Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7e8b5-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights

Description:

Forensic Anthropology. Forensic anthropology uses methods and techniques from physical anthropology, ... 2nd stage - Forensic Archaeology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:49
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 56
Provided by: lse9
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights


1
Twenty-five years of
Democracy in Argentina The search for the
disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human
Rights
  • Lic. Silvana Turner
  • Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team
    (EAAF) www.eaaf.org

2
Political violence in Latin America
  • Disappeared/killed by political reasons (1960
    present)
  • Guatemala (250.000)
  • Colombia (100.000)
  • El Salvador (75.000)
  • Peru (70.000)
  • Argentina (10.000)
  • Chile (3.000)

Gral. Pinochet
3
Mothers of Plaza de Mayo
4
Some Truth Commissions
  • Argentina (1983/84) 1976-83
  • Chile (1990/91) 1973-90
  • El Salvador (1992/93) 1980-91
  • Guatemala (1997/99) 1962-96
  • Peru (2001/03) 1980-00

5
Chronology 1
  • Military dictatorship March 24, 1976
  • Self-amnesty Law
  • (Law 22.924)
  • Sept. 27, 1983
  • Return to democracy
  • Dec. 10, 1983
  • Self-amnesty Law Annulment.(Law 23.050) Dec.
    29,1983
  • CONADEPs official report
  • Sept. 20,1984

6
Disposal of Bodies
7
Search and recovery of remains 1984
8
Forensic system in Latin America
Not very independent
Judiciary, Prosecutor's office, Police
No anthropologist, archaeologists, etc
forensic specialists
Cases of complicity
Few independent options
No integration of families/communities
9
Victims relatives
10
EAAF foundation (1984)
  • Independent forensic alternative to the official
    forensic system.
  • Focuses on the investigation of human rights
    violations
  • Special emphasis
  • the rights of the relatives/communities of
    disappeared people,
  • their necessity to know and participate.

11
Chronology 2
  • Trials of Top Junta Members
  • April 22, 1985
  • Full Stop Law
  • Dec. 5, 1986
  • Due Obedience Impunity Law May 13, 1987
  • Amnesty Law (1st Presidential pardon)
  • Oct. 30, 1989
  • Amnesty Law (2nd Presidential pardon)
  • Dec. 28, 1990

12
Dr. Clyde Snow
13
EAAFs international work (1986-2008)
AFRICA Angola DRC Ethiopia Ivory Coast Kenya Morocco Namibia Sierra Leone South Africa Sudan Togo Zimbabwe AMERICA Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela EUROPE Bosnia Croatia Cyprus Georgia Kosovo Romania ASIA East Timor Iraq Nepal Philippines OCEANIA French Polynesia
14
EAAFs objectives
  • To provide evidence in court/special commissions
    of inquiry.
  • To assist the relatives of the victims in pursuit
    of their rights to recover the remains of their
    loved ones.
  • To collaborate in the training of new teams in
    other countries where investigations into human
    rights violations are necessary.
  • To contribute to the historical reconstruction of
    the recent past.

15
Forensic Anthropology
  • Forensic anthropology uses methods and techniques
    from physical anthropology, archaeology, and
    forensic medicine to investigate legal cases
    involving skeletal or almost skeletonnized
    remains.

16
EAAF investigation process
  • Historical investigation
  • Recovery and analysis of oral and written
    sources.
  • Collection of Ante Mortem data
  • Archaeological work
  • Recovery and analysis of the findings.
  • Laboratory analysis
  • Identification of remains, and determination of
    the cause of death.

17
Zona 2
  • Military division of the country

Zonas Argentina
18
  • Map of Illegal Detention Centers

19
  • Map of cemeteries with NN graves (in red)

20
  • Testimonies of victims at Truth Commission

21
  • Cemetery records

22
  • Intelligence reports

23
  • Media reports
  • 30 bodies were found in Pilar

24
Collection of Ante Mortem information
  • Building a relation of confidence and trust.
  • Respect cultural and religious context.
  • Interviews with different members of the family
    and friends.
  • More than one meeting, proper time and place.
  • Use of specific forms.
  • Specific strategy for blood/saliva samples for
    DNA.
  • Medical, anthropological, odontological
    information. Persona effects, clothing.

25
East Timor, meeting with relatives before
exhumations, 2005
26
Darfur, Sudan, 2004, recording graves
27
How to organize the information?
  • The use of computer experts working with
    investigators.
  • Defining what do we want to collect.
  • Data bases on
  • List of victims (name, sex, age, date of disapp.,
    place).
  • Ante mortem information.
  • Location of possible grave sites.
  • Chronology of the conflict.
  • Information from the media.
  • Official documents.
  • Sharing information among NGOs.
  • Security of the information.

28
2nd stage - Forensic Archaeology
  • Forensic archaeology applies the techniques of
    the traditional archaeology to a legal context.
  • Capacity and knowledge to analyze a crime scene
    that involves exhumation of bodies, recovery of
    remains and objects spread about the surface.
  • Minimum field team Forensic physician, Forensic
    anthropologist/archaeologist, Scene of crime
    officers, Photographer, Planimetry, and Security.

29
Guatemala
30
South Africa
31
El Salvador
32
Ethiopia
33
Croacia
34
Argentina
35
(No Transcript)
36
Argentina
37
El Salvador
38
Argentina
39
(No Transcript)
40
Argentina
41
(No Transcript)
42
Interdisciplinary Team
  • Forensic physician
  • Forensic anthropologist
  • Forensic odontologist
  • Forensic radiologist
  • Other disciplines (Biologists, entomologists,
    chemists, etc.)

43
Are the remains human? Is the case of forensic
interest? How many individuals are there in the
sample? Identification Cause of death
44
PREPARATION OF THE REMAINS
X-Raying
Taking samples
45
CLEANING
46
RECONSTRUCTION
47
LABELLING EXTENSION IN ANATOMICAL POSITION
INVENTORY DEAL WITH NON BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
(records, transfers)
48
Biological Profile
  • DETERMINATION OF SEX
  • ESTIMATION OF AGE
  • ESTIMATION OF ANCESTRY
  • ESTIMATION OF STATURE
  • DESCRIPTION OF PATHOLOGIES, ANOMALIES
    ANTE-MORTEN TRAUMAS
  • ODONTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
  • COMPARISON OF PRE POST-MORTEM DATA
    IDENTIFICATION

49
EAAF
50
Identification of the victims
  • The information from the study is contrasted with
    the ante-mortem data obtained through historical
    investigations and interviews with relatives, as
    well as with the contextual information and
    artifacts from the excavation (type of burial,
    presence of ballistic material or elements
    indicative of violence, etc.).
  • Hypothesis of identity
  • In the absence of medical, x-rays, dental
    records, etc., this hypothesis should be verified
    through genetic analysis.

51
Genetic analysis
In the laboratory of molecular genetics the DNA
extracted from bone material of the skeleton
(teeth, segments of large bones, etc.) is
compared with the blood of the presumed family.
LIDMO Laboratory (Córdoba,Arg.)
52
Peri mortem classification generally by causal
agent
  • Number
  • Location
  • Sequence
  • Trajectory

Gunshot wounds
53
Argentina 1990 - 2008
  • 1990- 2003
  • Absent by Forced Disappearance Law.
  • Economic compensations for victims and relatives.
  • Trials on child kidnapping (Condor Operation).
  • Opening of processes on the disappearance of
    foreigners (Spain, Italy, Sweden, France,
    Germany).
  • 2003 Annulment of amnesty laws, with
    congressional support.
  • 2005
  • Supreme Court overturns Due Obedience and Full
    Stop immunity laws.
  • Reopening of criminal cases.
  • 2008
  • 368 detained, 54 condemned, 60 fugitives, 64
    trials.
  • 95 young disappeared found by Grandmothers of
    Plaza de Mayo.
  • CDCs opened as remembrance places and museum.

54
EAAFs achievements in Argentina
  • Exhumations 1.100 aprox.
  • Identifications 300
  • Blood samples 6.000
  • Bone samples 600
  • Results expected 2008-2009
  • 2009-2010 continue

Latin American Initiative for the Identification
of the Disappeared (LIID)
55
Argentina
About PowerShow.com