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FEEDLOT

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contain all the cellular functions necessary to reproduce without the aid of an animal's cell ... NECROPSY!!! The decision to 'Pull and Treat' is often predetermined. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FEEDLOT


1
  • FEEDLOT
  • HEALTH

2
HEALTH PROGRAMS
  • Feedlots differ in their health needs
  • Consultation with veterinarian is important to
    develop your own health plan

3
VIRUS VS BACTERIA
  • Virus
  • - rely on animals own cells to produce more
    virus
  • Bacteria
  • - contain all the cellular functions necessary
    to reproduce without the aid of an animals cell

4
VACCINES
  • Administration of antigens to elicit an
    immunologic response.EXPOSURE
  • Disease transmission decreases as resistance to
    disease increases

5
ANTIBIOTICS
  • Produced by a microorganism
  • Capacity to inhibit growth or kill other
    microorganisms
  • Primary Use control contain those infections
    that are related to bacteria
  • Secondary Use little effect of viral infections
    but may be used to prevent secondary bacterial
    infections

6
VACCINES VS ANTIBIOTICS
  • Cant use antibiotics to treat
  • Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)
  • B. respiratory syncitial virus (BRSV)
  • B. parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3)
  • You need to vaccinate! Prevention

7
IMMUNOLOGY PRINCIPLES
  • Mounting an immune response is complicated
    TAKES TIME
  • Immune response takes 3 to 10 days to kick in.
    Longer with naive calves.
  • Peaks in 2 to 4 weeks.
  • Timing, Timing, Timing
  • BRD incubation time 7 to 10 days

8
IMMUNOLOGY PRINCIPLES
  • For VACCINATION IMMUNIZATION, requires an
    IMMUNE RESPONSE
  • IMMUNE REPONSE
  • cognition
  • activation
  • effect

9
IMMUNOLOGY PRINCIPLES
  • PRE-EXPOSURE IMMUNIZATION
  • Giving the vaccine before stress, disease
    challenge, immunosuppression instead of after
    during
  • Reduces sickness death loss
  • Improves feeding performance ADG, FG, COG
  • Reduces risk

10
IMMUNOLOGY PRINCIPLES
  • PRE-EXPOSURE IMMUNIZATION
  • REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS
  • 1. Will rarely make disease rate zero
  • 2. If disease rate is low, hard to see effect

11
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12
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13
Vaccines - Why they fail
  • Poor Timing - too little, too late
  • Current disease or incubating disease
  • Presence of maternal immunity in young animals
    inactivate the vaccine
  • Improper handling/storage
  • heat
  • ultraviolet exposure

14
Vaccines - Why they fail
  • Route of administration
  • Subcutaneous - SQ
  • Intramuscular - IM
  • Intranasal - IN
  • Dosage
  • diluting or reduced dosage
  • Heavily parasitized or malnourished animals are
    immunosuppressed

15
OVERVIEW OF BRD
  • 31 of all cattle deaths due to BRD
  • 624 million annually in the USA
  • In feedlots, BRD accounts for 44-72 of mortality
  • Calves that remain healthy gain 0.14 lbs/day more
    for the entire feeding period than cattle that
    develop BRD

16
Midwest Feedlot Services, Inc.Morbidity and
Mortality Rates - 2002
  • Dx Code Morbidity Mortality
  • Respiratory 82 65
  • Digestive 5 16
  • Skeletal 8 3
  • Reproductive 1 7
  • Miscellaneous 4 9

Total pulls - 51,860 (20 of recvd.) 18 Feedlots
received 261,414 hd.
17
STRESS PATHOGENS DISEASE
STRESS PATHOGENS DISEASE
18
WHAT DOES A PULL LOOK LIKE?
19
REASONS TO PULL
  • Depression
  • Anorexia Gaunt
  • Weakness
  • Nasal discharge
  • Cough
  • Increased or difficult respiration
  • ADR Aint Doin Right

20
DEPRESSION
  • Low head set
  • Ears drooping
  • Continue lying down when penmates rise
  • Standing alone, avoiding pen activity

21
ANOREXIA
  • Gaunt appearance (empty flank)
  • No bowel movement after standing up.
  • Sick cattle dont eat, and cattle that dont eat
    get sick

22
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23
WEAKNESS
  • Knuckling
  • Floppy walking
  • Standing or walking Cross-legged
  • Downers
  • Weakness is likely due to a negative energy
    balance

24
Weakness - Knuckling
25
COUGH
  • Coughing is a normal function and may be present
    without pathology.
  • Usually indicates tracheal irritation
  • - Poor air quality
  • - Dust
  • - Diesel fumes
  • Soft moist cough is common with BRD.

26
ADDITIONAL CLINICAL SIGNS TO HELP SUPPORT THE
DECISION TO PULL
  • Elevated Respiratory Rate
  • Difficult breathing
  • Ocular discharge
  • Stiff movement
  • Loose feces

27
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28
ELEVATED RECTAL TEMP
  • Normal 101.5 - 102.5 F.
  • Infectious diseases and the resultant
    inflammation increase core body temperature.
  • BRD cases usually present with temperatures of gt
    103.0 F.
  • Some treatment regimens do not allow the use of
    antibiotics if the rectal temperature is lt104.0
    F.

29
ELEVATED RECTAL TEMP
  • Factors to consider when evaluating
  • rectal temperature
  • Ambient temperature and wind chill.
  • Time of day - a.m. vs. p.m.
  • Amount of time following feed intake
    (fermentation and metabolic heat of digestion)

30
ELEVATED RECTAL TEMP
  • Variation in rectal temperature.
  • - An early or late pull may have
  • a normal temperature.
  • Q Which side of the curve are you on?
  • Other factors include
  • - diet
  • - temperament
  • - handling

31
Pull?or dont pull? WHY?
32
The most common reason to pull is DEPRESSION
33
Tools of Clinical Assessment
  • Clinical observation
  • Rectal temperature
  • Change in body weight
  • Diagnostic procedures
  • Bacterial
  • Viral Isolation
  • NECROPSY!!!

34
The decision to Pull and Treat is often
predetermined.
  • Re-assess cattle in the hospital
  • - Temperature-based approach gt 104 F.
  • - Clinical assessment approach -
  • pull because it looked sick, return
  • when looks healthy.

35
OBJECTIVES OF TREATMENT
  • Reduce death loss and chronic cases
  • Improve performance and animal welfare
  • Be cost effective
  • Reduce cross contamination
  • Decrease inflammation?

36
Cattle That Dont Respond
  • Late recognition and treatment.
  • Advanced/Non treatable condition
  • Extensive lung damage, abscesses
  • Compromised immune system
  • Infectious (BVD)
  • Nutritional deficit (macro and micro)
  • Non bacterial disease
  • Viral agent

37
Cattle That Dont Respond
  • Complicating factors
  • Stress
  • dust
  • Inaccurate evaluation criteria
  • Body temp
  • Evaluation too early
  • Environmentally challenged
  • Wrong or incomplete diagnosis

38
Cattle That Dont Respond
  • Improper treatment
  • Wrong drug
  • Wrong dose
  • Wrong route
  • Antibiotic not administered long enough
  • Antibiotic resistance

39
Cattle That Dont Respond
  • Pen riders not properly trained to fulfill their
    task.
  • Septicemic conditions (peracute severe bacterial
    infections) metritis.
  • Repeated antimicrobial therapy - kidney damage,
    extended withdrawal times, antimicrobial
    resistance.

40
Salvageable???
41
Feedlot Lameness
  • Diseases of the feet 70
  • Upper skeleton or major muscles 15
  • Septic joints 12
  • Injection site lesions 3

42
Feedlot Lameness
  • Causes
  • Toe Abscesses
  • Footrot
  • Swollen joints
  • Broken bones
  • Muscle damage
  • Injection site damage

43
Feedlot Lameness
  • Toe Abscesses
  • - sole penetration ? infection under hoof wall
  • young cattle from lush pasture
  • high annual rain fall
  • SOFT HOOF
  • easily worn down into sensitive tissues
    especially toe area

44
Toe Abscesses

45
Toe Abscesses
  • Symptoms
  • soreness short-strided
  • early stages no swelling
  • animals can recover at this stage
  • progress lameness
  • - hold foot up
  • - slight swelling at top of the hoof
  • Treatment
  • - trim the toe relieve pressure
  • - antibiotics

46
Footrot
Most apparent after 2-3 weeks after soft tissue
has been penetrated Damaged caused
from dried pasture stubble frozen mud
spikes loose fence/foreign objects Diagnose
pick up foot examine soft tissue between
toes swelling in tissue (leg
swelling) smells nasty

47
Footrot

Treatment - long acting sulfa boluses - long
acting tetracycline Prevention - difficult to
prevent - dont see many cases
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