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Lindsey Buckley

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Crop plants created for human or animal consumption. Created using molecular ... Toxicology Letters, Feb2002, Vol. 127 Issue 1-3, p337, 4p; (AN 7817380) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lindsey Buckley


1
Group 7 Lindsey Buckley Kyle Kienitz Eric Ron
2
INTRODUCTION
  • What GM foods are
  • Advantages and Criticisms
  • How it's done
  • Common Crops
  • Conclusion

3
What are GM foods?
  • Crop plants created for human or animal
    consumption
  • Created using molecular biology techniques
  • Created with exact desired trait rapidly and
    accurately

4
Advantages of GM Foods
  • Pest Resistant
  • Eliminate chemical pesticides
  • Reduce costs
  • Herbicide Tolerance
  • GM soybeans resistant to Roundup
  • Disease Resistant
  • Resist fungi and bacteria viruses

5
Advantages of GM Foods
  • Cold Tolerance
  • Antifreeze gene found in cold water fish
  • Drought Tolerance
  • Withstand periods of drought or high salt
  • Nutrition
  • Benefit for third world countries

6
Advantages of GM Foods
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Plants injected with edible vaccines
  • Phytoremediation
  • Genetically modified soil and groundwater

7
Criticisms of GM foods
  • Environmental activists, religious groups,
    public interest groups
  • Ethical Issue
  • playing God or unnatural
  • Wrong to mix genes from different organisms
  • Luxury for the rich, not the poor

8
Criticisms of GM foods
  • Environmental hazards
  • Unintended harm to other organisms
  • Reduced effectiveness of pesticides
  • Gene transfer to non-target species
  • Human health risks
  • Create new allergies
  • Unknown effects

9
Golden Rice
  • An example of how microbiology and biotechnology
    is being used in the food industry

10
Golden Rice
  • A humanitarian effort (began in 1992)
  • Vitamin A deficiency

11
Golden Rice
  • Beta Carotene in the rice plant
  • Scientists had to find a way to get the B
    Carotene into the endosperm

12
Golden Rice
  • Rebuilding the biosynthetic pathway
  • External genes that ultimately synthesize alpha
    and beta carotene
  • Psy (phytoene synthase)
  • Crt1 from a soil bacterium

13
Golden Rice
  • Incorporate the psy and crt1 genes into the
    plant cell using transformation
  • These genes produce the needed enzyme to
    complete the synthesis of alpha and beta
    carotene.

14
Golden Rice
  • The Golden Rice project is based off of free
    licenses by the companies who own the
    intellectual property rights to research
  • Opposition still exists arguing that solutions
    like this look at the small issues and not larger
    social and political problems

15
Food and Health
  • Functional foods- foods that provide health
    benefits beyond basic nutrition
  • Bioactive components of functional foods may be
    increased or added to traditional foods through
    genetic engineering techniques.

16
Functional Foods
  • improved fatty acid
  • improved protein content
  • Increased vitamin and mineral levels
  • reduction in anti-nutritional substances

17
Fatty Acids
  • hormone-like substances that regulate
  • blood pressure
  • blood clotting
  • blood lipid levels
  • the immune response

18
Biotech Application
  • Canola Oil
  • Calgene
  • -first demonstration of the incorporation of a
    biologically potent source of long-chain omega-3
    fatty acids, into edible plants

19
Food Allergies
  • abnormal response to a food triggered by the
    immune system.
  • anaphylaxis

20
Biotech solutionsSoybeans
  • P34
  • USDA and the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
  • -Gene silencing
  • Careful plant breeding with the genetically
    modified soybeans may be able to produce the
    hypoallergenic soybeans.

21
Biotech SolutionsPeanut
  • Ar h1, Ar h2, and Ar h3
  • Recombinant versions of the protein Ar h2 were
    heat treated and used in a vaccine on mice

22
Negative Biotech
  • the transfer of a known allergen may occur from a
    crop into a non-allergenic target crop
  • the creation of a new allergen where de novo
    sensitization occurs in the population

23
Work Cited
  • Clinical risk assessment of GM foods.PreviewBy
    Lack, Gideon. Toxicology Letters, Feb2002, Vol.
    127 Issue 1-3, p337, 4p (AN 7817380)
  • Food Allergies When Food Becomes the EnemyFDA
    Consumer magazine_July-August 2001 Issue Ray
    Formanek Jr.
  • Application of Biotechnology for Functional
    Foods. 2007 Pew Initiative on Food and
    Biotechnology.
  • Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops
    2004 Clive James
  • The Science Behind Golden Rice. 2007. Golden Rice
    Humanitarian Board. 27 March 2009
    lthttp//www.goldenrice.org/Content2-How/how1_sci.h
    tmlgt
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