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Life at the Lower Limit:

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Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 711-718. ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56:1285-1291. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life at the Lower Limit:


1
Life at the Lower Limit
  • Microbial Survival in Cryoenvironments

Elizabeth Connors
2
Questions
  • What are some of the challenges facing
    microorganisms living in cryoenvironments?
  • What are some of the methods used by
    psychrophiles to overcome these challenges?
  • How can we benefit from understanding survival in
    cryoenvironments?

3
Overview Definitions
  • Psycrophiles microorganisms that can survive,
    grow, and reproduce at temperatures of 5C or
    lower
  • Cryoenvironments environments having average
    temperatures of 5C or lower

4
Cryoenvironments
  • 90 marine environments
  • below -1000m, oceans have a constant temperature
    of 5C
  • 14 land surface is polar
  • polar regions are located at latitudes greater
    than 66.33

National Geophysical Data Center Global Relief
Model (http//www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.
html)
NASA Earth Observations (http//neo.sci.gsfc.nasa.
gov)
5
Challenges
  • Decreased membrane fluidity
  • 2. Decreased enzyme function
  • 3. Ice crystal formation

Jean-Paul Baubet (http//fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fic
hierFleurgivre-1.jpg)
6
Challenge 1 Decreased Membrane Fluidity
  • The Problem rigid membranes, lower permeability,
    slower trans-membrane transport
  • Solution alter membrane composition for maximum
    fluidity

7
Challenge 1 Decreased Membrane Fluidity
  • Case Study Pseudomonas syringae Lz4w (Seshu
    Kumar et al. 2002)
  • -grown at 4C and 22C
  • -composition of LPS compared
  • -amount of hydroxy fatty acids in LPS increased
    at lower temperature

Acyl chain composition of LPS from low (4C)- and
high (22C)-temperature-grown cells of P.
syringaea
Amt (, mol/mol) grown at
a The values (average of three measurements) have
been rounded off to the nearest whole number.
8
Challenge 2 Decreased Enzyme Function
  • The Problem cold denaturation and rigidity
  • Solution lessen the stability of enzymes

9
Challenge 2 Decreased Enzyme Function
  • Case study proteome analysis was done on
    psychrophilic and mesophilic species (Metpally
    and Reddy 2009)
  • -comparison of amino acid composition
  • Observed significant differences
  • 1. increased frequency of amino acids that
    avoid helices
  • 2. increase in small/tiny and neutral group
    residues
  • 3. decrease in aliphatic residues

10
Challenge 3 Ice crystal formation
  • The Problem ice crystal formation inhibits cell
    function and can rupture the cell
  • Solution anti-freeze proteins, thermal hysteresis

11
Challenge 3 Ice crystal formation
  • Case study Gilbert et al. (2005) studied the
    thermal hysteresis protein in the Antarctic
    bacterium Marinomonas primoryensis
  • -hyperactive protein freeze tolerance vs.
    freeze avoidance
  • -location intercellular, periplasmic space?

Ice crystal morphologies obtained with MpAFP. (a)
and (b) two different ice crystals obtained in
the presence of M. primoryensis crude lysate
supernatant at 0.3 C of under-cooling. (c) a
dendritic crystal growing extremely rapidly below
the non-equilibrium freezing point. Size marker
50 µm and relates to (a) and (b) only.
12
Potential Applications?
13
References
  • Amato, P. and Brent C. Christner. 2009. Energy
    metabolism response to low-temperature conditions
    in Psychrobacter cryohalolentis. Applied and
    Environmental Microbiology 75 711-718.
  • Bakermans, C., Ayala-del-Rio, H.L., Ponder, M.A.,
    Vishnivetskaya, T., Gilichinsky, D., Thomashow,
    M.F., and J.M. Tiedje. 2006. Psychrobacter
    cryohalolentis sp. Nov. and Psychrobacter
    arcticus sp. Nov., isolated from Siberian
    permafrost. International Journal of Systematic
    and Evolutionary Microbiology 561285-1291.
  • Bakermans, C., Tollaksen, S.L., Giometti, C.S.,
    Wilkerson, C., Tiedje, J.M., and M.F. Thomashow.
    2007. Proteomic analysis of Psychrobacter
    cryohalolentis K5 during growth at subzero
    temperatures. Extremophiles 11343-354.
  • DAmico, S., Collins, T., Marx, J-C., Feller, G.,
    and C. Gerday. 2006. Psychrophilic
    microorganisms Challenges for life. EMBO Reports
    7385-389.
  • Feller, G., and C. Gerday. 2003. Psychrophilic
    enzymes Hot topics in cold adaptation. Nat Rev
    Microbiol 1 200-208.
  • Georlette, D., Blaise, V., Collins, T., DAmico,
    S., Gratia, E., Hoyoux, A., Marx, J-C., Sonan,
    G., Feller, G., and C. Gerday. 2004. Some like it
    cold Biocatalysis at low temperatures. FEMS
    Microbiology Reviews 2825-42.
  • Gilbert, J.A., Davies, P.L., and J.
    Laybourn-Parry. 2005. A hyperactive
    Ca2-dependent antifreeze protein in an Antarctic
    bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 24567-72.
  • Hoyoux, A., Blaise, V., Collins, T., DAmico, S.,
    Gratia, E., Huston, A.L., Marx, J-C., Sonan, G.,
    Zeng, Y., Feller, G., and C. Gerday. 2004.
    Extreme catalysts from low-temperature
    environments. Journal of Bioscience and
    Bioengineering 98317-330.
  • Janech, M.G., Krell, A., Mock, T., Kang, J-S.,
    and J.A. Raymond. 2006. Ice-binding proteins from
    sea ice diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of
    Pycology 42410-416.
  • Kawamoto, J., Kurihara, T., Yamamoto, K.,
    Nagayasu, M., Tani, Y., Mihara, H., Hosokawa, M.,
    Baba, T., Sato, S.B., and N. Esaki. 2009.
    Eicosapentaenoic acid plays a beneficial role in
    membrane organization and cell division of a
    cold-adapted bacterium, Shewanella
    livingstonensis Ac10. Journal of Bacteriology
    191632-640.
  • Metpally, R.P.R., and B.V.B. Reddy. 2009.
    Comparative proteome analysis of psychrophilic
    versus mesophilic bacterial species Insights
    into the molecular basis of cold adaption
    proteins. BMC Genomics 1011.
  • Priscu, J.C. and B.C. Christner. 2004. Earths
    icy biosphere, p. 130-145. In T.A. Bull (ed.),
    Microbial diversity and bioprospecting. ASM
    Press, Washington, DC.
  • Seshu Kumar, G., Jagannadham, M.V., and M.K. Ray.
    2002. Low-temperature-induced changes in
    composition and fluidity of lipopolysaccharides
    in the Antacrtic psychrotrophic bacterium
    Pseudomonas syringae. Journal of Bacteriology
    1846746-6749.
  • Shcherbakova, V.A., Chuvilskaya, N.A., Rivkina,
    E.m., Pecheritsyna, S.A., Laurinavichius, K.S.,
    Suzina, N.E., Osipov, G.A., Lysenko, A.mgt,
    Gilichinsky, D.A., and V.K. Akimenko. 2005. Novel
    psychrophilic anaerobic spore-forming bacterium
    from the overcooled water brine in permafrost
    description Clostridium algoriphilum sp. Nov.
    Extremeophiles 9239-246.
  • Smith, J.J., Howington, J.P., and G.A. McFeters.
    1994. Survival, physiological response, and
    recovery of enteric bacteria exposed to a polar
    marine environment. Applied and Environmental
    Microbiology 60 2977-2984.
  • Steven, B., Leveille, R., and W.H. Pollard. 2006.
    Microbial ecology and biodiversity in permafrost.
    Extremeophiles 10259-267.
  • Yang, C., and K.A. Sharp. 2005. Hydrophobic
    tendency of polar group hydration as a major
    force in type I antifreeze protein recognition.
    Proteins Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics
    59266-274.
  • Zhou, X-X., Wang, Y-B., and W-E. Li. 2008.
    Differences in amino acids composition and
    coupling patterns between mesophilic and
    thermophilic proteins. Amino Acids 3425-33.

14
Image Credits
  • Title Page
  • http//resurgere.deviantart.com/art/Package-Ice-7
    -48144161
  • Cryoenvironments
  • Nasa Earth Observatory (NEO) http//neo.sci.gsfc.
    nasa.gov
  • NOAA National Geophysical Data Center Global
    Releif Model http//www.ngdc.gov/mgg/global/global
    .html
  • Challenges
  • Cristaux de glace sur une branche darbre by
    Jean-Paul Baubet http//fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fich
    ierFleurgivre-1.jpg
  • Challenges 3 Ice Crystal Formation
  • Gilbert, J.A., Davies, P.L., and J.
    Laybourn-Parry. 2005. A hyperactive
    Ca2-dependent antifreeze protein in an Antarctic
    bacterium. FEMS Microbiology Letters 24567-72.
  • Potential Applications
  • Mt Herschel, Antarctica, Jan 2006 by Andrew
    Mandemaker http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File
    Mt_Herschel,_Antarctica,_Jan_2006.jpg
  • Challenge 1 Decreased Membrane Fluidity
  • Table Acyl chain composition of LPS from low
    (4C)- and high (22C)-temperature-grown cells of
    P. syringaea from Seshu Kumar, G., Jagannadham,
    M.V., and M.K. Ray. 2002. Low-temperature-induced
    changes in composition and fluidity of
    lipopolysaccharides in the Antacrtic
    psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.
    Journal of Bacteriology 1846746-6749.
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