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Essentials of Marketing Research William G' Zikmund

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Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes. Advanced notification ... Ease of Callback or Follow-up. difficult unless e-mail address is known. Special Features ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Marketing Research William G' Zikmund


1
Essentials of Marketing Research William G.
Zikmund
  • Chapter7
  • Survey Research

2
Surveys
  • Surveys ask respondents for information using
    verbal or written questioning

3
Respondents
  • Respondents are a representative sample of people

4
Gathering Information via Surveys
  • Quick
  • Inexpensive
  • Efficient
  • Accurate
  • Flexible

5
Problems
  • Poor Design
  • Improper Execution

6
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Random sampling error
Total error
Systematic error (bias)
7
Random Sampling Error
  • A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of
    change variation in the elements selected for the
    sample

8
Systematic Error
  • Systematic error results from some imperfect
    aspect of the research design or from a mistake
    in the execution of the research

9
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error
Systematic error (bias)
Respondent error
10
Sample Bias
  • Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a
    persistent tendency to deviate in one direction
    from the true value of the population parameter

11
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Nonresponse error
Respondent error
Response bias
12
Respondent Error
  • A classification of sample bias resulting from
    some respondent action or inaction
  • Nonresponse bias
  • Response bias

13
Nonresponse Error
  • Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate
  • Not-at-homes
  • Self-selection bias
  • Over-represents extreme positions
  • Under-represents indifference

14
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Deliberate falsification
Response bias
Unconscious misrepresentation
15
Response Bias
  • A bias that occurs when respondents tend to
    answer questions with a certain slant that
    consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the
    truth

16
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Acquiescence bias
Extremity bias
Interviewer bias
Auspices bias
Social desirability bias
17
Acquiescence Bias
  • A category of response bias that results because
    some individuals tend to agree with all questions
    or to concur with a particular position.

18
Extremity Bias
  • A category of response bias that results because
    response styles vary from person to person some
    individuals tend to use extremes when responding
    to questions.

19
Interviewer Bias
  • A response bias that occurs because the presence
    of the interviewer influences answers.

20
Auspices Bias
  • Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the
    respondents being influenced by the organization
    conducting the study.

21
Social Desirability Bias
  • Bias in responses caused by respondents desire,
    either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige
    or appear in a different social role.

22
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Administrative error
Systematic error (bias)
Respondent error
23
Administrative Error
  • Improper administration of the research task
  • Blunders
  • Confusion
  • Neglect
  • Omission

24
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
Data processing error
Sample selection error
Interviewer error
Interviewer cheating
25
Administrative Error
  • Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or
    falsifying interviewers
  • Data processing error - incorrect data entry,
    computer programming, or other procedural errors
    during the analysis stage.
  • Sample selection error -improper sample design or
    sampling procedure execution.
  • Interviewer error - field mistakes

26

27
Time Period for Surveys
  • Cross-sectional
  • Longitudinal

28
Communicating with Respondents
  • Personal interviews
  • Door-to-door
  • Shopping mall intercepts
  • Telephone interviews
  • Self-administered questionnaires

29
Personal Interviews
30
  • Good Afternoon, my name is
  • _________. I am with _________
  • survey research company. We are conducting a
    survey on_________

31
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Speed of data collection
  • Moderate to fast
  • Geographical flexibility
  • Limited to moderate
  • Respondent cooperation
  • Excellent
  • Versatility of questioning
  • Quite versatile

32
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Questionnaire length
  • Long
  • Item nonresponse
  • Low
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  • Lowest

33
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answer
  • High
  • Supervision of interviewers
  • Moderate
  • Anonymity of respondent
  • Low

34
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
  • Difficult
  • Cost
  • Highest
  • Special features
  • Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated
    extended probing possible

35
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Speed of data collection
  • Fast
  • Geographical flexibility
  • Confined, urban bias
  • Respondent cooperation
  • Moderate to low
  • Versatility of questioning
  • Extremely versatile

36
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Speed of Data Collection
  • Fast
  • Geographical Flexibility
  • Confined, urban bias
  • Respondent Cooperation
  • Moderate to low
  • Versatility of Questioning
  • Extremely versatile

37
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Questionnaire length
  • Moderate to long
  • Item nonresponse
  • Medium
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  • Lowest

38
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answers
  • Highest
  • Supervision of interviewers
  • Moderate to high
  • Anonymity of respondent
  • Low

39
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
  • Difficult
  • Cost
  • Moderate to high
  • Special features
  • Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible

40
Telephone Surveys
41
Telephone Surveys
  • Speed of Data Collection
  • Very fast
  • Geographical Flexibility
  • High
  • Respondent Cooperation
  • Good
  • Versatility of Questioning
  • Moderate

42
Telephone Surveys
  • Questionnaire Length
  • Moderate
  • Item Nonresponse
  • Medium
  • Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding
  • Average
  • Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer
  • Moderate

43
Telephone Surveys
  • Supervision of interviewers
  • High, especially with central location WATS
    interviewing
  • Anonymity of respondent
  • Moderate
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
  • Easy

44
Telephone Surveys
  • Cost
  • Low to moderate
  • Special features
  • Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are
    simplified quite adaptable to computer technology

45
Telephone Surveys
  • Central location interviewing
  • Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
  • Computerized voice-activated interviews

46
Most Unlisted Markets
  • Sacramento, CA
  • Oakland, CA
  • Fresno, CA
  • Los Angles/Long Beach, CA

47
The Frame, November 2001 Published by Survey
Sampling, Inc.
48
Self-Administered Questionnaires
49
Mail Surveys
50
Mail Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
  • Researcher has no control over return of
    questionnaire slow
  • Geographical flexibility
  • High
  • Respondent cooperation
  • Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have
    low response rate

51
Mail Surveys
  • Versatility of questioning
  • Highly standardized format
  • Questionnaire length
  • Varies depending on incentive
  • Item nonresponse
  • High

52
Mail Surveys
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  • Highest--no interviewer present for clarification
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answer
  • None--interviewer absent
  • Supervision of interviewers
  • Not applicable

53
Mail Surveys
  • Anonymity of respondent
  • High
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
  • Easy, but takes time
  • Cost
  • Lowest

54
How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys
  • Write a sales oriented cover letter
  • Money helps
  • - As a token of appreciation
  • - For a charity
  • Stimulate respondents interest with
    interesting questions
  • Follow Up
  • - Keying questionnaires with codes
  • Advanced notification
  • Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious
    institution

55
Increasing Response Rates
  • Effective cover letter
  • Money helps
  • Interesting questions
  • Follow-ups
  • Advanced notification
  • Survey sponsorship
  • Keying questionnaires

56
E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
  • Instantaneous
  • Geographic flexibility
  • worldwide
  • Cheaper distribution and processing costs

57
E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
  • Flexible, but
  • Extensive differences in the capabilities of
    respondents computers and e-mail software limit
    the types of questions and the layout
  • E-mails are not secure and eavesdropping can
    possibly occur
  • Respondent cooperation
  • Varies depending if e-mail is seen as spam

58
Internet Surveys
  • A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web
    site.
  • Respondents provide answers to questions
    displayed online by highlighting a phrase,
    clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.

59
(No Transcript)
60
Internet Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
  • Instantaneous
  • Cost effective
  • Geographic flexibility
  • worldwide
  • Visual and interactive

61
Internet Surveys
  • Respondent cooperation
  • Varies depending on web site
  • Varies depending on type of sample
  • When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary
    survey cooperation is low.
  • Self-selection problems in web site visitation
    surveys - participants tend to be more deeply
    involved than the average person.

62
Internet Surveys
  • Versatility of questioning
  • Extremely versatile
  • Questionnaire length
  • Individualized base on respondent answers
  • Longer questionnaires with panel samples
  • Item nonresponse
  • Software can assure none

63
Internet Surveys
  • Representative samples
  • The quality of internet samples may vary
    substantially.
  • A sample of those who visit a web page and
    voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have
    self-selection error.

64
Internet Surveys
  • 1) not all individuals in the general public have
    internet access
  • 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with
    high-speed connections to the internet
  • 3) many respondents computer skills will be
    relatively unsophisticated.

65
Internet Surveys
  • Possibility for respondent misunderstanding
  • High
  • Interviewer influence of answers
  • None
  • Supervision of interviewers not required

66
Internet Surveys
  • Anonymity of Respondent
  • Respondent can be anonymous or known
  • Ease of Callback or Follow-up
  • difficult unless e-mail address is known
  • Special Features
  • allows graphics and streaming media

67
Welcome Screen
  • Welcome Screen like a cover letter
  • It contains the name of the research company and
    how to contact the organization if there is a
    problem or concern.
  • "If you have any concerns or questions about this
    survey, or if you experience any technical
    difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH
    ORGANIZATION).

68
Welcome Screen should ask for password and give
instructions
  • Please enter your personal password from your
    invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin
    the survey or simply click on the right arrow at
    the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after
    you have read the remaining instructions)
  • During the survey, please do not use your
    browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons.
  • Use the arrows on the lower right to move
    backward and forward through the survey.

69
There is no best form of survey each has
advantages and disadvantages.
70
Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate
Technique
  • Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?
  • Are respondents interested in the issues being
    investigated?
  • Will cooperation be easily attained?

71
Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate
Technique
  • How quickly is the information needed?
  • Will the study require a long and complex
    questionnaire?
  • How large is the budget?

72
Cross-Sectional Study
  • A study in which various segments of a population
    are sampled
  • Data are collected at a single moment in time.

73
Longitudinal Study
  • A survey of respondents at different times, thus
    allowing analysis of changes over time.
  • Tracking study - compare trends and identify
    changes
  • consumer satisfaction

74
Consumer Panel
  • A longitudinal survey of the same sample of
    individuals or households to record (in a diary)
    their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits
    over time.
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