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Title: Part%202%20The%20PIC%20Model:%20The%20Role%20of%20Counselors

Part 2The PIC ModelThe Role of Counselors
  • PIC provides a framework for a dynamic and
    interactive process which emphasizes career
    counselors role as decision counselors, whose
    aim is to facilitate an active decision-making

The 3 Roles of Career Counselors
  • Discover what stage of the career-decision making
    process the individual is in currently.
  • Review the individuals previous career
    decision-making stage(s), and, if needed, repeat
    one or more of them.
  • Guide the clients through the remaining stages.
  • -- Thus, the models components can be adapted
    according to the counselees style and needs, and
    the counselors judgment.

All three stages of the PIC have the similar
underlying structure of a dynamic
counselor-client dialogue
  • First, the counselor presents the goal of the
    stage and the clients expected role in it.
  • Second, the client actively participates by
    providing answers to questions presented by the
    counselor. The counselor uses his or her
    expertise and impression of the clients unique
    personality and abilities to monitor the adequacy
    of the clients responses.
  • Third, the counselor discusses with the client
    what occurred in the second phase and the

Before Beginning the Decision-Making Process
Assessing the Clients Readiness
  1. Evaluating the clients general level of career
    indecision (e.g., Career Decision Scale),
  2. Examining his or her specific difficulties in
    reaching a decision (e.g., the Career
    Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire)
  3. Assessing career choice anxiety (e.g., Career
    Factors Inventory)
  4. Discovering dysfunctional thinking patterns in
    career problem-solving and decision-making (e.g.,
    the Career Thoughts Inventory)
  5. Identifying dysfunctional beliefs (e.g., the
    Career Beliefs Inventory).

Career Decision-Making Difficulties
  • The first step in helping individuals is to
    locate the focuses of the difficulties they face
    in making career decisions
  • Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) proposed a
    taxonomy for describing the difficulties (see
    Figure 1)

Figure 1 Locating Career Decision-making
Difficulties based on the taxonomy of Gati,
Krausz, Osipow (1996)
The Career Decision-making Difficulties
Questionnaire (CDDQ)
  • The Career Decision-making Difficulties
    Questionnaire (CDDQ) was developed to test this
    taxonomy and serve as a means for assessing
    individuals career decision-making difficulties
  • Cronbach Alpha internal consistency estimates
    .70-.90 for the 3 major categories, .95 for the
    total CDDQ score

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Empirical Structure of the Difficulties (N
10,000 2004)
Lack of motivations
Dysfunctional beliefs
Lack of info about self
Lack of info about process
LoI about occupations
LoI about addition sources of help
Unreliable Information
Internal conflicts
External conflicts
Computerized Assessment of Career
Decision-Making Difficulties
  • The CDDQ was incorporated into a career-related
    self-help-oriented free of charge Internet site
  • Research has shown that the Internet and the
    paper-and-pencil versions of the CDDQ are
    equivalent (Gati Saka, 2001 Kleiman Gati,
  • The CDDQ was found suitable for different
    countries and cultures and has been translated
    into 18 languages.

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Increasing the Clients Readiness
  • Dealing with general indecisiveness.
    Indecisiveness is a generalized inability to make
    decisions. If the clients degree of
    indecisiveness appears to require a more intense
    and longer intervention, the client should be
    referred to relevant clinical counseling.
  • Dismantling dysfunctional beliefs and thoughts.
    Beliefs such as There is a perfect occupation
    for me or The counselor will find me the right
    occupation may impede the decision-making
    process and lead to less than optimal
    career-counseling outcomes. It is therefore
    important to elicit and locate the clients
    dysfunctional beliefs and dismantle them as part
    of the preparation phase.
  • Explaining the steps of the decision-making
    process to the client. This includes explaining
    the basic rationale behind the systematic
    procedure and its advantages over a haphazard
    choice, describing the three stages of the PIC
    model, and discussing each stages goal, process,
    and expected outcome.

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • (a) locating the career-related aspects that are
    most important to the client
  • Clients can construct a list of relevant aspects
    by themselves, based on their life experience and
  • The clients more important aspects can be
    elicited using Kellys repertory grid or using
    Tylers Vocational Card Sort
  • Counselors can facilitate this step also by
    presenting the client with a list of the
    potentially relevant aspects

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • (b) ranking the selected aspects by importance
  • To help the client create a rank-order of
    aspects, the counselor might ask guiding
    questions, such as You said that independence
    is the most important aspect for you. What
    aspect would you regard as second in importance?

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • (c) defining the compromise range for each of the
    selected aspects
  • The counselor is expected to encourage the client
    to locate and report his or her optimal
    preferences, yet also to consider compromising on
    within-aspect levels.
  • For example You said that for the aspect
    length of training your optimal level would be
    a 2-year college program. Would you be willing
    to compromise and regard a 4-year college program
    as acceptable as well?

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • (d) Sequential Elimination comparing the
    individuals preferences with the alternatives
  • Provide the client with feedback, including
    examples of the eliminated options in each
  • For example With respect to the aspect length
    of training, the following occupations are
    incompatible with your preference for a 2-year or
    4-year college program medicine, psychology, law
  • Using computerized systems such as CHOICES,
    DISCOVER, and MBCD (Making Better Career
    Decisions (http// can help
    provide such feedback.

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • (e) Testing the sensitivity of the results to
    possible changes in preferences
  • Checking whether the reported preferences still
    seem acceptable Are you certain that you are
    not willing to consider graduate studies?
  • Understanding why certain alternatives, which
    were considered intuitively appealing by the
    client before the systematic search, were
    eliminated High-school teaching was eliminated
    from your list because it is incompatible with
    your preferences for a very high income, high
    flexibility in working hours, and short
  • Locating alternatives that are almost promising
    examining the validity of the information about
    the critical aspect and considering the
    possibility of compromising in that aspect Your
    wish to use only high artistic ability at work
    led to the elimination of several occupations
    which are compatible with your preferences in all
    the other important aspects. Would you like to
    also consider occupations requiring moderate
    artistic ability, while expressing your artistic
    skills in avocational activities?

(1)Prescreening the Potential Alternatives
  • Helping explicating preferences
  • If at any point during the prescreening the
    client has difficulties in explicating his or her
    preferences, the counselor can help by directing
    the client to relevant past experiences and the
    clients emotional reactions to those experiences
  • For example, if the client is unsure whether
    teamwork is an important aspect for her, or how
    willing she is to compromise on this aspect, the
    counselor may help elicit memories of
    participation on school committees or in youth
    organizations, and the emotions associated with

(2) In-depth Exploration of the Promising
  • Verify compatibility of the alternative with the
    clients preferences in the most important
    aspects (e.g., a person who works in one of the
    considered occupations may mention that she is
    given much independence in choosing both what to
    do and how to do it)
  • Consider the compatibility of the alternative
    with the clients preferences in the less
    important aspects as well. The client may
    consider going through the prescreening process
    again, based on revised preferences
  • See whether he or she is willing to meet the
    requirements specified by the core aspects
  • Examine the probability of actualizing the
    alternative, explore possible ways of increasing
    the probability of actualizing certain promising
    alternatives with the counselor

(3) Choosing the Most Suitable Alternative
  • (a) Comparing and evaluating the suitable
  • clients can make approximate, local comparisons
    of the various alternatives advantages by
    combining some characteristics of one alternative
    that are equivalent to some combination of
    characteristics of the other.
  • For example, the advantage of alternative x over
    y in terms of expected higher income may be
    roughly equivalent to the advantage of
    alternative y in terms of better work environment
    and higher variety.
  • (b) Selecting additional suitable alternatives

(3) Choosing the Most Suitable Alternative
  • (c) Reflecting on the decision-making process.
  • The implementation of the decision is liable to
    be delayed or avoided if the client does not
    truly feel certain in the decision.
  • Counselors can help clients locate the source of
    their lack of confidence and discrepancies
    between intuition and systematic processing, and
    then either confirm their decision or reach a
    different one.
  • If the counselor feels that the systematic
    process has led to an optimal decision, but
    various emotional factors (e.g., fear of
    commitment, anxiety, low self-esteem, lack of
    motivation etc.) deter the client from following
    through with implementation, the client and
    counselor should engage collaboratively in
    cognitive restructuring, affective regulation and
    stress management.
  • (4) Completing the Decision-Making Process
    Implementing the steps that need to be carried
    out in order to actualize the clients chosen

Identifying the Clients Stage in the Process
  • It is possible to start the PIC process from the
    middle according to the clients needs
  • However, it is recommended to start the process
    from the beginning, in order to
  • Strengthen confidence in the occupational
    alternatives considered by the client
  • Eliminate inadequate alternatives considered by
    the client
  • Offer additional alternatives that were not
    considered by the client so far
  • Teach decisions skills aspect-based instead of
    occupation-based approach

Concluding Remarks
  • The PIC model is flexible and dynamic it allows
    clients to move back and forth in the
    decision-making process
  • The PIC model constitutes a framework for a
    decision-making process that allows clients to
    play not only an active role but a leading one
  • Informal reports of career counselors suggest
    that they often, implicitly and intuitively, use
    a PIC-like, three-stage approach in relevant
    career counseling cases

  • Career decision-making requires collecting a vast
    amount of information
  • Complex information-processing is needed
  • But luckily, information and communication
    technologies are available
  • More and more career counselors incorporate the
    use of one or more Computer-Assisted Career
    Guidance Systems, or an Internet version of such
    systems, into the face-to-face career counseling
  • The use of an Internet-based career-guidance
    system for the clinical implementation of the PIC
    model will be demonstrated in the next part of
    the workshop