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ESSENCE on Health Research

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Title: ESSENCE on Health Research


1
ESSENCE on Health Research
  • Enhancing Support for Strengthening
  • the Effectiveness of National Capacity Efforts

2
Conclusions (1)
  • ESSENCE is an initiative of research funders
    committed to finding efficient methods of
    strengthening research capacity for health in low
    income countries in Africa in a concerted way in
    the spirit of the Paris Agenda
  • Research in and by low income countries requires
    the presence of robust in-country research
    capacity
  • Sustainable research capacity strengthening for
    health is more than research project support
    involving individual training it requires
    support to the basis for performing research as
    defined by funded institutions

3
Conclusions (2)
  • For alignment of efforts of funders to happen,
    there need to be strategies and implementation
    plans defined by institutions performing research
    for health
  • Harmonisation does not necessarily mean funders
    funding exactly the same thing, but agreeing to
    simplify where possible, for instance agreeing
    to joint reporting systems
  • Coherence in research capacity funding suggests
    working in concert to reduce fragmentation and
    above all to do no harm

4
ESSENCE for health research
  • Is a collaborative framework between funding
    agencies (development agencies, philanthropists,
    charities and multilateral initiatives) providing
    synergism to address research capacity needs.
  • It aims to improve the impact of investment in
    institutions and enabling mechanisms that address
    the identified needs and priorities within
    national strategies on research for health.

5
ESSENCE
  • Focus
  • Funders of research for health
  • Research (and innovation) capacity strengthening
  • Low income countries in Africa

6
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
December 10th 1948, General Assembly of the
United Nations
  • Article 27
  • 1) Everyone has the right freely to participate
    in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy
    the arts and to share in scientific advancement
    and its benefits.
  • 2) Everyone has the right to the protection of
    the moral and material interests resulting from
    any scientific, literary or artistic production
    of which he is the author.

7
But does this translate to every low income
country having the right to have capacity to
produce and utilise scientific information
  • Or is it enough for others to produce and give to
    them to use?

8
Not all countries should have national airlines,
some must use the expertise of those with
resources. So why should all low-income countries
have institutions of health research?
  • A provocative statement made by one of the
    Northern proponents of research for health
  • Perhaps not all need an airline, but low-income
    countries definitely need a cadre of people who
    can ask their own questions and have the tools to
    address getting the answers
  • Otherwise, who will ask the pertinent questions
    deemed relevant and of importance to the low
    income countries?
  • Unreasonable to think it will be those with other
    agendas, however well meaning

9
The tensions of research for health approaches in
low-income African countries
  • Different approaches justified by
  • By and for
  • Defining the important problem of the countries
    and providing the know-how to be copied by the
    low-income countries through technology
    transfer
  • If there is not the adequate capacity, who or
    what system can receive the transferred
    technology and sustain it?
  • Doing for
  • Basing the argument on urgent need to address the
    burning issues of today
  • Sustainability in question
  • In and by
  • It is only by having the research know-how in the
    countries where the problems exist, to do and
    utilise research done that sustainable research
    capacity can be achieved
  • This is a long term endeavour

10
Research capacity is more than human resources
  • What then are the other elements?

11
National Research capacity entails
National commitment to research
National research policy strategy
Budget line for National research
Skills for carrying out research
Asking nationally relevant questions
Capacity to generate own knowledge
National research capacity
Research University as a hub
National research and ethics Capacity
Capacity for analysis
Capacity for evaluation
Capacity to utilise external research/knowledge
Innovation systems
Culture of inquiry
Agents of Change Using evidence to question
Capacity to be part of international research
community
12
University Research capacity entails
Well trained Researchers
University policies and strategies
Mechanisms to encourage reward research
Dedicated university budget for research
Research University
Mechanisms of research communication
An Enabling Environment for research
Capacity for local PhD examination
University mechanisms for innovation
Culture of inquiry
Improved teaching- less didactic
Skills for research management
Research Leadership skills
Access to scientific literature
Access to Information Communication Technology
13
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14
Africa is huge and capacity to do research diverse
15
Diversity in capacity for research for health in
low income countries
  • Continued research capacity strengthening is an
    ongoing endeavour in all countries
  • Research capacity issues are under control in
    some countries but in others the challenges
    remain acute
  • It is important to distinguish the needs of
    countries (even those on the same continent) who
    have attained their targets for research capacity
    with those who are struggling to attain such
    targets
  • Emphasis of ESSENCE is on low income countries
    in Africa with weak research capacity for
    research for health

16
Reiterating the Paris Agenda
  • In the context of research capacity strengthening

17
Paris Agenda
  • For research it is relevant to note
  • The Paris Declaration highlights the need for
    research in relation to development for providing
    the knowledge foundation and the expertise that
    make it possible for partner countries to
    analyse, formulate, negotiate, implement and
    evaluate their own development agenda.
  • Today these functions are often performed by
    external consultants and technical assistance,
    provided by the donors

18
Paris Agenda
  • To change the situation the Paris Declaration
    states that partner countries should undertake
    to
  • Integrate specific capacity strengthening
    objectives in national development strategies and
    pursue their implementation through country-led
    capacity development strategies where needed.

19
Paris Agenda - Alignment
  • Donors base their overall support on partner
    countries national development strategies,
    institutions and procedures
  • Currently support to research (for health) is
    mainly focused on
  • research on issues of relevance to low-income
    countries (theme-based research), organised as
    projects, with a short- to medium-term
    perspective and closely connected to the agenda
    of the funding organisation
  • Less funding goes to
  • The long-term commitment aimed at all levels of
    production and utilisation of research in a
    national or regional setting

20
Paris Agenda - Ownership
  • Partner countries exercise effective leadership
    over their development policies and strategies
    and coordinate development actions

21
Paris Agenda - Alignment
  • Development of partner countries capacity to
    negotiate collaborative research activities and
    to apply for research grants in line with their
    strategic orientation should be advocated
  • Donors involved in research cooperation with a
    country or regional/ international organisation
    ought to respect the rules and regulations for
    research, including research permits, research
    ethics, staff remuneration and institutional
    contracts

22
Paris Agenda - Harmonisation
  • Donors actions are more harmonised, transparent
    and collectively effective
  • This requires support for
  • establishment of efficient mechanisms for
    management of external research funds making it
    possible to channel funds through partner
    countries systems
  • production of uniform reporting formats at the
    supported institutions to be used by all donors.

23
Paris Agenda - Mutual Accountability
  • Donors and partners are accountable for
    development results
  • partner countries and regional organisations
    should be encouraged to invite all research
    donors/funders to joint review meetings

24
Coherence
  • Funders should endeavour to adhere to the Paris
    agenda
  • We should
  • Be mindful that in an attempt to assist, we
    should not undermine and fragment the efforts of
    fragile institutions
  • At the least our actions should do no harm to
    partner country institutions

25
Basis for research for health
  • The basis for capacity for research for health
    also requires capacity in areas/disciplines of
    research of a broad nature.
  • These include fundamental science (Biology,
    Statistics, Bio-Physics, molecular biology etc.)
    as well clinical research and health systems
    research

26
ESSENCE is a response by funders to contribute to
this
27
The Establishment of ESSENCE
  • ESSENCE was established after a meeting of
    funders in April 2008 in Stockholm entitled
    Stockholm Meeting on Capacity Building for
    Research for Health

28
ESSENCE
  • The initial executive group includes development
    cooperation agencies the United Kingdom
    Department for International Development (DFID ),
    International Development Research Centre (IDRC),
    the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the
    Netherlands, Norwegian, Agency for Development
    Cooperation (Norad), the Swedish International
    Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) plus the
    Bill Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome
    Trust. NEPAD Science, Technology Innovation
    have accepted an invitation to be part of the
    executive group
  • The ESSENCE secretariat is hosted in TDR (Special
    Programme for Research and Training in Tropical
    Diseases).

29
The organisations taking part in the Stockholm
meeting
  • Bilateral funding agencies
  • Canada IDRC Global Health Research Initiative
  • The Netherlands NWO/WOTRO (Research Council,
    Science for Global Development), Ministry of
    Foreign Affairs, Netherlands Platform for Global
    Health Policy and Health Systems Research,
  • Norway NORAD
  • Denmark DANIDA/MFA The Danish Research Network
    for International Health Department of
    International Health, Immunology Microbiology
    University of Copenhagen,
  • Sweden Sida Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • UK DFID
  • Multilateral organisations
  • The World Bank WHO, TDR The Bamako
    Secretariat
  • Other funders (foundations, research funding
    bodies)
  • Bill Melinda Gates Foundation Howard Hughes
    Medical Institute The Wellcome Trust EDCTP
  • African representatives
  • ISHReCA WHO/AFRO WHO Region for Africa
    Sub-Regional Office in Harare, Zimbabwe,

30
ESSENCE
  • ESSENCE for health Research has started a process
    between the funders/development partners/donors
    (collectively referred to as funders) in the
    spirit of the Paris Agenda
  • ESSENCE is focused on how the funders can best
    align and harmonise and be coherent and learn
    from each other in the quest for supporting
    research capacity in Africa
  • ESSENCE will of course engage partner countries
    and institutions

31
ESSENCE
  • Is open for all funders, bilateral development
    agencies, philanthropists, charities etc. who
    support or are interested in supporting research
    capacity in low income countries in Africa

32
ESSENCE
African countries
RCS initiative A
ESSENCE Secretariat
World Bank
EDCTP
Executive Committee
African countries
INDEPTH
RCS initiative C
ESSENCE members
DFID
Sida
BMGF
NWO
Sec.
IDRC
Norad
African Dev. bank
DANIDA
Dutch
NEPAD
Wellcome
RCS initiative B
ISHReCA
RCS initiative A
WHO/AFRO
Global Health Research Initiative
African countries
African advisors
33
Working in the spirit of the Paris Agenda
  • Strategies for
  • Harmonising, alignment and coherence in support
    for research capacity strengthening in low income
    countries in Africa

34
What ESSENCE is Not
  • It is not a research (RD) project but it must be
    driven by research activities
  • Not a new initiative for disbursing research
    project funds but a mechanism of funders funding
    low-income African country strategies of research
    capacity in a concerted fashion
  • Not a budget support arrangement but could
    involve basket funding when possible
  • It is not trying to coordinate and define the
    research for health research performed, but
    seeking to find appropriate research capacity
    strengthening modalities in low income countries
    which if leveraged could have significant impact

35
ESSENCE
  • The Objectives

36
  Results Performance Indicators
Overall objective Research capacity strengthening is strengthened in Africa in line with the Paris Agenda for Aid Effectiveness Extent to which research capacity support programmes of funders are aligned, coordinated and harmonised, extent to which systems of partner countries are being used (financial, monitoring, etc
Long-term objectives to be achieved by 2015 1) A system of support for research capacity strengthening by funding agencies is established that is aligned with the strategies of African Institutions 1) no of funding agencies with support aligned with African partners strategies, implementation of strategies aligned with Afr institutions priorities, interviews (qualitative indicator)
  2) Increased number of consolidated meetings organised by supported African Institutions for presenting and reporting on results on research capacity strengthening to all funding agencies/ funders 2) Routines for joint reporting, quality of joint reporting, frequency of joint reporting
  3) An increase in the number of development partners in African countries that support research capacity strengthening as an integral part of the development assistance 3) No. of development partners/funders, type of partners/categories, level of funding for RCS
  4) Funding agencies accept one reporting format from the African Institutions 4) No of funding agencies using reporting format of Afr institutions
  5) Funding agencies accept channelling funding through the African Institutions' own financial system 5) Share of funding going through Afr institutions financial systems, no of funding agencies
  6) An increased use of analytical capacity among African researchers to benefit the countrys development 6) The extent to which research produced within African countries is used
37
  Results Performance Indicators
Overall objective Research capacity strengthening is strengthened in Africa in line with the Paris Agenda for Aid Effectiveness Extent to which research capacity support programmes of funders are aligned, coordinated and harmonised, extent to which systems of partner countries are being used (financial, monitoring, etc
Initiative objectives 2008-2010. To be achieved by 2010 1) Increased understanding of the modalities, logic, role and impact of external research capacity strengthening support in African institutions by ESSENCE members 1a) procedures/Channels for information exchange and collaboration, frequency of coordination meetings
  2) Electronic platform for sharing of information on research capacity strengthening established 2) One stop shop for resources in capacity development for science technology in research for health used by ESSENCE members
  3) Procedures for ESSENCE members working together in a concerted fashion in Pilot country collaborations established in Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Malawi and Mali. 3) Pilot country collaboration tested in Tanzania and continued to be refined in other test countries that follow namely Zambia, Uganda, Malawi, Mali
  4) Administrative systems in African Institutions capable of channelling funding from various sources 4) strengthened/developed institutions/routines/practices of financial/adm systems
  5) Increased consideration by funding agencies of research strategies and implementation plans of African countries and African Institutions prior to providing support for research capacity strengthening, long-term alignment 5) strategies and plans in line with those of African countries/institutions
  6) Increased number of African Institutions that have comprehensive reporting formats that can be used by several funding agencies/funders ( long-term) 6) No of African institutions with reporting formats used by several funding agencies, usefulness of joint reporting formats (based on interviews)
38
How can ESSENCE work practically?
39
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40
One Funder may address some institutional needs
41
Several Funders can better impact on overall
institutional needs
Funder Y contribution
42
Research capacity needs
  • Endeavouring to limit the fragmentation in the
    little research capacity strengthening that is
    supported

43
A concerted approach to research funding
  • Support for the conditions/foundation for
    research
  • Support for individual researchers
  • Support for research projects
  • Finding opportunities to work with other donors
    and funders in the spirit of the Paris
    Declaration for Aid effectiveness

Individual researchers
Foundation and Basis
44
How far have we come?
45
Objectives Key activities/methods Status
Global collaboration/dialogue Multilateral meetings involving donors and recipients to discuss cooperation strategies and harmonization Ongoing
Advocacy Secretariat to promote Essence through multiple contacts and major funders. ESC to develop a common advocacy package to use in country visits and high level contacts. Ongoing
Mapping Identify strategic focus and modalities of funding of agencies/funders including geographic coverage in Africa, gaps and overlaps of institutions and countries funded. Strategic and implementation plans of African Institutions Initiated and soon to be presented to group
Country-based pilot models Review, analyse and harmonize multiple input and approaches to selected recipient countries. Common plans to be drafted in discussion with developing countries institutions and investigators. Planning for Pilot-1 in Tanzania
Document successes and failures Collate reports, information, interviews and results from country visits and questionnaires on most successful practices and support modalities and of unsuccessful ones, identifying reasons for both. To be initiated
ME indicators Working group to review literature, share experiences, develop an indicator matrix and field test indicators To be initiated
Electronic platform Working through TropIKA or SciDev to develop an interactive community of practice space for learning experience. Consolidation of information on calls, reports, guidelines, scientific documents, etc Ongoing negotiations with TropIKA
46
The response is the establishment of ESSENCE
  • A strategy of funders to work together to support
    research capacity strengthening for health in
    low-income African Countries

47
Conclusion 3
  • ESSENCE aims address a number of points raised in
    the Global strategy and plan of action on public
    health, innovation and intellectual property
  • (2.3) improving cooperation, participation and
    coordination of health and biomedical research
    and development
  • (a) stimulate and improve global cooperation and
    coordination in research and
  • development, in order to optimize resources
  • (b) enhance existing fora and examine the need
    for new mechanisms, in order to improve the
    coordination and sharing of information on
    research and development activities
  • (c) encourage further exploratory discussions on
    the utility of possible instruments or
  • mechanisms for essential health and biomedical
    RD, including inter alia, an essential health
    and biomedical RD treaty
  • (d) support active participation of developing
    countries in building technological capacity
  • (e) promote the active participation of
    developing countries in the innovation process

48

Conclusion 4
ESSENCE aims to support in a concerted way
  • (3.2) Framing, developing and supporting
    effective policies that promote the development
    of capacities for health innovation
  • (a) establish and strengthen regulatory capacity
    in developing countries
  • (b) strengthen human resources in research and
    development in developing countries through
    long-term national capacity building plans
  • (c) encourage international cooperation to
    develop effective policies for retention of
    health professionals including researchers in
    developing countries
  • (d) urge Member States to establish mechanisms to
    mitigate the adverse impact of the loss of health
    personnel in developing countries, particularly
    researchers, through migration, including by ways
    for both receiving and originating countries to
    support the strengthening of national health and
    research systems, in particular human resource
    development in the countries of origin, taking
    into account the work of WHO and other relevant
    organizations.

49
(No Transcript)
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