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Managing Quality Integrating the Supply Chain S. Thomas Foster

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Ishikawa's basic seven tools of quality. Seven new tools for improvement ... Ishikawa's Seven Basic Tools of Quality. Scatter Diagrams ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Quality Integrating the Supply Chain S. Thomas Foster


1
Managing QualityIntegrating the Supply Chain S.
Thomas Foster
Chapter 10 The Tools of Quality
2
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Chapter 10

Improving the system Ishikawas basic seven tools of quality Seven new tools for improvement Other tools for performance measurement

3
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Improving the System

The business must balance the needs of the basic functional areas Marketing Accounting Human Resources Operations Engineering Strategy

4
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Improving the System

A quality system uses the business model with a focus on the customer and includes the dynamics of continual improvement.

5
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A closer look at Quality Check sheets Histograms Scatter plots

6
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Control charts Cause and effect diagrams Pareto analysis And - Seven new tools for improvement (N7)

7
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A picture of the process The first step of the process is to create a map of the process as it exists.

8
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A picture of the process Using simple symbols chart the process from the beginning.

9
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A picture of the process Develop a general process map and then fill it out by adding more of sub-flow-diagrams

10
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A picture of the process Determine which steps add value to the process and which dont in an effort to simplify the work.

11
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Process maps A picture of the process Before simplifying work, determine whether the work really needs to be done in the first place.

12
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

A closer look at quality Extended Process Mapping of Supply Chains Map Supplier process Receiving Internal Processes Shipping Customer service processes

13
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Check Sheets Data gathering tools that can be used in forming histograms They can be either tabular or schematic

14
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Histograms A representation of data in a bar chart format Also used to observe the shape of data. How are the data distributed?

15
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Histograms The are several rules for developing histograms The width of the histogram bars must be consistent The classes mutually exclusive and all-inclusive or collective exhaustive

16
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

A rule of thumb for the number of classes

of Observations of Classes
9 to 16 4
17 to 32 5
33 to 64 6
65 to 128 7
129 to 256 8
17
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Scatter Diagrams Used to examine the relationship between variables Sometimes used to identify indicator variables in organization Quite easy to develop using the charting facilities in spreadsheets packages such as Excel.
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Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Scatter Diagrams
19
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Control charts Used to determine whether a process will produce a product or process with consistent measurable properties Covered in Chapters 12 and 13
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Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Cause and effect diagrams The Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram Looks like the skeleton of a fish The head is the problem The ribs are the major causes Sub-causes forming smaller bones off of the ribs.

21
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Cause and effect diagrams State the problem clearly in the head of the fish Draw the backbone and ribs Ask the participants to identify the major causes of the problem Continue to fill out the diagram asking Why? about each problem or cause

22
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Cause and effect diagrams It usually takes no five levels of questioning Five whys View the diagram and identify core causes Set to goals to address the core causes.

23
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Pareto Analysis Aided by the 80/20 rule. 80 of the problems are created by 20 of the causes

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Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Pareto Analysis Information must be selected based on types or classification of defects Data must be collected and classified into categories A frequency chart is constructed showing the number of occurrences



25
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Pareto Analysis Steps used include Gathering categorical data relating to quality Problems Drawing a frequency chart Focusing on the tallest bars of the frequency chart first



26
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) GOAL/QPC recommends that the N7 tools be used in a Cycle of Activity

27
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

The Affinity Diagram creates a hierarchy of ideas Identify the problem Have the team members write down issues Allow 10 minutes for this activity Lay out the written cards on a flat surface so that all can see them

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Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

The Affinity Diagram creates a hierarchy of ideas Let everyone move the cards into groups silently If you disagree say nothing but move the card You have reached consensus when all cards are in groups and no one is moving them Draw the affinity diagram

29
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram Construct an affinity diagram Examine the cards one by one asking What other issues are caused or influenced by this issue? Draw a one way arrow from the first issue to the second

30
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram Count the number of arrows pointing to each note. Identify the cards with the most issues as the key factors

31
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram Draw a double box around the key factors and brainstorm ways to address these issues

32
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Tree Diagram is useful to identify the steps needed to address the given problem

33
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Prioritization Grid is used to make decisions based on multiple criteria. It involves assigning percentages and weights to each criterion and ranking them

34
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Matrix Diagram is similar to the quality function deployment It is used as a brainstorming tool

35
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Process Decision Program Chart is a tool to help brainstorm possible contingencies. Steps are Develop a tree chart, placing first level boxes in sequential order Moving the second level list implementation details at a fairly high level

36
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Ishikawas Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Process Decision Program Chart is a tool to help brainstorm possible contingencies. Steps are At the third level ask What could go awry? At the fourth level Brainstorm counter measures to the third level Evaluate the countermeasures for feasibility

37
Strategic Quality PlanningThe Tools of Quality
Summary

The B7 and N7 are useful in their simplicity and power Cultural change is needed is needed to ensure that implementation can be successful
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