Rise of Civilization in China, Black Africa and the New World: Chapter 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Rise of Civilization in China, Black Africa and the New World: Chapter 2


1
Rise of Civilization in China, Black Africa
and the New WorldChapter 2
  • Part 1 Early Chinese Civ.
  • Neolithic Villages
  • The Three Early Dynasties
  • Xia
  • Shang
  • Zhou
  • Confucianism and Taoism

2
Early Chinese Civilization 7000-A.D.1
Henan
3
Timeline
Longshan Period
E. Neolithic
Three Dynasties
Empire
M. Neolithic
EGYPT
SUMER (up to Early Dynastic)
6000 B.C.
4000 B.C.
2000 B.C.
A.D. 1
4
China
Yellow River Yangzi River
5
North vs. South
  • North China
  • Cold Winters
  • Soils are dry and permeable
  • Agriculture requires drought resistant crops
  • South China
  • Warmer and wetter
  • Waterlogged fields
  • Agriculture thrives on rice

6
Early Neolithic villages
  • Ca. 7000-4500 B.C.
  • The development of civilization in China was
    largely indigenous.
  • North China (Cishan)
  • Small agricultural villages comprised of
    pithouses (sem-subterranean structures) and large
    storage pits
  • Ceramic vessels, grinding stones, stone tools
  • Bones of dogs, pigs, chickens
  • Millet
  • South China (Hemedu)
  • Large, dispersed villages comprised of plank
    houses set on stilts
  • Ceramics vessels, bone tools
  • Bones of dogs, pigs, and water buffalo
  • Rice

7
Middle Neolithic
  • Ca. 4500-2700 B.C.
  • Major centers sprout up throughout China,
    including along the Yellow River
  • Liangzhu Jades
  • Jade is a general term for a family of
    translucent green stones
  • Considered more valuable than gold in China until
    modern times
  • Elites often buried with large caches of jade
    beginning in this period
  • Niuheliang Temple
  • Life sized clay statues with jade eyes buried
    with ruler

Bi - symbol of heaven
8
Longshan Phase (Chalcolithic)
  • Ca. 2700 - 2000 B.C.
  • Significant changes took place in North Chinese
    social organization, including increases in
    social ranking.
  • Development of high-temperature kilns (up to 1200
    degrees C or 2192 degrees F)
  • Based on continuous forced airflow
  • Wood fueled
  • Allows the production of early glazewares which
    will ultimately become china
  • Also allows copper smelting ? hence the
    Chalcolithic
  • Settlements walled by rectangular enclosures
  • Hang tu (rammed earth) used to make walls up to
    40 ft thick and 12 ft high
  • Earliest writing
  • Several potsherds from this time have rudimentary
    characters
  • Pyromanic Scapulomancy divination through
    burning animal shoulder blades (popular until
    late in Chinese history

9
San-dai (Three dynasties)
  • Ca. 2000 1027 B.C.
  • First Chinese state
  • Historical records recorded before 200 B.C. are
    extremely rare
  • Reason 1 most documents were recorded on
    perishable material
  • Reason 2 The first emperor Qin decreed that all
    historical documents were to be destroyed (except
    those from his state)
  • However, the remaining historical evidence and
    archaeological evidence has been used to develop
    a sequence of three major dynasties
  • Xia, Shang, Zhou

10
Xia dynasty
  • Xia dynasty (2000 1800 B.C.) is the first
    hereditary dynasty in recorded Chinese history.
  • Bronzeworking became an increasingly important
    activity.
  • Warfare and ritual were important as well.
  • Palatial house foundations found at Erlitou were
    associated with ritual burials.
  • City dominated bronze trade
  • The decline of the Xia dynasty roughly
    corresponded with the rise of the Shang dynasty.
  • Next to last king supposedly died on the day of a
    full eclipse (pinpointed to 1876 B.C.)

11
Shang Dynasty
  • Shang dynasty overthrough Xia in the 8th century
    B.C.
  • Little change in archaeological record
  • Construction of many large cities
  • Shang cites are, on average, 20 times larger than
    predecessors (800 acres vs. 40)
  • Elite residences walled-in from surrounding
    communities
  • Higher proportion of jade and other elite goods
  • Spread of Shang civilization

12
An-yang
  • Towards the end of the Shang dynasty, the capital
    was moved north to An-yang.
  • An-yang was a large ceremonial and administrative
    center with monumental architecture surrounded by
    craft areas.
  • Residential areas surrounded the center of the
    site.
  • An-yang consisted of three groups of buildings,
    the largest of which was about 200 feet long.

13
Anyang Tombs
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Shang social system
  • Kings were at the top of the hierarchy and were
    considered divine.
  • The king and his court received grain and other
    forms of tribute, that they used to support a
    lavish lifestyle.
  • Elaborate burials of kings occurred.
  • The lower class consisted of farmers and
    craftworkers.
  • At the bottom of the lower class were the war
    captives, who were kept as slaves or served as
    sacrificial victims for rituals and temple
    dedications.

15
Shang bronze
  • Shang civilization is famous for its bronzework.
  • Bronze was used to make food and drinking
    vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry fittings,
    and musical instruments.
  • Large ceremonial vessels were also made.
  • Indications are that the origins of bronzeworking
    was indigenous.

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Shang writing
  • Chinese writing was formalized during Shang
    times.
  • By the late Shang era, Chinese written language
    had developed to include over 3,000 symbols.
  • Chinese writing was related closely to the
    political, military, and ritual activities of the
    upper class and had little to do with mercantile
    matters.
  • Only writing that preserves is found on ritual
    artifacts

17
Shang subsidence
  • Basic subsistence patterns changed little from
    earlier times.
  • Millet, supplemented with rice and wheat, was the
    main crop in North China.
  • Stone hoes, harvesting knives, and wooden digging
    sticks remained the primary cultivation
    implements.
  • Irrigation may have occurred.
  • Changes in labor practices constituted the most
    dramatic shift in the Shang economy.
  • More people were engaged in farming, raising
    production per unit of land.
  • The importance of agricultural labor may have
    encouraged rural families to grow, leading to
    large-scale population growth.

18
Limits of Shang influence
  • The borders of the Shang state are not known, but
    late Shang rulers had at least some control over
    a fairly large area in northern China.
  • Influence varied according to distance from the
    capital.
  • Shang rulers traveled widely and were assisted by
    a complex hierarchy of nobles.
  • Local lords were responsible for collecting taxes
    and supplying men for public projects.
  • Armies as large as 30,000 soldiers were assembled
    to fight barbarians.

19
Sanxingdui
  • Large city located west of Shang controlled China
  • Has characteristics of Shang cities
  • Two sacrificial pits
  • Specific layering of artifacts
  • Layer of elephant tusks
  • Bronze ritual vessels

20
Zhou Dynasty
  • The Zhou dynasty (1022 BCE to the third century
    BCE) marks the beginnings of imperial China and
    its traditions.
  • Wu united the states of Yellow and Wei River
    valleys
  • Longest Lasting Dynasty
  • The society was highly stratified at its center.
  • Away from the core, areas were divided into
    partially independent provinces, and
    administration was enacted by lords who had great
    control over their domains.
  • During the Three Dynasties, the Chinese state was
    built on a hierarchical network of large lineages.

21
Major Transformations
  • Changes in Chinese populations and technology
    occurred during the Zhou dynasty.
  • Great cities were built, the largest of which had
    over a quarter of a million people.
  • Large irrigation works were constructed, and
    wet-rice irrigation became increasingly
    important.
  • By 600 B.C., iron casting was practiced and iron
    agricultural tools were in use.
  • Changes in agricultural technology enabled rapid
    increases in population density.

22
Xianyang Zhou Capitol
  • The Chinese empire was ruled from the capital
    city of Xianyang.
  • Shih Huang Ti forced over 100,000 royal and
    wealthy families from throughout the empire to
    move to the city from their local areas, which
    weakened their power.
  • Luxurious palaces that were replicas of royal
    residences in their homelands were built in
    Xianyang.
  • The move also concentrated economic and political
    power in a single capital.

23
The Eastern Zhou Period
  • The latter half of the Zhou period was
    characterized by political change and upheaval.
  • Western Zhou divide into petty kingdoms
  • Zhou dynasty moves East Eastern Zhou Period
    771-221BCE
  • Spring and Autumn Period (771 to 481)
  • Move to eastern capitol of Luoyang
  • Political fragmentation
  • Warring States Period (480 to 221 BCE)
  • Civil War
  • By the third century B.C., the descendants of
    western Zhou kings ruled an increasingly small
    area outside their original homeland.
  • The Zhou polity weakened and other states rose in
    influence.
  • Eventually the Zhou was eclipsed by the Qin and
    the rise of unified China

24
Shih Huang Ti Qin Dynasty
  • Shih Huang Ti unified China into a single
    imperial kingdom in 221 B.C.
  • He inherited the throne of the Qin kingdom at the
    age of thirteen.
  • Shih Huang Ti frequently engaged in battle,
    eventually conquering six other major kingdoms.
  • He declared himself Chinas first emperor.

25
Shih Huang Ti (cont)
  • Other actions helped Shih Huang Ti solidify his
    political power and centralize authority.
  • He established Chinas first army, which may have
    contained more than a million people.
  • He destroyed the feudal structure to weaken
    regional autonomy.
  • Confucian philosophy was prohibited since it was
    seen as a threat.
  • The Chinese legal system was increasingly
    codified, and Chinese character writing was
    standardized.

26
Great Wall
Courtesy Linda Nicholas
27
Great Wall
  • Shih Huang Ti built the Great Wall along Chinas
    northern periphery by joining walls that had been
    constructed by earlier feudal states.
  • Some have suggested that the wall was constructed
    for defensive purposes.
  • Others have proposed that the wall was a means of
    preventing Chinas heavily-taxed peasants from
    escaping taxes and conscription.
  • The 1,500-mile wall was built by 700,000
    conscripts.

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The Terracotta soldiers
  • At Xian, a little less than a mile from Mount Li
    lies a three-acre gallery of terracotta soldiers.
  • This symbolized the past practice of kings being
    buried with living warriors, women, servants, and
    horses.
  • Eight thousand figures have been exposed, along
    with wooden chariots and horses.
  • The soldiers are arranged in battle formation.
  • A rich artifact assemblage accompanies the army.

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Terracotta soldiers
31
Confucius
32
Confucius (Kung Fu-Tzu) (551-479 BC)
  • Confucianism

Reading from the Analects (Online Anthology)
Family name Kung Personal name
Zhong-ni Kung Fu-Tzu (Kong Fu-zi) Master
Kung Confucius Latinization of Kung Fu-Tzu
33
Confucius claimed to derive his teachings from
the Ancients, whose wisdom is embodied in The
Five Classics (Wu Jing)
The primary sources of Confucian thought
  • The I Jing (Book of Changes)
  • The Shu Jing (Book of History)
  • The Shih Jing (Book of Odes poetry)
  • The Li Ji (Book of Rites)
  • The Chun-chiu (Spring Autumn Annals)

34
The ancient State of Lu
Confucius was born spent most of his life here.
35
Central concepts in Confucian thought
Metaphysics (vision of reality)
  • DAO (Way) - the Ultimate the One the
    Absolute the underlying Power the Source (Not
    this does NOT mean that confucianism and Daoism
    are similar They are opposites)
  • Chi (Ch'i, Qi) primordial vital matter and
    energy, the stuff of which all is made
  • Yin/Yang - the dual expression of DAO neither is
    superior to the other (see next slide)
  • The Plural World - the universe Heaven Earth
    an ever-changing expression blend of Yin Yang

36
Yin Yang
female dark cool earthly soft changeable moist pas
sive negative evil
Heaven sun
Yin
male bright hot heavenly hard steadfast dry active
positive good
Yang
Earth moon
37
"A basic difference between the
  • Chinese conception of yin and yang and other
    classical philosophical dualismsis that whereas
    most dualisms are forever in conflict, yin and
    yang always act in harmony, and both are
    considered to be necessary to maintain the order
    of the universe."

38
Theology
  • Confucianism later merged with pre-existing
    Chinese Folk religion
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Shang-Ti (God), the original ancestor
  • Heaven (Tian, Tien) - the divine realm (Human
    beings who have died live on with Shang-Ti as
    ancestors (ti) in Heaven.)
  • Continuity interchange between Heaven (the
    divine realm) and Earth (the human realm), i.e.,
    between the ancestors those living on Earth

(The ancestors are to be worshipped, and
sacrifices are to be offered to them they, in
turn, will guide and protect us, especially with
regard to our futures (divination practices).
When we die, we will join the ancestors in Heaven
and become ancestors ourselves.)
Spiritism (spirits every-where, good shen
evil gui).
39
Anthropology(Human Nature the Human
Predicament)
  • Human nature
  • naturally inherently good - need for
    cultivation via education
  • naturally social political - development
    perfection of human nature within the social
    political realm
  • The human predicament
  • suffering as a result of failure to follow the
    Way of the Ancestors
  • Disharmony conflict between Heaven Earth,
    between the ancestors us and between humans
    here on earth
  • Solution of problem of suffering reestablish
    harmony

40
Confuciuss primary goal
Confucius say
  • order, harmony, peace, happiness in this life
    here on earth

(Only a passing secondary interest in
transcendental salvation.)
41
Theory of Value
  • The value of art (aesthetics) - the moral
    political purposes of art (especially music)
  • Right conduct (ethics) - the center of Confucian
    philosophy
  • Social political theory (theory of government)
    - the need for morally intellectually virtuous
    rulers civil servants

42
Li - Propriety (proper conduct)
  • The Five Constant Relationships
  • parent-child
  • husband-wife
  • elder sibling-younger sibling
  • elder friend-younger friend
  • ruler-subject
  • The Rectification of Names (Zheng-ming) (proper
    use of language) (Analects, 205)
  • The Doctrine of the Mean (Zhongyong) Avoid the
    extremes of too much and too little.

43
Filial Piety (Xiao, Hsiao)(devotion to
reverence for parents family)
  • The institution of the family is the foundation
    of a well-ordered civilized society (grounded
    mainly on respect of children for parents)
  • Respect for age (experience wisdom)

(Analects, 205-6)
44
Ritual Propriety
  • proper practice of traditional rites
  • (Political ceremony, worship of ancestors,
    Heaven, Earth, misc. animistic spirits funeral
    services sacrifices in honor of parents etc.)

45
Wen learning the arts (Literally, Writing,
Metaphorically, Civilization)
  • The importance of culture in the creation
    maintenance of a well-ordered society
  • Studying learning
  • The arts - especially music

(Confucius composed a Book of Music Yueh
Jing, which is sometimes referred to as a sixth
classic.)
46
Confuciuss Political Philosophy
  • Emperor is the ultimate father
  • Te - the union of power virtue
  • The characteristics of a good ruler (or civil
    servant)
  • moral goodness (virtue propriety)
  • rationality
  • moderation
  • Benevolence
  • Those who follow receive/retain the
  • Mandate of Heaven

(Analects, 209-11)
47
Lao Tzu(6th century BC?)and the
  • Tao Te Ching
  • (Dow Deh Jing)

Also known as Laotse, Laozi, Li Erh, Li Tan,
Lao Tan.
48
Taoist Critique of Confucianism
  • Confucian Virtues and regulations
  • humaneness and righteousness
  • like web-toes, extra-fingers, and other physical
    superfluity
  • not a part of human nature their existence is of
    no meaningful value
  • not attributes of humanity because they were used
    to pursue honor and wealth, thus were the sources
    of greed
  • along with the rites and music, caused confusions
    in the world
  • what made people superior men what caused
    people to twist their nature and die for
  • Good person
  • one who accepts the given characteristics and
    knows his/her own self
  • One who accepts the nature of things as one finds
    it

49
Taoism
  • Taoism valued speculative thought
  • Questioned and sometimes repudiated Confucian
    values
  • rejected all other artificial devices of
    civilization
  • mocked ritual and propriety and decried group
    conventions
  • pessimistic about society
  • man is not capable of keeping order and safety in
    society
  • social man is a misguided being
  • sought nature as refuge from mans world
  • scorned government, feared progress and
    civilization
  • wary of technical skills
  • naturalism

50
According to tradition,Lao Tzu (The Old Boy)
  • was born in 604 BC in the Chu Province,
  • had a long career as the royal historian-librarian
    -archivist in the Chou capital of Lo-yang,
  • (after becoming disillusioned as a result of
    the increasing decline of the Chou dynasty) left
    China for Tibet or India late in the 6th (or
    perhaps early in the 5th) century BC.
  • Before leaving, however, he recorded his
    philosophical insights in a short book, the Tao
    Te Ching (also known as the Lao Tzu), which is
    one of the foundational classics of
    Philosophical Taoism.

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52
A second major primary source of Philosophical
Taoism is
  • The Book of Chuang Tzu,
  • by
  • Chuang Tzu
  • (also known as Chuang Chou)
  • (c. 369-286 BC)

53
Taoism Evolved both into a
Taoism starts as a philosophy but Later
  • a philosophy
  • a religion.

(More so than Confucianism)
54
TAO DOW DAO
1. The ultimate, transcendental Ground of
Being 2. The way or law of nature 3. A life in
accord with the way or law of nature
55
The TAO is
a metaphysical first principle that embraces and
underlies all being, a vast Oneness that precedes
and in some mysterious manner generates the
endlessly diverse forms of the world . . . .
Unknowable as the tao may be in essence, one
must somehow learn to sense its presence and
movement in order to bring ones own life and
movements into harmony with it. The aim of the
text . . . is to impart to the reader, through
hints, symbols, and paradoxical utterances, such
an intuitive grasp of the tao and the vital
ability to move with it rather than counter to
it. (Burton Watson)
56
Te (Duh)
  • denotes a moral power or virtue characteristic
    of a person who follows the correct course of
    conduct . . . . In Taoism, te is the virtue or
    power that one acquires through being in accord
    with the tao, what one gets from the tao.
    (Burton Watson)

57
Yin Yang
The power (Te) of the TAO is expressed in the
cosmos in accordance with the Yin/Yang principle.
58
Yang and Yin (Revisited)
59
The cosmos(universe, nature)
Taoist metaphysics - Ontology/Cosmology -
TAO - TE - Yin/Yang - The natural
order
  • is an ever-changing expression blend of Yin and
    Yang, full of the power (Te) of the TAO.

60
Taoist theology
  • The TAO is the highest reality. It is the Ground
    of Being but it is not God or a god. It is
    the absolutely transcendent and incomprehensible
    Source of the natural world (the universe). The
    TAO is beyond sensation, beyond thought, beyond
    imagination, beyond words, etc. It is knowable
    only through direct mystical experience or
    intuition.
  • Gods, good spirits, and demons exist as
    expressions of the power (Te) of the TAO. These
    spiritual powers can be accessed and harnessed
    through various magical rituals.

61
Philosophical Anthropology The Taoist perspective
on human nature the human predicament
  • Humanity is merely one of the Ten Thousand
    Things manifested in nature, one animal species
    among others.
  • However, human beings (unlike other animals) have
    the power of free choice. This enables them to
    act contrary to nature (contrary to the TAO), to
    become alienated from the Way.
  • Humans can choose to separate themselves from the
    natural order, and they can pursue things they
    want in addition to things they need.
  • This leads to an unnatural existence filled with
    various kinds of pain suffering.

62
The Solution to The Human Predicament
  • Back to nature back to the TAO.
  • The practice of wu-wei (non-stress, effortless
    action, action without friction conflict,
    swimming with the current) -- the simple, natural
    life.
  • Go with the flow.
  • Chillax

63
Lao-tzus Critique of Confucianism (Quotations)
  • The person of superior integrity
  • Does not insist upon (a display of) his
    integrity.
  • The person of inferior integrity
  • Never loses sight of his integrity
  • For this reason, he lacks integrity.
  • .
  • When the Way is lost, afterward comes integrity.
  • When integrity is lost, afterward comes
    humaneness.
  • When humaneness is lost, afterward comes
    righteousness.
  • When the righteousness is lost, afterward comes
    etiquette.
  • Etiquette is the attenuation of trustworthiness,
  • And the source of disorder .
  • Foreknowledge is but the blossomy ornament of the
    Way,
  • And the source of ignorance.

64
Lao-tzus Critique of Confucianism (II)
  • Let there be a small state with few people,
  • Where military devices find no use
  • Let the people look solemnly upon death,
  • And banish the thought of moving elsewhere.
  • They may have carts and boats,
  • But there is no reason to ride them
  • They may have armor and weapons,
  • But they have no reason to display them.
  • Let the people go back to tying knots to keep
    records
  • Let their food be savory, their clothes
    beautiful, their customs pleasurable, and their
    dwellings secure.
  • Though they may gaze across at a neighboring
    state,
  • And hear the sounds of its dogs and chickens,
  • The people will never travel back and forth,
  • Till they die of old age.

65
Taoist Critique of Confucianism (iii)
  • Confucian pursuit of knowledge
  • interfered with the innate characteristics of
    things
  • created distinction between men and other beings
  • men separated themselves from the birds and the
    beasts
  • treated the birds and the beasts as their
    possessions
  • created mechanic devices to hunt (or kill)
    animals and nature
  • complicated life, provoked debates, and divided
    people and all creatures
  • life should be as simple as the simplicity of
    unhewn log
  • caused contention for profits and fame
  • did not help people to realize and appreciate the
    Tao, but would move people away from the Tao

66
Nubia
67
Nubia was a great civilization that developed
along the Nile River south of Egypt. They shared
many of the same cultural traits as Egypt such as
religion, architecture and art.
68
These are the pyramid of Ancient Nubia. They were
used as tombs. Although they are similar to those
of Ancient Egypt, they have some differences.
Compare these pyramids with those of ancient
Egypt.
69
Nubian Pyramids
70
The Land of Nubia
For many centuries, the people and culture of
Ancient Nubia were a mystery to the world. Even
the Ancient Greeks wrote about an advanced
culture that was mostly unknown to other
civilizations of the time.
71
One reason little was known about the culture was
that they did not write down their history until
late in ancient times. Another reason is that
they were isolated geographically. Outside people
would need to cross harsh desert or many
waterfalls, called cataracts, to reach Nubia.
T
I
K
N
W
D
Nubian writing was similar to Egyptian writing
but developed into a completely separate language
later in time.
72
Ancient Nubia was a great kingdom that produced
many resources like gold, ivory, copper,
frankincense and ebony.
Nubia was also known as Kush and The Land of the
Bow. Nubian archers (warriors who used a bow and
arrow) were feared by all who saw them in battle.
Nubia had a long line of powerful kings. They
were often at war with Egypt, to the North. From
about 2,000 to 1,000 BC, Egypt controlled Nubia
but when Egypt weakened, Nubia came north and
conquered Egypt (800-700 BC.)
A frankincense tree. The resin was used to make
good smelling incense.
73
Kush and Meroe
74
Lower Nubia
75
Lower Nubia Periods
  • Lower Nubia lower reaches of Middle Nile (north
    on map)
  • A Group Culture 3900 to 2900 BC
  • C Group Culture 2500 to 1500 BC
  • (direct Kushitic influence in this area between
    1800-1500)
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Kush (Napata as capital) 900 to 664 BC

76
Lower Nubia A Group Culture
  • 3900 to 2900 BC Origins
  • Few Settlements along Nile only
  • Cemeteries near edge of desert
  • Farming, collecting, hunting, pastoralism
  • Trade with Egypt seen in grave goods some
    social differences
  • Trade to Egypt Ivory, skins, ebony

77
Lower Nubia A Group Culture
  • 3900 to 2900 BC
  • Many more prestige goods in graves in later times
  • Perhaps kings by 3000 BC because there are
    elaborate tombs
  • Elaborate ceramics
  • Disappeared ca. 2900. Forced south by powerful
    Pharoahs?

78
Lower Nubia C Group Culture
  • 2,500 to 1,500 BC
  • Related to Kerma Culture in south
  • Lived along banks of Nile
  • Had similar cemeteries, many have been excavated
  • Pastoralism (cows) important
  • Lots of trade with Egypt
  • At 2000 BC Egyptian hegemony extended in region

79
Tumulus Tomb
80
Cross-section of Tumulus Tomb
81
Group C Burial, from Tumulus Structure
82
Lower Nubia, Group C Culture First Egyptian
Occupation 2000 to 1800 BC
  • Egyptian Middle Kingdom controlled this region
    2000 to 1800 BC
  • Egyptian fortresses built near 2nd cataractas
    protection against Kush to the south
  • ------------
  • Heavy trade resumed in 1800 to 1500 period
    richer graves

83
Kush (aka Upper Nubia)
  • KUSH

Located between 3rd 4th Cataracts
Kerma Town
84
Upper Nubia or Kush Periods
  • Upper Nubia (south on map)
  • Early Kerma 2500 to 2050 BC
  • Middle Kerma 2050-1785 BC
  • Classic Kerma 1785 to 1500 BC
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • Meroitic Period 295 to 320 AD

85
Upper Nubia Kerma
  • Kerma Culture 2500 to 1500 BC
  • Kerma town most important
  • By Classic period (1785--1500 BC large tumulus
    tombs for kings hundreds of human sacrifices
  • Spread control into lower Nubia after Egyptian
    withdrawal in 1800

86
Deffufa at Kerma c. 1785-1554 BC
Bonnets Excavations here of Classic Period
87
Kush under Egyptian Domination
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • New Kingdom campaigns for 1 century created
    province of Egypt
  • Lower region was Wawat Upper region was Kush
  • Wawat directly colonized, many Egyptian cultural
    features
  • Young people served in Egyptian Court

88
Kush Egyptian Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Many temples established in lower Nubia.
  • Most famous is Abu Sembel honoring Ramesses II
  • Egypt withdrew ca. 1000 BC

89
Colonial Period at Abu Sembel
90
Colonial Nubians at Thebes
91
Jelbel Barkel Center of Amon Priesthood
Local Gods Worshiped here
92
Kush Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • NAPATA

93
Kush Napata as Capital of an Imperial Kingdom
  • Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • King Kashta started northern push ca. 770--750 BC
  • King Piye conquered Delta region but lived in
    Napata capital started 25th dynasty
  • 25th dynasty pushed out of Egypt by Assyrians ca.
    664
  • Kushite kings used title of Pharaoh

94
King Piye Nubian Pharaoh of Egypt
95
Kush Napata Period900 to 295 BC
  • Kings built pyramids over tombs
  • Smaller scale than Egypt
  • 60-70 degree angles
  • Some smooth, some stepped
  • Wooden or stone coffins
  • Mumification
  • Deeply influenced by Egyptian values

96
Kush Pyramids
97
Nubian Pyramids
98
Nubian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids
same
  • Smaller
  • Steeper
  • Large
  • Big blocks
  • Triangular
  • Tombs

different
different
99
A King of Kush
100
Conoptic Jar
  • Egyptian
  • Influence
  • Queen
  • Alakhebasken

101
Rams Head
  • Incorporates
  • Egyptian
  • Themes

102
Funerary Images modeled on Egypt
103
Kush Napata Period900 to 295 BC
  • Other Characteristics
  • Commoner graves 2 classes, one Egyptian
    influenced
  • Wealth of rulers derived from gold mined in
    eastern desert

104
Kush Meroitic Period 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Capital moved to Meroe (between 5th and 6th
    cataracts)
  • Reasons for shift unclear trade or independence
    from religious centers in lower Nubia
  • 2nd century BC marks start of Meroitic script,
    still untranslated
  • Geneologies important on tombs

105
Meroe Map
  • ISLAND
  • OF
  • MEROE
  • NAQA

106
Meroitic Writing Never Decoded
107
Temple Meroe
108
Kiosks (Temples)
109
Meroitic Gold Jakal
  • 1st Century
  • BC

110
Pyramids at Meroe
111
Kush Meroitic 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Royal tombs have pyramid shapes
  • Chapels attached to E. faces - similar to Napata
  • Later examples have rubble cores
  • Human sacrifices (6) dogs, horses, camels
  • Houses of burned and mud brick
  • Many temples for Amon

112
Meroe Pyramid Tombs
113
Cups from Meroe
114
Lions Temple Naqa
  • Depictions on
  • Temple face
  • Show power
  • Of Queens or
  • Candake

115
Painting showing power of Queens
116
Relief Celebrating Meroitic Queen
117
Meroitic Grave
118
Elephant Sculpture
119
Kush Meroitic 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Local gods also worshiped
  • Nubia a source of gold for Ptolemaic kings after
    300 BC
  • Reestablished hegemony over lower Nubia after 23
    BC
  • Eclipsed in region by Axum in 4th century AD

120
Kingdom of Aksum, Ethiopia ca. 1800 yrs. B.P.
121
Axum Stelae
122
Axum Red Sea Trade ca. 200 to 600 AD
123
Mesoamerican Civilizations
  • Introduction

124
Peoples of the Americas
  • New questions about the origins of the peoples of
    the Americas Kennewick Man China Thesis.
  • New theories about the time periods for migration
    now pushed back to about 50,000 years ago,
    rather than 10,000 years ago.
  • New theories about the ways that migration
    occurred.

125
Mesoamerican Culture Area
126
Characteristics of Mesoamerican Civilizations
  • Complex political and religious systems
  • Ball courts alligned N/S with rings Ball Game
    called Tlachtli by the Aztecs and Pok Ta Pok by
    the Maya
  • Maize agriculture (processed with ash or lime)
  • Solar calendrical system based on 18 months (20
    days each) with 5 days added at the new year tied
    to complex religious belief systems (365 days)
    and Lunar (based on 260 days) Calendar round
    of 52 years.
  • Obsidian use for sophisticated (surgical and
    ceremonial) knife production
  • Ritual use of paper (amate) and rubber (used for
    the ball game)
  • Pyramid construction
  • Lip ornaments
  • Chinampa and other forms of irrigated agriculture
  • Domestication of New World plants such as
    amaranth, avocados, beans, coco, corn, tomato,
    papaya, peppers, etc.

127
The Mesoamerican Calendar
  • Solar calendrical system based on 18 months (20
    days each) with 5 days added at the new year tied
    to complex religious belief systems (365 days)
  • Lunar (based on 260 days)
  • Calendar round of 52 years.

128
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129
Olmec The Rubber People
  • The Mesoamerican Mother Culture
  • Basalt/Colossal Heads
  • Human Imagery
  • Early Writing
  • Big Cats/Totemic Imagery
  • Veneration of Green Stone
  • Ritual Killing/ Cultural Disappearance

130
OLMEC IMAGES FROM LA VENTA, SAN LORENZO AND THE
XALAPA MUSEUM, VERACRUZ
Were jaguar
131
Bridging WorldsCommuning with the After World
  • Olmec Heartland-- Isthmus of Tuantepec
  • Laguna de Los Cerros--Sacred City

132
Bridging WorldsSacred Pyramid La Venta
133
Bridging Worlds La Venta, Middle Formative
Subterranean Mask
134
Bridging Worlds
La Venta, Large scale Basal Celts
La Venta Offering 4 Standing Figures and Celts,
Middle Formative
135
Basalt Colossal Heads San Lorenzo Monument 1
and 4Early Fromative Period
136
Human Imagery
Early Naturalism Skull Shaping (Early Formative,
Ceramic, Las Bocas, Puebla)
137
Human Imagery
Skeleton Woman--Early Formative, Laguna de los
Cerros, Veracruz
  • Acrobat, Vessel--Early Formative, Tlatilco

138
Human Imagery Baby Figurine, Ceramic, Early
Formative, Xochipala (Below)
  • Darwfs, Hematite and Jade, Cerro de Las Mesas,
    Veracruz, Middle Formative (Right)

139
Human ImageryThe WrestlerLate
FormativeBasalt, Veracruz
140
Early WritingRoyal LinageIconographic Design
141
Early Writing Incised Jaguar Ceramic,
Tlapacoya,Early Formative (Left)Incised Mask,
Oaxaca, Middle Formative (Right)
142
Big Cats Were Jaguar the Totemic Ancestor
143
Big Cats Seated Figure Holding Were-Jaguar
InfantLas Limas (Jesus Carranza)Monument
1Middle Formative, Greenstone
144
Big Cats, Veneration of GreenstoneRiding a
Jaguar, Middle Formative (Below)Votive
Offering(Unknown Providence)Middle Formative
(Right)
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Title: Rise of Civilization in China, Black Africa and the New World: Chapter 2


1
Rise of Civilization in China, Black Africa
and the New WorldChapter 2
  • Part 1 Early Chinese Civ.
  • Neolithic Villages
  • The Three Early Dynasties
  • Xia
  • Shang
  • Zhou
  • Confucianism and Taoism

2
Early Chinese Civilization 7000-A.D.1
Henan
3
Timeline
Longshan Period
E. Neolithic
Three Dynasties
Empire
M. Neolithic
EGYPT
SUMER (up to Early Dynastic)
6000 B.C.
4000 B.C.
2000 B.C.
A.D. 1
4
China
Yellow River Yangzi River
5
North vs. South
  • North China
  • Cold Winters
  • Soils are dry and permeable
  • Agriculture requires drought resistant crops
  • South China
  • Warmer and wetter
  • Waterlogged fields
  • Agriculture thrives on rice

6
Early Neolithic villages
  • Ca. 7000-4500 B.C.
  • The development of civilization in China was
    largely indigenous.
  • North China (Cishan)
  • Small agricultural villages comprised of
    pithouses (sem-subterranean structures) and large
    storage pits
  • Ceramic vessels, grinding stones, stone tools
  • Bones of dogs, pigs, chickens
  • Millet
  • South China (Hemedu)
  • Large, dispersed villages comprised of plank
    houses set on stilts
  • Ceramics vessels, bone tools
  • Bones of dogs, pigs, and water buffalo
  • Rice

7
Middle Neolithic
  • Ca. 4500-2700 B.C.
  • Major centers sprout up throughout China,
    including along the Yellow River
  • Liangzhu Jades
  • Jade is a general term for a family of
    translucent green stones
  • Considered more valuable than gold in China until
    modern times
  • Elites often buried with large caches of jade
    beginning in this period
  • Niuheliang Temple
  • Life sized clay statues with jade eyes buried
    with ruler

Bi - symbol of heaven
8
Longshan Phase (Chalcolithic)
  • Ca. 2700 - 2000 B.C.
  • Significant changes took place in North Chinese
    social organization, including increases in
    social ranking.
  • Development of high-temperature kilns (up to 1200
    degrees C or 2192 degrees F)
  • Based on continuous forced airflow
  • Wood fueled
  • Allows the production of early glazewares which
    will ultimately become china
  • Also allows copper smelting ? hence the
    Chalcolithic
  • Settlements walled by rectangular enclosures
  • Hang tu (rammed earth) used to make walls up to
    40 ft thick and 12 ft high
  • Earliest writing
  • Several potsherds from this time have rudimentary
    characters
  • Pyromanic Scapulomancy divination through
    burning animal shoulder blades (popular until
    late in Chinese history

9
San-dai (Three dynasties)
  • Ca. 2000 1027 B.C.
  • First Chinese state
  • Historical records recorded before 200 B.C. are
    extremely rare
  • Reason 1 most documents were recorded on
    perishable material
  • Reason 2 The first emperor Qin decreed that all
    historical documents were to be destroyed (except
    those from his state)
  • However, the remaining historical evidence and
    archaeological evidence has been used to develop
    a sequence of three major dynasties
  • Xia, Shang, Zhou

10
Xia dynasty
  • Xia dynasty (2000 1800 B.C.) is the first
    hereditary dynasty in recorded Chinese history.
  • Bronzeworking became an increasingly important
    activity.
  • Warfare and ritual were important as well.
  • Palatial house foundations found at Erlitou were
    associated with ritual burials.
  • City dominated bronze trade
  • The decline of the Xia dynasty roughly
    corresponded with the rise of the Shang dynasty.
  • Next to last king supposedly died on the day of a
    full eclipse (pinpointed to 1876 B.C.)

11
Shang Dynasty
  • Shang dynasty overthrough Xia in the 8th century
    B.C.
  • Little change in archaeological record
  • Construction of many large cities
  • Shang cites are, on average, 20 times larger than
    predecessors (800 acres vs. 40)
  • Elite residences walled-in from surrounding
    communities
  • Higher proportion of jade and other elite goods
  • Spread of Shang civilization

12
An-yang
  • Towards the end of the Shang dynasty, the capital
    was moved north to An-yang.
  • An-yang was a large ceremonial and administrative
    center with monumental architecture surrounded by
    craft areas.
  • Residential areas surrounded the center of the
    site.
  • An-yang consisted of three groups of buildings,
    the largest of which was about 200 feet long.

13
Anyang Tombs
14
Shang social system
  • Kings were at the top of the hierarchy and were
    considered divine.
  • The king and his court received grain and other
    forms of tribute, that they used to support a
    lavish lifestyle.
  • Elaborate burials of kings occurred.
  • The lower class consisted of farmers and
    craftworkers.
  • At the bottom of the lower class were the war
    captives, who were kept as slaves or served as
    sacrificial victims for rituals and temple
    dedications.

15
Shang bronze
  • Shang civilization is famous for its bronzework.
  • Bronze was used to make food and drinking
    vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry fittings,
    and musical instruments.
  • Large ceremonial vessels were also made.
  • Indications are that the origins of bronzeworking
    was indigenous.

16
Shang writing
  • Chinese writing was formalized during Shang
    times.
  • By the late Shang era, Chinese written language
    had developed to include over 3,000 symbols.
  • Chinese writing was related closely to the
    political, military, and ritual activities of the
    upper class and had little to do with mercantile
    matters.
  • Only writing that preserves is found on ritual
    artifacts

17
Shang subsidence
  • Basic subsistence patterns changed little from
    earlier times.
  • Millet, supplemented with rice and wheat, was the
    main crop in North China.
  • Stone hoes, harvesting knives, and wooden digging
    sticks remained the primary cultivation
    implements.
  • Irrigation may have occurred.
  • Changes in labor practices constituted the most
    dramatic shift in the Shang economy.
  • More people were engaged in farming, raising
    production per unit of land.
  • The importance of agricultural labor may have
    encouraged rural families to grow, leading to
    large-scale population growth.

18
Limits of Shang influence
  • The borders of the Shang state are not known, but
    late Shang rulers had at least some control over
    a fairly large area in northern China.
  • Influence varied according to distance from the
    capital.
  • Shang rulers traveled widely and were assisted by
    a complex hierarchy of nobles.
  • Local lords were responsible for collecting taxes
    and supplying men for public projects.
  • Armies as large as 30,000 soldiers were assembled
    to fight barbarians.

19
Sanxingdui
  • Large city located west of Shang controlled China
  • Has characteristics of Shang cities
  • Two sacrificial pits
  • Specific layering of artifacts
  • Layer of elephant tusks
  • Bronze ritual vessels

20
Zhou Dynasty
  • The Zhou dynasty (1022 BCE to the third century
    BCE) marks the beginnings of imperial China and
    its traditions.
  • Wu united the states of Yellow and Wei River
    valleys
  • Longest Lasting Dynasty
  • The society was highly stratified at its center.
  • Away from the core, areas were divided into
    partially independent provinces, and
    administration was enacted by lords who had great
    control over their domains.
  • During the Three Dynasties, the Chinese state was
    built on a hierarchical network of large lineages.

21
Major Transformations
  • Changes in Chinese populations and technology
    occurred during the Zhou dynasty.
  • Great cities were built, the largest of which had
    over a quarter of a million people.
  • Large irrigation works were constructed, and
    wet-rice irrigation became increasingly
    important.
  • By 600 B.C., iron casting was practiced and iron
    agricultural tools were in use.
  • Changes in agricultural technology enabled rapid
    increases in population density.

22
Xianyang Zhou Capitol
  • The Chinese empire was ruled from the capital
    city of Xianyang.
  • Shih Huang Ti forced over 100,000 royal and
    wealthy families from throughout the empire to
    move to the city from their local areas, which
    weakened their power.
  • Luxurious palaces that were replicas of royal
    residences in their homelands were built in
    Xianyang.
  • The move also concentrated economic and political
    power in a single capital.

23
The Eastern Zhou Period
  • The latter half of the Zhou period was
    characterized by political change and upheaval.
  • Western Zhou divide into petty kingdoms
  • Zhou dynasty moves East Eastern Zhou Period
    771-221BCE
  • Spring and Autumn Period (771 to 481)
  • Move to eastern capitol of Luoyang
  • Political fragmentation
  • Warring States Period (480 to 221 BCE)
  • Civil War
  • By the third century B.C., the descendants of
    western Zhou kings ruled an increasingly small
    area outside their original homeland.
  • The Zhou polity weakened and other states rose in
    influence.
  • Eventually the Zhou was eclipsed by the Qin and
    the rise of unified China

24
Shih Huang Ti Qin Dynasty
  • Shih Huang Ti unified China into a single
    imperial kingdom in 221 B.C.
  • He inherited the throne of the Qin kingdom at the
    age of thirteen.
  • Shih Huang Ti frequently engaged in battle,
    eventually conquering six other major kingdoms.
  • He declared himself Chinas first emperor.

25
Shih Huang Ti (cont)
  • Other actions helped Shih Huang Ti solidify his
    political power and centralize authority.
  • He established Chinas first army, which may have
    contained more than a million people.
  • He destroyed the feudal structure to weaken
    regional autonomy.
  • Confucian philosophy was prohibited since it was
    seen as a threat.
  • The Chinese legal system was increasingly
    codified, and Chinese character writing was
    standardized.

26
Great Wall
Courtesy Linda Nicholas
27
Great Wall
  • Shih Huang Ti built the Great Wall along Chinas
    northern periphery by joining walls that had been
    constructed by earlier feudal states.
  • Some have suggested that the wall was constructed
    for defensive purposes.
  • Others have proposed that the wall was a means of
    preventing Chinas heavily-taxed peasants from
    escaping taxes and conscription.
  • The 1,500-mile wall was built by 700,000
    conscripts.

28
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29
The Terracotta soldiers
  • At Xian, a little less than a mile from Mount Li
    lies a three-acre gallery of terracotta soldiers.
  • This symbolized the past practice of kings being
    buried with living warriors, women, servants, and
    horses.
  • Eight thousand figures have been exposed, along
    with wooden chariots and horses.
  • The soldiers are arranged in battle formation.
  • A rich artifact assemblage accompanies the army.

30
Terracotta soldiers
31
Confucius
32
Confucius (Kung Fu-Tzu) (551-479 BC)
  • Confucianism

Reading from the Analects (Online Anthology)
Family name Kung Personal name
Zhong-ni Kung Fu-Tzu (Kong Fu-zi) Master
Kung Confucius Latinization of Kung Fu-Tzu
33
Confucius claimed to derive his teachings from
the Ancients, whose wisdom is embodied in The
Five Classics (Wu Jing)
The primary sources of Confucian thought
  • The I Jing (Book of Changes)
  • The Shu Jing (Book of History)
  • The Shih Jing (Book of Odes poetry)
  • The Li Ji (Book of Rites)
  • The Chun-chiu (Spring Autumn Annals)

34
The ancient State of Lu
Confucius was born spent most of his life here.
35
Central concepts in Confucian thought
Metaphysics (vision of reality)
  • DAO (Way) - the Ultimate the One the
    Absolute the underlying Power the Source (Not
    this does NOT mean that confucianism and Daoism
    are similar They are opposites)
  • Chi (Ch'i, Qi) primordial vital matter and
    energy, the stuff of which all is made
  • Yin/Yang - the dual expression of DAO neither is
    superior to the other (see next slide)
  • The Plural World - the universe Heaven Earth
    an ever-changing expression blend of Yin Yang

36
Yin Yang
female dark cool earthly soft changeable moist pas
sive negative evil
Heaven sun
Yin
male bright hot heavenly hard steadfast dry active
positive good
Yang
Earth moon
37
"A basic difference between the
  • Chinese conception of yin and yang and other
    classical philosophical dualismsis that whereas
    most dualisms are forever in conflict, yin and
    yang always act in harmony, and both are
    considered to be necessary to maintain the order
    of the universe."

38
Theology
  • Confucianism later merged with pre-existing
    Chinese Folk religion
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Shang-Ti (God), the original ancestor
  • Heaven (Tian, Tien) - the divine realm (Human
    beings who have died live on with Shang-Ti as
    ancestors (ti) in Heaven.)
  • Continuity interchange between Heaven (the
    divine realm) and Earth (the human realm), i.e.,
    between the ancestors those living on Earth

(The ancestors are to be worshipped, and
sacrifices are to be offered to them they, in
turn, will guide and protect us, especially with
regard to our futures (divination practices).
When we die, we will join the ancestors in Heaven
and become ancestors ourselves.)
Spiritism (spirits every-where, good shen
evil gui).
39
Anthropology(Human Nature the Human
Predicament)
  • Human nature
  • naturally inherently good - need for
    cultivation via education
  • naturally social political - development
    perfection of human nature within the social
    political realm
  • The human predicament
  • suffering as a result of failure to follow the
    Way of the Ancestors
  • Disharmony conflict between Heaven Earth,
    between the ancestors us and between humans
    here on earth
  • Solution of problem of suffering reestablish
    harmony

40
Confuciuss primary goal
Confucius say
  • order, harmony, peace, happiness in this life
    here on earth

(Only a passing secondary interest in
transcendental salvation.)
41
Theory of Value
  • The value of art (aesthetics) - the moral
    political purposes of art (especially music)
  • Right conduct (ethics) - the center of Confucian
    philosophy
  • Social political theory (theory of government)
    - the need for morally intellectually virtuous
    rulers civil servants

42
Li - Propriety (proper conduct)
  • The Five Constant Relationships
  • parent-child
  • husband-wife
  • elder sibling-younger sibling
  • elder friend-younger friend
  • ruler-subject
  • The Rectification of Names (Zheng-ming) (proper
    use of language) (Analects, 205)
  • The Doctrine of the Mean (Zhongyong) Avoid the
    extremes of too much and too little.

43
Filial Piety (Xiao, Hsiao)(devotion to
reverence for parents family)
  • The institution of the family is the foundation
    of a well-ordered civilized society (grounded
    mainly on respect of children for parents)
  • Respect for age (experience wisdom)

(Analects, 205-6)
44
Ritual Propriety
  • proper practice of traditional rites
  • (Political ceremony, worship of ancestors,
    Heaven, Earth, misc. animistic spirits funeral
    services sacrifices in honor of parents etc.)

45
Wen learning the arts (Literally, Writing,
Metaphorically, Civilization)
  • The importance of culture in the creation
    maintenance of a well-ordered society
  • Studying learning
  • The arts - especially music

(Confucius composed a Book of Music Yueh
Jing, which is sometimes referred to as a sixth
classic.)
46
Confuciuss Political Philosophy
  • Emperor is the ultimate father
  • Te - the union of power virtue
  • The characteristics of a good ruler (or civil
    servant)
  • moral goodness (virtue propriety)
  • rationality
  • moderation
  • Benevolence
  • Those who follow receive/retain the
  • Mandate of Heaven

(Analects, 209-11)
47
Lao Tzu(6th century BC?)and the
  • Tao Te Ching
  • (Dow Deh Jing)

Also known as Laotse, Laozi, Li Erh, Li Tan,
Lao Tan.
48
Taoist Critique of Confucianism
  • Confucian Virtues and regulations
  • humaneness and righteousness
  • like web-toes, extra-fingers, and other physical
    superfluity
  • not a part of human nature their existence is of
    no meaningful value
  • not attributes of humanity because they were used
    to pursue honor and wealth, thus were the sources
    of greed
  • along with the rites and music, caused confusions
    in the world
  • what made people superior men what caused
    people to twist their nature and die for
  • Good person
  • one who accepts the given characteristics and
    knows his/her own self
  • One who accepts the nature of things as one finds
    it

49
Taoism
  • Taoism valued speculative thought
  • Questioned and sometimes repudiated Confucian
    values
  • rejected all other artificial devices of
    civilization
  • mocked ritual and propriety and decried group
    conventions
  • pessimistic about society
  • man is not capable of keeping order and safety in
    society
  • social man is a misguided being
  • sought nature as refuge from mans world
  • scorned government, feared progress and
    civilization
  • wary of technical skills
  • naturalism

50
According to tradition,Lao Tzu (The Old Boy)
  • was born in 604 BC in the Chu Province,
  • had a long career as the royal historian-librarian
    -archivist in the Chou capital of Lo-yang,
  • (after becoming disillusioned as a result of
    the increasing decline of the Chou dynasty) left
    China for Tibet or India late in the 6th (or
    perhaps early in the 5th) century BC.
  • Before leaving, however, he recorded his
    philosophical insights in a short book, the Tao
    Te Ching (also known as the Lao Tzu), which is
    one of the foundational classics of
    Philosophical Taoism.

51
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52
A second major primary source of Philosophical
Taoism is
  • The Book of Chuang Tzu,
  • by
  • Chuang Tzu
  • (also known as Chuang Chou)
  • (c. 369-286 BC)

53
Taoism Evolved both into a
Taoism starts as a philosophy but Later
  • a philosophy
  • a religion.

(More so than Confucianism)
54
TAO DOW DAO
1. The ultimate, transcendental Ground of
Being 2. The way or law of nature 3. A life in
accord with the way or law of nature
55
The TAO is
a metaphysical first principle that embraces and
underlies all being, a vast Oneness that precedes
and in some mysterious manner generates the
endlessly diverse forms of the world . . . .
Unknowable as the tao may be in essence, one
must somehow learn to sense its presence and
movement in order to bring ones own life and
movements into harmony with it. The aim of the
text . . . is to impart to the reader, through
hints, symbols, and paradoxical utterances, such
an intuitive grasp of the tao and the vital
ability to move with it rather than counter to
it. (Burton Watson)
56
Te (Duh)
  • denotes a moral power or virtue characteristic
    of a person who follows the correct course of
    conduct . . . . In Taoism, te is the virtue or
    power that one acquires through being in accord
    with the tao, what one gets from the tao.
    (Burton Watson)

57
Yin Yang
The power (Te) of the TAO is expressed in the
cosmos in accordance with the Yin/Yang principle.
58
Yang and Yin (Revisited)
59
The cosmos(universe, nature)
Taoist metaphysics - Ontology/Cosmology -
TAO - TE - Yin/Yang - The natural
order
  • is an ever-changing expression blend of Yin and
    Yang, full of the power (Te) of the TAO.

60
Taoist theology
  • The TAO is the highest reality. It is the Ground
    of Being but it is not God or a god. It is
    the absolutely transcendent and incomprehensible
    Source of the natural world (the universe). The
    TAO is beyond sensation, beyond thought, beyond
    imagination, beyond words, etc. It is knowable
    only through direct mystical experience or
    intuition.
  • Gods, good spirits, and demons exist as
    expressions of the power (Te) of the TAO. These
    spiritual powers can be accessed and harnessed
    through various magical rituals.

61
Philosophical Anthropology The Taoist perspective
on human nature the human predicament
  • Humanity is merely one of the Ten Thousand
    Things manifested in nature, one animal species
    among others.
  • However, human beings (unlike other animals) have
    the power of free choice. This enables them to
    act contrary to nature (contrary to the TAO), to
    become alienated from the Way.
  • Humans can choose to separate themselves from the
    natural order, and they can pursue things they
    want in addition to things they need.
  • This leads to an unnatural existence filled with
    various kinds of pain suffering.

62
The Solution to The Human Predicament
  • Back to nature back to the TAO.
  • The practice of wu-wei (non-stress, effortless
    action, action without friction conflict,
    swimming with the current) -- the simple, natural
    life.
  • Go with the flow.
  • Chillax

63
Lao-tzus Critique of Confucianism (Quotations)
  • The person of superior integrity
  • Does not insist upon (a display of) his
    integrity.
  • The person of inferior integrity
  • Never loses sight of his integrity
  • For this reason, he lacks integrity.
  • .
  • When the Way is lost, afterward comes integrity.
  • When integrity is lost, afterward comes
    humaneness.
  • When humaneness is lost, afterward comes
    righteousness.
  • When the righteousness is lost, afterward comes
    etiquette.
  • Etiquette is the attenuation of trustworthiness,
  • And the source of disorder .
  • Foreknowledge is but the blossomy ornament of the
    Way,
  • And the source of ignorance.

64
Lao-tzus Critique of Confucianism (II)
  • Let there be a small state with few people,
  • Where military devices find no use
  • Let the people look solemnly upon death,
  • And banish the thought of moving elsewhere.
  • They may have carts and boats,
  • But there is no reason to ride them
  • They may have armor and weapons,
  • But they have no reason to display them.
  • Let the people go back to tying knots to keep
    records
  • Let their food be savory, their clothes
    beautiful, their customs pleasurable, and their
    dwellings secure.
  • Though they may gaze across at a neighboring
    state,
  • And hear the sounds of its dogs and chickens,
  • The people will never travel back and forth,
  • Till they die of old age.

65
Taoist Critique of Confucianism (iii)
  • Confucian pursuit of knowledge
  • interfered with the innate characteristics of
    things
  • created distinction between men and other beings
  • men separated themselves from the birds and the
    beasts
  • treated the birds and the beasts as their
    possessions
  • created mechanic devices to hunt (or kill)
    animals and nature
  • complicated life, provoked debates, and divided
    people and all creatures
  • life should be as simple as the simplicity of
    unhewn log
  • caused contention for profits and fame
  • did not help people to realize and appreciate the
    Tao, but would move people away from the Tao

66
Nubia
67
Nubia was a great civilization that developed
along the Nile River south of Egypt. They shared
many of the same cultural traits as Egypt such as
religion, architecture and art.
68
These are the pyramid of Ancient Nubia. They were
used as tombs. Although they are similar to those
of Ancient Egypt, they have some differences.
Compare these pyramids with those of ancient
Egypt.
69
Nubian Pyramids
70
The Land of Nubia
For many centuries, the people and culture of
Ancient Nubia were a mystery to the world. Even
the Ancient Greeks wrote about an advanced
culture that was mostly unknown to other
civilizations of the time.
71
One reason little was known about the culture was
that they did not write down their history until
late in ancient times. Another reason is that
they were isolated geographically. Outside people
would need to cross harsh desert or many
waterfalls, called cataracts, to reach Nubia.
T
I
K
N
W
D
Nubian writing was similar to Egyptian writing
but developed into a completely separate language
later in time.
72
Ancient Nubia was a great kingdom that produced
many resources like gold, ivory, copper,
frankincense and ebony.
Nubia was also known as Kush and The Land of the
Bow. Nubian archers (warriors who used a bow and
arrow) were feared by all who saw them in battle.
Nubia had a long line of powerful kings. They
were often at war with Egypt, to the North. From
about 2,000 to 1,000 BC, Egypt controlled Nubia
but when Egypt weakened, Nubia came north and
conquered Egypt (800-700 BC.)
A frankincense tree. The resin was used to make
good smelling incense.
73
Kush and Meroe
74
Lower Nubia
75
Lower Nubia Periods
  • Lower Nubia lower reaches of Middle Nile (north
    on map)
  • A Group Culture 3900 to 2900 BC
  • C Group Culture 2500 to 1500 BC
  • (direct Kushitic influence in this area between
    1800-1500)
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Kush (Napata as capital) 900 to 664 BC

76
Lower Nubia A Group Culture
  • 3900 to 2900 BC Origins
  • Few Settlements along Nile only
  • Cemeteries near edge of desert
  • Farming, collecting, hunting, pastoralism
  • Trade with Egypt seen in grave goods some
    social differences
  • Trade to Egypt Ivory, skins, ebony

77
Lower Nubia A Group Culture
  • 3900 to 2900 BC
  • Many more prestige goods in graves in later times
  • Perhaps kings by 3000 BC because there are
    elaborate tombs
  • Elaborate ceramics
  • Disappeared ca. 2900. Forced south by powerful
    Pharoahs?

78
Lower Nubia C Group Culture
  • 2,500 to 1,500 BC
  • Related to Kerma Culture in south
  • Lived along banks of Nile
  • Had similar cemeteries, many have been excavated
  • Pastoralism (cows) important
  • Lots of trade with Egypt
  • At 2000 BC Egyptian hegemony extended in region

79
Tumulus Tomb
80
Cross-section of Tumulus Tomb
81
Group C Burial, from Tumulus Structure
82
Lower Nubia, Group C Culture First Egyptian
Occupation 2000 to 1800 BC
  • Egyptian Middle Kingdom controlled this region
    2000 to 1800 BC
  • Egyptian fortresses built near 2nd cataractas
    protection against Kush to the south
  • ------------
  • Heavy trade resumed in 1800 to 1500 period
    richer graves

83
Kush (aka Upper Nubia)
  • KUSH

Located between 3rd 4th Cataracts
Kerma Town
84
Upper Nubia or Kush Periods
  • Upper Nubia (south on map)
  • Early Kerma 2500 to 2050 BC
  • Middle Kerma 2050-1785 BC
  • Classic Kerma 1785 to 1500 BC
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • Meroitic Period 295 to 320 AD

85
Upper Nubia Kerma
  • Kerma Culture 2500 to 1500 BC
  • Kerma town most important
  • By Classic period (1785--1500 BC large tumulus
    tombs for kings hundreds of human sacrifices
  • Spread control into lower Nubia after Egyptian
    withdrawal in 1800

86
Deffufa at Kerma c. 1785-1554 BC
Bonnets Excavations here of Classic Period
87
Kush under Egyptian Domination
  • Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • New Kingdom campaigns for 1 century created
    province of Egypt
  • Lower region was Wawat Upper region was Kush
  • Wawat directly colonized, many Egyptian cultural
    features
  • Young people served in Egyptian Court

88
Kush Egyptian Colonial Period 1500 to 1100 BC
  • Many temples established in lower Nubia.
  • Most famous is Abu Sembel honoring Ramesses II
  • Egypt withdrew ca. 1000 BC

89
Colonial Period at Abu Sembel
90
Colonial Nubians at Thebes
91
Jelbel Barkel Center of Amon Priesthood
Local Gods Worshiped here
92
Kush Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • NAPATA

93
Kush Napata as Capital of an Imperial Kingdom
  • Napata Period 900 to 295 BC
  • King Kashta started northern push ca. 770--750 BC
  • King Piye conquered Delta region but lived in
    Napata capital started 25th dynasty
  • 25th dynasty pushed out of Egypt by Assyrians ca.
    664
  • Kushite kings used title of Pharaoh

94
King Piye Nubian Pharaoh of Egypt
95
Kush Napata Period900 to 295 BC
  • Kings built pyramids over tombs
  • Smaller scale than Egypt
  • 60-70 degree angles
  • Some smooth, some stepped
  • Wooden or stone coffins
  • Mumification
  • Deeply influenced by Egyptian values

96
Kush Pyramids
97
Nubian Pyramids
98
Nubian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids
same
  • Smaller
  • Steeper
  • Large
  • Big blocks
  • Triangular
  • Tombs

different
different
99
A King of Kush
100
Conoptic Jar
  • Egyptian
  • Influence
  • Queen
  • Alakhebasken

101
Rams Head
  • Incorporates
  • Egyptian
  • Themes

102
Funerary Images modeled on Egypt
103
Kush Napata Period900 to 295 BC
  • Other Characteristics
  • Commoner graves 2 classes, one Egyptian
    influenced
  • Wealth of rulers derived from gold mined in
    eastern desert

104
Kush Meroitic Period 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Capital moved to Meroe (between 5th and 6th
    cataracts)
  • Reasons for shift unclear trade or independence
    from religious centers in lower Nubia
  • 2nd century BC marks start of Meroitic script,
    still untranslated
  • Geneologies important on tombs

105
Meroe Map
  • ISLAND
  • OF
  • MEROE
  • NAQA

106
Meroitic Writing Never Decoded
107
Temple Meroe
108
Kiosks (Temples)
109
Meroitic Gold Jakal
  • 1st Century
  • BC

110
Pyramids at Meroe
111
Kush Meroitic 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Royal tombs have pyramid shapes
  • Chapels attached to E. faces - similar to Napata
  • Later examples have rubble cores
  • Human sacrifices (6) dogs, horses, camels
  • Houses of burned and mud brick
  • Many temples for Amon

112
Meroe Pyramid Tombs
113
Cups from Meroe
114
Lions Temple Naqa
  • Depictions on
  • Temple face
  • Show power
  • Of Queens or
  • Candake

115
Painting showing power of Queens
116
Relief Celebrating Meroitic Queen
117
Meroitic Grave
118
Elephant Sculpture
119
Kush Meroitic 295 BC to 320 AD
  • Local gods also worshiped
  • Nubia a source of gold for Ptolemaic kings after
    300 BC
  • Reestablished hegemony over lower Nubia after 23
    BC
  • Eclipsed in region by Axum in 4th century AD

120
Kingdom of Aksum, Ethiopia ca. 1800 yrs. B.P.
121
Axum Stelae
122
Axum Red Sea Trade ca. 200 to 600 AD
123
Mesoamerican Civilizations
  • Introduction

124
Peoples of the Americas
  • New questions about the origins of the peoples of
    the Americas Kennewick Man China Thesis.
  • New theories about the time periods for migration
    now pushed back to about 50,000 years ago,
    rather than 10,000 years ago.
  • New theories about the ways that migration
    occurred.

125
Mesoamerican Culture Area
126
Characteristics of Mesoamerican Civilizations
  • Complex political and religious systems
  • Ball courts alligned N/S with rings Ball Game
    called Tlachtli by the Aztecs and Pok Ta Pok by
    the Maya
  • Maize agriculture (processed with ash or lime)
  • Solar calendrical system based on 18 months (20
    days each) with 5 days added at the new year tied
    to complex religious belief systems (365 days)
    and Lunar (based on 260 days) Calendar round
    of 52 years.
  • Obsidian use for sophisticated (surgical and
    ceremonial) knife production
  • Ritual use of paper (amate) and rubber (used for
    the ball game)
  • Pyramid construction
  • Lip ornaments
  • Chinampa and other forms of irrigated agriculture
  • Domestication of New World plants such as
    amaranth, avocados, beans, coco, corn, tomato,
    papaya, peppers, etc.

127
The Mesoamerican Calendar
  • Solar calendrical system based on 18 months (20
    days each) with 5 days added at the new year tied
    to complex religious belief systems (365 days)
  • Lunar (based on 260 days)
  • Calendar round of 52 years.

128
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129
Olmec The Rubber People
  • The Mesoamerican Mother Culture
  • Basalt/Colossal Heads
  • Human Imagery
  • Early Writing
  • Big Cats/Totemic Imagery
  • Veneration of Green Stone
  • Ritual Killing/ Cultural Disappearance

130
OLMEC IMAGES FROM LA VENTA, SAN LORENZO AND THE
XALAPA MUSEUM, VERACRUZ
Were jaguar
131
Bridging WorldsCommuning with the After World
  • Olmec Heartland-- Isthmus of Tuantepec
  • Laguna de Los Cerros--Sacred City

132
Bridging WorldsSacred Pyramid La Venta
133
Bridging Worlds La Venta, Middle Formative
Subterranean Mask
134
Bridging Worlds
La Venta, Large scale Basal Celts
La Venta Offering 4 Standing Figures and Celts,
Middle Formative
135
Basalt Colossal Heads San Lorenzo Monument 1
and 4Early Fromative Period
136
Human Imagery
Early Naturalism Skull Shaping (Early Formative,
Ceramic, Las Bocas, Puebla)
137
Human Imagery
Skeleton Woman--Early Formative, Laguna de los
Cerros, Veracruz
  • Acrobat, Vessel--Early Formative, Tlatilco

138
Human Imagery Baby Figurine, Ceramic, Early
Formative, Xochipala (Below)
  • Darwfs, Hematite and Jade, Cerro de Las Mesas,
    Veracruz, Middle Formative (Right)

139
Human ImageryThe WrestlerLate
FormativeBasalt, Veracruz
140
Early WritingRoyal LinageIconographic Design
141
Early Writing Incised Jaguar Ceramic,
Tlapacoya,Early Formative (Left)Incised Mask,
Oaxaca, Middle Formative (Right)
142
Big Cats Were Jaguar the Totemic Ancestor
143
Big Cats Seated Figure Holding Were-Jaguar
InfantLas Limas (Jesus Carranza)Monument
1Middle Formative, Greenstone
144
Big Cats, Veneration of GreenstoneRiding a
Jaguar, Middle Formative (Below)Votive
Offering(Unknown Providence)Middle Formative
(Right)
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