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Differentiating Instruction in the SMC: Curriculum Design Strategies: Jigsaw and RAFT


RAFT is a type of reading reflection strategy that is ... Examples of RAFT activities. Out of the Dust. Desert unit. Trail of Tears RAFT. Sweet Clara and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiating Instruction in the SMC: Curriculum Design Strategies: Jigsaw and RAFT

Differentiating Instruction in the
SMCCurriculum Design StrategiesJigsaw and RAFT
  • SLMS Presentation
  • May 4, 2007
  • Dr. Bea Baaden
  • Palmer School of Library and Information Science

Contact me at
  • bbaaden_at_yahoo.com
  • Or
  • bea.baaden_at_liu.edu

  • To learn techniques to design units using the
    jigsaw strategy (a cooperative learning
    structure) and RAFT (a strategy to enhance

  • Overview of Differentiated Instruction (DI)
  • RAFT strategy
  • Jigsaw strategy
  • Practical application
  • Questions???

Differentiated Instruction
  • A way of teaching that takes into account student
    skills and preferences choice and uses this
    information to harness their motivation to learn
    deliberate planned

  • We can differentiate in 3 ways
  • Through content what facts or concepts the
    student should know
  • Through process activities designed for students
    to make sense of the content
  • Through product how students will demonstrate
    their knowledge

  • According to a students readiness and interests
  • In DI the content, process and product are built
    around materials and experiences that lead
    students to engage with the subject and lead to
    an enhanced understanding of the subject

  • Role
  • Audience
  • Format
  • Topic

RAFT definition
  • RAFT is a type of reading reflection strategy
    that is used to enhance conceptual understanding
    of ideas and information
  • It is an information processing strategy

RAFT (Objectives)
  • Enhance understanding of informational text
  • Encourage creative thinking
  • Motivate students to reflect in unusual ways
    about concepts they have read
  • Help students structure writing from a specific
    perspective for specific purposes and audiences
  • Enable students to process information
  • Engage students by enabling them to explain what
    they know about a topic and elaborate on it in a
    unique way
  • Address different learning styles and

Process in creating a RAFT activity
  • Think about the concepts or ideas that you want
    students to learn as they read or research (RAFT
    can be used either as an extension of reading a
    particular novel or as an extension of a study of
    a particular topic in Social Studies or Science)

RAFT Process 2.
  • Brainstorm possible roles students could assume
    in their writing (reporter, eyewitness, object,

RAFT Process 3.
  • Decide who the audience would be as well as the
    format for writing
  • Allow students choice in the Role
  • Once a role is selected, the student must follow
    the Topic, Format and Audience for that Role

RAFT Procedure (Instructional Input)
  • 1 explain the procedure to the students (what
    RAFT stands for and the purpose of each of the
  • R Role of the writer who or what are you?
  • A Audience to whom will this writing be
  • F Format what kind of form will the writing
    take (a journal entry, a letter, etc.)
  • T Topic what you are being asked to write

RAFT Procedure (Modeling)
  • 2. Display a completed RAFT example as a model
    (use one of the examples contained in your packet
    or one you create)
  • 3. Think aloud another example with the aid of
    the class
  • 4. Assign students to small, heterogeneous
    groups or to pairs and have them put their heads
    together to write about a chosen topic with one
    RAFT assignment between them. Have pairs or
    groups share.

RAFT Procedure (Independent Practice)
  • Have students independently choose a Role and
    write on the topic assigned.

Examples of RAFT activities
  • Out of the Dust
  • Desert unit
  • Trail of Tears RAFT
  • Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt

  • A cooperative learning strategy to either teach a
    subject concept or to further students knowledge
    about a topic
  • Designed to promote interdependence among
    students just as in a jigsaw puzzle each piece
    (each students part) is essential for the
    completion and full understanding of the final

Steps in a jigsaw forming groups
  • Assign students to a home group of 4 5
    students this is a hetereogeneous group (1 2
    students from each ability group)
  • Form expert groups by assigning research topics
    (or roles) to each student in the home group
    each expert group will focus on a particular
    aspect of the topic within the broader subject)
  • Have students move to the expert groups

Jigsaw develop expertise
  • For each expert group, provide a study guide that
    directs attention to one aspect of the material
    to be covered. Direct the group to discover the
    answers to the questions or problems in its own
    part of the topic.
  • Provide the materials for the expert groups to
    read about and research their topics.
  • In the expert group, students prepare how they
    teach their topic to their home team (short
    presentation and/or visual)

Jigsaw sharing expertise
  • Students return to their home groups and take
    turns teaching their home groups the material
    they have learned in their expert groups
    students develop an understanding of the whole
    topic in this way
  • Home groups decide on a method to present their
    information to the whole class
  • Students present their learning to the whole class

An example Biomes Unit
  • Home Groups approximately 5 students in each of
    the following home groups
  • Deserts
  • Tropical Rain Forests
  • Grasslands
  • Tundra
  • Deciduous Forest

Expert groups
  • Assign each student in the home group one of the
    following roles
  • Geographer (locations)
  • Botanist (plants)
  • Zoologist (animals)
  • Meteorologist (weather climate)
  • Sociologist (indigenous people)

  • Students leave their home groups and travel to
    their expert groups (roles)
  • Stations are set up with resources for the
    experts to research their specific topics, eg.
    Climate of the deserts.
  • Guiding questions should be posted or given to
    students to guide their research.
  • Resources and answers can be shared.

Home group sharing
  • Students return to their home groups and take
    turns sharing the information theyve learned
    about their roles. For example, the desert home
  • Geographer expert will share information about
    where deserts are located, what geographic
    formations are typical, etc.
  • Botanist expert will share information about
    plants of the desert, their adaptations, etc.

Home group sharing
  • Zoologist expert will share information about
    animals of the desert, adaptations to the
    environment, symbiotic relationships, etc.
  • Meteorologist expert will share information about
    the typical weather and climate of the desert,
  • Sociologist expert will share information about
    indigenous people of the desert, such as their
    culture, etc.

Home group sharing
  • Each home group then decides upon a method of
    presentation for sharing information about their
    biome to the rest of the class.

Class sharing
  • Each student is responsible for presenting
    his/her aspect of the project.
  • Positive interdependence (all for one, one for
    all) group accountability
  • Individual accountability (group cannot succeed
    without every member contributing)
  • Face-to-face interaction (expert sharing, home
    group sharing)

Jigsaw examples
  • Africa project (6th grade)
  • Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands (4th
  • Diseases (11th grade)
  • 20th Century Unit (post WWII) (8th grade)

Independent Practice
  • RAFT Organizing Center
  • Roles
  • Topic
  • Format
  • Audience

Independent Practice
  • Jigsaw Organizing Center
  • Home groups
  • Expert groups

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