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Understand that scholarly writing is argumentation


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Title: Understand that scholarly writing is argumentation

Big Ideas Chapter 5
As a result of your readings and our class
discussion this week you should have a basic
understanding of and be able to explain the
  • Understand that scholarly writing is
  • Understand several rules for successful
    scholarly writing
  • Understand how articles are structured (6 parts)
  • Understand key organizational patterns for lit
  • Distinguish and explain the 3 common
    justifications for research articles

Research Question Hypotheses
Narrow focus Identify topic
Define Key Concepts
Review of Literature
Measurement Techniques

Which Method?
Report / Write
Big Picture The Forest some of its trees. . .
  • Topic selection
  • Research questions and hypotheses
  • Conceptual and operational definitions
  • Literature review organization/structure
  • Making an argument with literature/research
  • Justification (p. 152, Reinard)

  • Its and Its
  • There and Their
  • Your and youre
  • Run-on sentences
  • If it waswere
  • Not using transitions or connectors
  • active voice

The difference between the right word and the
almost right word is the difference between
lightning and the lightning bug. - Mark Twain
Avoid overstatements Avoid unsupportable
generalizations Avoid slang/cliches/colloquialisms
Keep the language direct, simple
  • more than just legal writing--an argument!
  • Inductive and Deductive
  • based on the work of other scholars/researchers
  • using precise words (jargon, word choice)
  • advice for effective writing (common errors?)
  • revising and editing written work (beautiful?)
  • Example in book? (scholarly v. creative)
  • Why does effective writing in Com courses matter?
  • How about these? more errors

The Research Code
  • Researchers make claims in form of contingent

Defined Claims that can be shown to be either
true or false
Example TV news broadcasts feature more stories
about the civil rights movement than about the
women's movement
Example Sources with high credibility produce
more attitude change than sources with low
Example This month is October
CLAIM states what you want readers to believe.
e.g., It must have rained last night.
e.g., You should be checked for diabetes.
EVIDENCE (or GROUNDS) the reasons they should
believe it.
e.g., because the streets are wet.
e.g., because your glucometer reading is 200.
CLAIM Sense of community will be higher for
female students than male undergraduate students
EVIDENCE Extensive psychological literature on
gender differences in attitudes, values and
beliefs, particularly in social/interpersonal
styles and motives (Maccoby Jacklin, 1974
Deaux, 1984 Eisenberg Lennon, 1983)
WARRANT a general principle, assumption or
premise that bridges the claim and its
evidence whether your claim can be inferred
from your evidence.
e.g., Whenever we see the evidence of wet streets
in the morning, we can conclude that it probably
rained last night.
e.g., You should be checked by your doctor
(claim) because your reading is 200 (evidence).
Why? the warrant Whenever someone has a
reading of more than 120, thats a good sign a
person may have diabetes.
QUALIFICATIONS limit the certainty of your
conclusions, stipulate the conditions in which
your claim holds, address your readers
potential objections (and make you appear a
judicious, cautious, thoughtful writer).
e.g., Your reading is 200 (evidence) so you
should be checked (claim) because that much
glucose in the blood is a good sign that you
may (qualification) have diabetes (warrant)
unless of course, you just ate something sugary
From The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Booth,
Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams.
University of Chicago PressChicago, IL. (1995).
Research Article Format
Context of the problem AND
Statement of Problem OR
Statement of the Problem/Hypotheses
Review of Literature
What is known?
How does my Q. Relate?
May include statement of problem/hypotheses
Why select my method?
Draw conclusions
Interpret results
Significance Limits
Future Research
Organizing Your Research
Immunity from.....
(No Transcript)
Research into the reasons why
individuals use mass media dates back more than
50 years. Early forms of gratifications research
attempted to understand why people used certain
media content. In the process, it explored the
functions of the media and the role of the
audiences' needs and expectations (e.g., Herzog,
1940 Lazarsfeld Stanton, 1941 Lazarsfeld
Stanton, 1949). These early studies preceded any
formal conceptualization of the uses and
gratifications paradigm later proposed by Katz,
Blumler and Gurevitch (1974) and Rosengren
(1974). Instead of asking what effects the media
have on individuals and collective audience
behavior, the questions were, what are people
seeking and what do they believe they are
deriving from mass media? According to Katz
(1959), "it is the program that asks the
question, not 'What do the media do to people?,'
but 'What do people do with the media?'" (p. 2).
It is clear that building a learning
community is necessary for successful
faculty-student interactions and a sense of
social presence in online courses (Gunawardena,
1994 Wiesenberg Hutton, 1995 Campbell, 1997
Gunawardena, 1997 McLellan, 1999 Kazmer, 2000).
Everhart (1999, p. 12) declares that overcoming a
feeling of remoteness may be the greatest
obstacle to distance learning and diminishing
student attrition. In response, Kim (1998
2000) suggests social scaffolding as a way to
build community and overcome feelings of
isolation and distance in online learning.
According to Palloff and Pratt (1999), one way to
scaffold is by using personal discussion
folders that introduce students to one another.
Additionally, Smith (2001) and Franklin (2002)
demonstrated how instructors use of audio emails
could build closeness and intimacy among learners
in online courses.
  • It is clear that building a learning community is
    necessary for successful faculty-student
    interactions and a sense of social presence in
    online courses (Gunawardena, 1994 Wiesenberg
    Hutton, 1995 Campbell, 1997 Gunawardena, 1997
    McLellan, 1999 Kazmer, 2000).
  • Clow (1999), Phillips and Peters (1999), Roblyer
    (1999) and Hacker and Wignall (1997) all
    concluded that sufficient interaction with
    instructors and other students was important
    based on their studies of the student perceptions
    of particular online college learning experiences

The contingency theory of leadership
indicates that the context in which a leader
operates is a significant factor that influences
what is considered effective leadership (See
Vroom Yetton, 1973 Fielder Brilhart Hicks,
1990 Stogdill, 1974 Bass, 1981). The
educational setting is a popular context
investigated by researchers (Smith, 1978, Jones,
1983). Generally, however, early research into
the educational context identified specific
traits that were necessary for effective
leadership typical of traditional men (Smelnof,
1969 Holmes, 1971). It was not until the 1970s,
after the passage of equal opportunity
legislation, that women leaders were seen as
their own unique subset of the leadership
literature, i.e., gender differences began to be
recognized (Moore, 1999). Several recent doctoral
dissertations have been written about the career
development and leadership styles of women in
senior academic positions. Meister (1991). . .
Davis (1996)... Sperling (1994) studied the. . .
Roberts (1993) ...
Researchers seem to disagree about the
nature and quality of online communities. While
many scholars argue that they promote greater
self and collective growth and that harmony and
inclusiveness are fostered (Cutler, 1996
Featherstone Burrows, 1995 Jones, 1995),
others argue that they are illusory (Robins,
1995 Meyrowitz, 1985 van Dijk, 1997 Ebersole
Woods, 2001) and fragmenting (Shields, 1996).
Some argue that to succeed, distributed learning
must balance virtual and direct interaction in
sustaining communion among people (Dede, 1996,
p. 19 Baker, 2000).
The literature in media effects clearly
demonstrates that violence viewed in television
(Smith, 1999) and film (Jones, 2001) negatively
affects children's behavior (Abel, 1982).
Spindler and Rovai (1989) describe how parents
can dramatically reduce the negative behavioral
effects associated with TV violence through
debriefing (p. 42). Similarly, Philbin (1990)
and Greenleaf (1991) found that parents who view
controversial television shows or other violent
episodes with their children report far fewer
negative behaviors from their children than those
parents who do not view such shows with their
children. Thus, parental involvement is a
consistent factor in reducing the negative
effects of violent television in a number of
Why motivations do people have for
listening to radio? What uses do they have of
radio? First, people use radio for utilitarian
information and news (Mendelsohn, 1964, p. 246
Cantril Allport, 1935, Troldahl Skolnik,
1967). They also use radio as a form of
entertainment (MacFarland, 1990, p. 36
Mendelsohn, 1966, p. 247). Companionship
(Ruffner, 1972, p. 242 Mendelsohn, 1966, p. 2)
is another reason reported in the research.
Fourth, radio is used as a form of escape as a
way to release tension and pressure (Weintraub,
1971, p. 39).
Mendelsohn, in the tradition of Cantril
and Allport (1935), also identified four basic
psychological functions of radio for individuals
of various ages (a) utilitarian information and
news function (b) active mood accompaniment (c)
release from psychological tension and pressure
and (d) friendly companionship (1964, pp.
246-247). Troldahl and Skolnik (1967), identified
the same uses as Mendelsohn, but also found that
people used radio as a form of work
accompaniment or background filler (pp. 57-67).
Weintraub (1971) confirmed Troldahl and Skolnik's
factors and added two new ones, "time-filling"
and "relevancy" (pp. 150-151).
Lazarsfeld (1946) conducted some of the
earliest systematic research of popular music and
its audiences on the radio. In The People Look
at Radio, he found that 72 of the respondents
under age 30 liked to listen to popular music
compared to just 22 of those over 50 years of
age. Lazarsfeld also reported that there was a
"slight tendency for rural people to like popular
music less, but education seems to make little
difference" (p. 47). In a follow-up study,
Lazarsfeld and Kendall (1948) reported that
listeners between the ages of 21-49, regardless
of educational level, preferred listening to
popular and dance music more than any other age
group (p. 136). Men preferred listening to
"Hillbilly and Western" music more often than
women (p. 137). Riesman (1950) argued that
popular music served such functions as social
adjustment, social protest and "socialization" of
the young. Hayakawa (1957) noted that jazz and
"Negro blues" provided listeners with a "symbolic
means" for coping with or otherwise handling the
problems of life.
  • More recent studies on the popular music audience
    have focused on younger audiences since pop music
    is typically considered to be "a reflection of
    the psyche of contemporary youth" (Goldberg,
    1971, p. 588)what this author refers to as the
    "MTV generation" or more recently "Generation X."
    Melton and Galician (1987) discovered several
    gratifications associated with pop music radio
    and video for college students passing time,
    relaxation, shifting moods and forgetting
    problems. These researchers reported that pop
    music media greatly influenced social

Comparison Contrast Order
Mendelsohn (1964) identified the
following uses associated with radio
companionship, bracketing the day, changing mood,
counteracting loneliness or boredom, providing
useful news and information, allowing vicarious
participation in events and aiding social
interaction (pp. 242-246). Note that these uses
correspond, in great part, to the motivation
categories of television use later identified by
Rubin (1981, 1983) for example, counteracting
loneliness or boredom (companionship, escape),
bracketing the day (pass time), news and
information (information) and social interaction.
They also parallel uses of radio identified by
Troldahl and Skolnik (1967).
When discussing how to identify bias in
print journalism, researchers have examined
several factors. First, length of story. Longer
stories may indicate a positive bias (Smith,
1987 Abel, 1988). Second, others have focused on
number of stories about a given topic as an
indication of bias. More stories over a given
period of time may reveal a publications
favoritism (Abelbam, 1981,LaSalle, 1987). Third,
placement of story on the lead page, versus
toward the middle or back of the paper, may
further reveal a papers predisposition to favor
a particular side of an issue (Markham, 1978
Dean, 1992 Braze, 1993). Finally, other scholars
have focused on the language used in the story,
that is, the use of positive or negative
adjectives to describe the same issue (Jones,
1988 Lucas, 1990 Brereton, 1990). For example,
Known to unknown/Deductive/Topical
Research on religious radio broadcasting
is plentiful (Dick, 1964 Barna, 1992). However,
those studies that do exist tend to focus on
audience demographics or history of the medium to
the exclusion of other forms of scholarly inquiry
(Seward Dodds, 1992). Consequently, research
on the uses and gratifications of religious radio
in general and CCM radio specifically is sparse.
Only one study dealing with the uses and
gratifications of CCM radio could be identified
(Creasman, 1994). Therefore, in order to
generate a theoretical framework for this study,
research from uses and gratifications theory in
general will be considered as well as research
from this paradigm dealing with secular radio.
Literature on religious broadcast media use in
general and religious radio specifically will
also be examined. And given CCM's categorization
as a form of popular ("contemporary") music, it
will be valuable to consider studies dealing with
the uses and gratifications of popular music.
Known to Unknown
  • From early on, media effects
    researchers have focused the attention of the
    nation on the media's dysfunctional effects
    (Schramm, Lyle Parker, 1961 Parker, 1972).
    Children have been recognized as a special
    audience, one that deserves special consideration
    (Dorr, 1986 Wartella, 1995). Much of the
    research has examined the negative effects of
    media violence on childrens behavior (Wartella,
    1982 Conger, 1989 Basil, 1992).
  • Instead of exploring the possible
    negative effects of the media, other researchers
    have heralded the positive effects promised by
    the use of educational media in the classroom
    (e.g., Kozma, 1994 Salomon, 1978). Access to
    books, instructional motion pictures, radio, and
    more recently television and interactive
    multimedia has been envisioned as the panacea for
    all that ails our educational system (Barnes,
    1972, 1982, 1992 Jones, 1997). The use of the
    World Wide Web in the classroom is only the
    latest in a long history of mass media
    technologies that have been embraced by the
    educational establishment.

Known to Unknown
Although much has been written regarding
the use of audio as the primary means of distance
education delivery, either by means of audio
tapes or synchronous, online audio or
teleconferencing (Gunawardena, 1992), no research
has concentrated on the use of audio as a
supplement to primarily asynchronous, textual
forms of online communication, an increasingly
popular form of delivery in higher education
(Davie Wells, 1991). More importantly, perhaps,
research dealing with the effects of online audio
supplements on student/faculty relationships,
student participation in online group discussion,
student perceptions of online community, and
overall student satisfaction with online distance
courses or programs, has been missing (Phillips,
Known to Unknown
Much of the research related to using audio in
classroom delivery has focused on face-to-face
settings (Keating Hargitai, 1999). Much of the
research has focused on specific audio tools that
might be used by teachers, such as compact disc
players (Micky, 2000). Others have asked whether
audio-taped versus live lectures in the
face-to-face setting enhanced cognitive learning
in relation to student learning style (Barna,
1992 Smithfield, 1998). Some research has
focused on the best software for creating or
producing audio messages for the world wide web
in general (Boettcher, 1998 Jones, 1992).
However, little research has focused on how audio
production tools can be specifically incorporated
within online instructional design and delivery,
or what effect such tools might have on online
learners. Kerka (2000) argues that for distance
learning to be effective, facilitators must use a
mix of modesfor example, combine e-mail
discussion with audio/video methods to enhance
the social aspect. Research has not been
conducted to confirm these presuppositions.
  • The End --

Un-rules for Good Writing
  • 1. Dont use no double negatives.
  • 2. Make each pronoun agree with their antecedent.
  • 3. Join clauses good like a conjunction should.
  • 4. About them sentence fragments.
  • 5. When dangling, watch your participles.
  • 6. Verbs has to agree with their subject.
  • 7. Just between you and I, case is important too.

Un-rules for Good Writing
  • 8. Dont write run-on sentences they are hard to
  • 9. Dont use commas, that arent necessary.
  • 10. Try to not ever split infinitives.
  • 11. Its important to use your apostrophes
  • 12. Proofread your writing to see you left any
    words out.
  • 13. Correct spelling is essentail.
  • 14. A preposition is a poor word to end a
    sentence with.

Assessing Usage Awareness
  • For Paul, Linda, and myself, thank you for
  • Magnavox gives you more.
  • Most importantly, he dedicated himself to his
  • Hopefully, class will end on time.
  • Take the book off of the copy machine.
  • While she is a good student, she often
  • The staff meets to continuously plan our

Assessing Usage Awareness
  • I cannot tell the differences between
    organizational, interpersonal, and small group
  • Besides his bad grammar, he communicated very
  • Next time I will leave more time for studying.

  • Beginning an online class with Spring Arbor
    University brought one more incredibly difficult
    item to my plate.
  • This statement always rang true in my life.
  • This lifestyle was an amazing recipe for
    burnout in Corporate America.
  • I know many people who really, really beat
    themselves up avoid over falling short of
    their list of duties.

Chapter 5 Writing Research
Mmm. . . I wonder
Your RQ or H
Literature Review
Defined your terms
How do I organize my literature review in a way
that justifies my RQ or H?
Organizational Patterns
1. Known to Unknown 2. Deductive 3.
Problem-Solution 4. Chronological 5. Inductive 6.
1. Filling a gap 2. Extending 3. Practical Needs
1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Method
section 4. Results 5. Discussion 6. References
How do I then, after I organize my literature and
justify my RQ or H, do I present my findings to
the public?
Basic Steps
1. Clarity? 2. Verifiability? 3. Recent? 4.
Statistical validity? 5. Reliability? 6. Overall
quality? Ward and Hansen (1987)
1. Introduce the lit review
2. Examine what was written--FILTER!
3. Research all relevant variables
4. Evaluate Previous Research
5. Organize your Research
Types (p. 136, Reinard) 1. Known to Unknown 2.
Deductive/Inductive 3. Chronological 4.
Topical 5. Problem-Solution 6. Comparison and
6. Summarize what has been done, what has not,
what should be
7. Pose formal research question/hypothesis
8. List sources (References)
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