  • expertise in design of instructional
    interventions for learning through information at
    class, group and individual level
  • expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and
    implementing instructional interventions as
    partner-leader with school administrators,
    teachers, students and local community
  • expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and
    implementing a whole-school library program which
    articulates the integrated nature of information,
    learning processes and knowledge outcomes

6
Required Qualifications
  • expertise in the provision of learning-oriented
    professional development targeted to whole school
    success with learning outcomes
  • experience as literacy specialist particularly in
    area of reading comprehension and reading
    enrichment
  • experience in integrating information technology
    in curricular areas
  • expertise in evidence-based practice and
    outcomes-based evaluation
  • information management and school library
    administration

7
  • Are you read to apply for the job?

8
11 Pathways to Obsolescence
  • Media Plural of Medium. Invoking the distant
    powers to rescue you from your plight derived
    from the Latin Mediocrum, meaning not quite up to
    standard
  • Information all the stuff that we like to keep
    tidy and straight on the shelves
  • Lifelong learning That vague state in some
    distant future which enables me to stop worrying
    about doing anything meaningful now to enable it
    to happen
  • Collaboration A guiltifying process of ensuring
    I spend my days in cataloguing instead of
    instructional intervention

9
11 Pathways to Obsolescence
  • Research paper a neat, grammatically correct
    written piece usually enclosed in a plastic
    sleeve or folder
  • Reading motivation encouraging kids to read
    what they want as long as long as it suits the
    selection policy and the moral high ground of the
    school librarian
  • Project A preconceived notion of what students
    will do, how long it will take and what credit it
    is worth without regard for assessing process or
    gaining formative feedback
  • Information skills Week 1, day 1 Time to tell
    them about Dewey, again and again, year after year

10
11 Pathways to Obsolescence
  • Advocacy a process of administrator bashing to
    ensure that the librarian assumes a position of
    authority outside library land
  • Weeding a diversionary tactic of focusing on
    the unnecessary talking about weeding the
    collection in stead of weeding the profession
  • Information Literacy Yes, I do IL, I do Dewey!
  • Information literacy is not about Information or
    sources, it is about the learner

11
THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IN THE INFORMATION AGE SCHOOL
  • INFORMATION
  • PLACE
  • Collections
  • Technology
  • Access
  • Staffing
  • Locating and finding information
  • Information Literacy
  • THESE ARE IMPORTANT
  • KNOWLEDGE
  • SPACE
  • Building knowledge through engagement with
    information
  • Information scaffolds for learning
  • Learning outcomes
  • Making a difference
  • THESE ARE LIBRARY GOALS

12
Information Literacy its dilemmas
  • Goal of the library, platform / bandwagon for
    school librarians
  • Deficiency Model rather than an Empowerment Model
  • Who cares perceived to be an add-on, not linked
    to curriculum outcomes and knowledge outcomes
  • Is Information literacy the end? Or is it a
    means to an end?
  • Infoliteracy babble

13
  • THE INTERCONNECTIVITY OF LEARNING

14
Learning is about making and maintaining
connections
  • Linking information to knowledge
  • Linking mind and environment
  • Linking self and others
  • Linking deliberation and action
  • Linking actions and outcomes
  • Promoting an empowerment model towards knowledge
    construction, rather than a deficiency notion
    ie students are somehow deficient because they do
    not have information skills.
  • Gathering evidence on which to base knowledge
    initiatives and decisions.

15
Learning in the Information Age School
  • an active search for meaning and understanding by
    the learner
  • learners constructing deep knowledge and deep
    understanding rather than passively receiving it
  • learners directly involved and engaged in the
    discovery of new knowledge
  • learners encountering alternative perspectives
    and conflicting ideas so that they are able to
    transform prior knowledge and experience into
    deep understandings
  • learners transferring new knowledge and skills to
    new circumstances
  • learners taking ownership and responsibility for
    their ongoing learning
  • learners contributing to social well being, the
    growth of democracy, and the development of a
    knowledgeable society.

16
Constructivist Approach to Learning
  • Students learn by being actively engaged and
    reflecting on that experience. (Dewey).
  • Students learn by building on what they already
    know. (Ausubel)
  • Students develop higher order thinking through
    guidance at critical points in the learning
    process. (Vygotsky)
  • Students development occurs in a sequence of
    stages. (Piaget)
  • Students have different ways of learning.
    (Gardener)
  • Students learn through social interaction with
    others. (Vygotsky)

17
  • FROM INFORMATION TO KNOWLEDGE
  • Knowledge,
  • as the transforming effects of the school
    librarians interventions,
  • is the reason for school libraries.

18
In an Information Age School Library, the
challenge is to
  • celebrate the understood, not the found

19
(No Transcript)
20
Moving Beyond Information Literacy
  • Productive Pedagogy
  • Guided Inquiry
  • Partner-Leaders
  • Librarian as information learning specialist

21
Productive Pedagogy?
22
The dimensions of Productive Pedagogy
Intellectual Quality Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher order thinking Meta-language Substantive communication Quality Learning Environment Explicit quality criteria Engagement High Expectations Social Support Students self-regulation Student direction
Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration Inclusivity Connectedness Narrative
23
INTELLECTUAL QUALITY
  • Knowledge is deep when focus is sustained on key
    concepts and ideas
  • Students are able to demonstrate meaningful
    understanding of the central ideas and the
    relationships between them
  • Students are encouraged to address multiple
    perspectives and/or solutions and to recognise
    that knowledge is often conflicting and
    problematic
  • Students are engaged in thinking that requires
    them to organise, reorganise, apply, analyse,
    synthesise and evaluate knowledge and information
    (higher-order thinking)
  • students learn to use complex terms relevant to
    their subject (meta-language)
  • Students regularly engage in substantive
    conversations about the concepts and ideas can
    manifest in oral, written, artistic forms

24
QUALITY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  • Learning environment provides high levels of
    support for learning
  • Explicit quality criteria
  • Engagement
  • High expectations
  • Social support
  • Self regulation
  • Student direction

25
Why does it matter?
  • SIGNIFICANCE
  • Students need to see why and understand that
    their learning matters and has real world
    connections
  • Is their learning with the school librarian
    connected to real units and meaningful literacy
    support?

26
SIGNIFICANCE
  • Background knowledge
  • Cultural knowledge
  • Knowledge integration
  • Inclusivity
  • Connectedness
  • Narrative

27
Guided Inquiry
  • Guided inquiry is carefully planned, closely
    supervised targeted intervention of an
    instructional team of school librarians and
    teachers to guide students through curriculum
    based inquiry units that gradually lead towards
    deep knowledge and deep understanding, and
    independent learning.
  • The guided inquiry approach is grounded in a
    constuctivist approach to learning for developing
    students competence with learning form a variety
    of sources while enhancing their understanding of
    the content areas of the curriculum.

28
  • THE INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS FRAMEWORK FOR
    GUIDED INQUIRY
  •  
  •  
  • Tasks Initiation Selection
    Exploration Formulation Collection
    Presentation
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------?
  • Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion
    clarity sense of
    satisfaction or
  • (affective) frustration
    direction/ disappointment
  • doubt
    confidence
  • Thoughts vague-----------------------------------
    --?focused
  • (cognitive) ---------------------------
    --------------------?
  • increased interest
  • Actions seeking relevant information-----------
    -----------------?seeking pertinent information
  • (physical) exploring
    documenting

INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS C. Kuhlthau
29
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry
  • guided inquiry learning is initiated though
    compelling situations, and questions which
    meaningfully engage students in wanting to know,
    and which provide challenge and opportunity
  • instructional activities put emphasis on
    meaningful, authentic activities that help the
    learner develop skills relevant to problem
    solving and to construct understandings
  • students are more motivated to engage in their
    inquiry when they are able to exercise some
    choice over the specific questions they want to
    answer and how to present their new
    understandings
  • an attempt is made to connect with students
    background knowledge

30
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry
  • instructional activities involve the students in
    thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and
    linking ideas, making connections, developing and
    transforming prior knowledge, skills, attitudes
    and values - higher order thinking and critical
    analysis occurs throughout
  • instructional activities enable students to
    develop deep knowledge, deep understanding
  • Students see that inquiry learning is
    developmental, an iterative process of advancing,
    consolidating, reinforcing, and involving whole
    person opportunities for students to provide
    their understanding of concepts or ideas, and
    opportunities for sustained dialogue between
    students, and between teachers / school librarian
    and students

31
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry
  • learning activities closely resemble the ways
    that students will be expected to use their
    knowledge and skills in the real world
  • focus on identifying and solving intellectual
    and/or real-world problems
  • structured interventions are informed by the
    Information Search Process enable students to
    have the information seeking and use skills to
    engage in an active search for meaning and
    understanding
  • students know how to engage with diverse
    information sources to build background
    knowledge, formulate a focus and collect
    pertinent information the focus is constructing
    mew knowledge, not just a source orientation
  • students encounter deep knowledge and build deep
    understanding of the curriculum content
  • students demonstrate a personal process of
    construction through the products they create
    that show their new understandings

32
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry
  • students have opportunity to communicate and
    share their new understandings
  • the inquiry learning environment is one where
    academic and personal success and intellectual
    inquiry are valued and acknowledged, and one
    where students feel connected, cared for and
    trusted
  • students are given feedback throughout their
    inquiry process that advances and nourishes their
    learning and continues to motivate them
  • students are given opportunity to practice their
    new skills to sustain and support their learning
    beyond the formal classroom and school library
    experience
  • inquiry learning is responsive to students
    personal, social and cultural worlds, valuing
    differences and cultivating an inclusive
    community

33
Guided Inquiry and Productive Pedagogy in
Action Case Study
  • Gill St Bernards School
  • Gladstone NJ

34
SAMPLE
  • 43 Grade 9 students at Gill St Bernards School,
    Gladstone NJ (21 girls, 22 boys)
  • Semester long course Research Project
  • School librarian / teacher collaboration (7
    teachers)
  • Instructional Intervention Understanding the
    Information Search Process, information
    searching, information analysis and note taking
  • 2 phases of course Instructional intervention
    culminating in major oral presentation (7 weeks)
    guided free-choice research paper (7 weeks)
    within the theme Celebration in Culture

35
DATA COLLECTION
  • 1. Written protocol at three key stages in the
    Information Search Process (Initiation,
    Formulation, Presentation)
  • Structured search logs kept by each student
    during the progress of assignment
  • Affective Domain (feelings) statement and Next
    Task statement
  • Product analysis at completion of the assignment

36
PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE Initiation
  • Initial representations were lists of unrelated
    concepts, and generalities, language
    associations
  • Statements were primarily property (is a), manner
    (describe how something happens)
  • Average number of statements 4 (range from 0-11)
  • Random representation unstructured, no clear
    sequence or organization guess work I think
    that, or at best chronological / historical
  • Some indication of inaccuracy / misrepresentation
  • Acknowledge that students knew very little
  • Motivated to learn personal experiences,
    personal connections, intriguing facts about
    topic, curiosity, teacher/librarian
    recommendation

37
PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE Midpoint Focus
Formulation
  • Dramatic increase in number of statements range
    from 6-34 statements average number 17
  • Focus on Properties describes characteristics
    Manner describe processes, styles, actions
    Reason explanations of how and why
  • Some evidence of organizational structure of
    ideas some attempt to develop conceptual
    grouping
  • Key mechanism writing of abstract and its
    feedback

38
PATTERNS IN CHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE Conclusion
  • Clear and precise listing of properties, manner
    and increasing use of set membership
  • Final representations also stronger on reasons,
    outcomes, causality, implications, predictive,
    reflective (increased complexity)
  • Average number of statements 31 (range 8 63)
  • For 4 students, decrease in number of statements
    reflect higher levels of synthesis coalescing
    lists into categories
  • Higher levels of structural centrality and
    conceptual coherence -ie. overall integrated and
    interlinked structure
  • Reflective, comparative, positional personal
    ownership

39
INTELLECTUAL QUALITY
  • Higher order thinking movement from description
    to explanation and reflection
  • Deep knowledge Evident in the nature of the
    sources students accessed, and the changing
    search patterns from generalist background
    information to specialist, detailed, information
    sources
  • Evident in increased specificity of topic focus
  • Deep understanding evident in extent of recall
    and in the types of causal and predictive
    relationships portrayed
  • Substantive conversation Valuing of dialogue
    between teacher, librarian and students fluency
    in written statements
  • Knowledge as problematic In some cases,
    students identified dealing with dealing with
    factual conflict or conflicting viewpoints and
    formulating their own (choice of topic) also
    evident in constructing arguments that show a
    basis for the claims they were making
  • Meta-language Use of language specific to the
    topic domain not just provision of terms, but
    clarity of understanding these terms
  • Increasing complexity of the language used to
    describe their knowledge, and the ordering of
    this knowledge into conceptually coherent units

40
Perceptions of Knowledge Gained
  • Know heaps more
  • Know lots more, and surprised at breadth and
    depth of knowledge
  • Know lots more, but still could learn more
  • Know lots, but dissatisfaction about not knowing
    enough

41
The Emotional Rollercoaster
  • Very distinctive ebb and flow of emotions follows
    the deadlines that were crafted by the faculty
    and librarians to guide the students effectively
    through the research process.
  • Increase in optimism and confidence as they
    identify a general topic and begin to investigate
    sources for relevant information
  • Increase in negative emotionsoften reported here
    as stress, anxiety, and pressurejust as the
    deadlines for bibliographies and, particularly,
    outlines approach
  • Submission relief, confidence (because of level
    of research done) acknowledge that it was hard
    work but worthwhile

42
Enablers of Learning
  • Instructional intervention 3 kinds of scaffolds
    valued by students
  • Reception Scaffolds assist learners in
    garnering information from the diverse sources
    direct the learner's attention to what is
    important, and to help them organize and record
    what they perceive. (Perceive structure in
    information)
  • Transformation Scaffolds assist learners in
    transforming the information they've received
    into some other form. This involves imposing
    structure on information
  • Production Scaffolds assist learners in
    actually producing something observable that
    conveys the complexity and richness of what they
    have learned.

43
Quality Learning Environment and Social Support
  • Staged process of learning clear benchmarks
  • Explicit quality criteria feedback eg abstract
    (focus stage)
  • Engagement personal choice provide a will to
    know
  • High expectations (but also causes considerable
    stress)
  • Social support community of scholars. Valuing
    role of teacher and school librarian
    instructional support clear involvement of
    teacher and librarian teacher and librarian on
    the same page
  • Students self regulation knowing steps of good
    research
  • Student direction decisions about what next to
    do, identifying problems, opportunity to discuss
    problems Information scaffolds as a regulatory
    and reflective device to determine immediate
    needs, manage emotions.

44
Productive Pedagogy
  • learned to follow a set plan and be organized
  • help me through papers in high school, college
    and life in general
  • getting genuine information is hard and tedious
    work
  • learned the basics of writing a more
    professional research paper
  • research approach is more complicated but
    creates a much better paper
  • my project is amazing. I have put a lot of hard
    work into it

45
The Students Guide to Good Research
  • you need sufficient sources if you dont,
    youre in trouble
  • important to stay on top of your work
  • budget your time better
  • keep better track of resources
  • Important to work ahead
  • always have a plan if something goes wrong, and
    keep track of sources
  • cite every source so there is no plagiarism

46
The Last Word
  • Ive just slipped out of the hands of a giant
    research monster who wanted to eat me feet first

47
A time of bold action
  • Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute.
    What you can do, or dream you can, begin it.
    Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it.
    Only engage and then the mind grows heated.
    Begin and then the work will be completed

Goethe
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