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Trends in Child Care Licensing

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Findings about State child care licensing programs and policies ... Licensing regulations and enforcement systems provide a baseline of protection ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Trends in Child Care Licensing


1
Trends in Child Care Licensing
  • Presented by
  • Abby Cohen and Nancy vonBargen NCCIC Technical
    Assistance Specialists

2009 National Smart Start Conference May 7, 2009
2
Presentation Overview
  • Why is licensing important?
  • Introduction to the 2007 Child Care Licensing
    Study
  • Findings about State child care licensing
    programs and policies
  • Finding about licensing regulations for child
    care facilities

3
WHY IS LICENSING IMPORTANT?
4
Licensing An Integral Part of the ECE System
  • The foundation of the early care and education
    (ECE) system, i.e., the bricks and mortar of
    quality care
  • All parts of the system must work collaboratively
    in order to ensure children grow and develop to
    their fullest potential in a nurturing environment

5
Why Is Licensing Important?
  • Licensing regulations and enforcement systems
    provide a baseline of protection for children in
    care
  • Licensing agencies are a point of contact for
    providers and parents seeking quality care

6
What Is Child Care Licensing?
  • Consumer protection through prevention
  • Equal protection
  • No exemptions
  • Foundation of quality
  • Reduction of the risks associated with the
    following
  • Injury
  • Unsafe buildings and fire
  • Spread of disease
  • Developmental impairment or cumulative risks

7
DATA SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY
8
Presentation Data
  • Unless otherwise noted, data are from The 2007
    Child Care Center Licensing Study by NCCIC and
    NARA
  • Report released March 2009
  • Report available on the Web at www.naralicensing.o
    rg
  • 2005 study still available on NARAs Web site

9
Data Sources
  • 2007 NARA Child Care Licensing Program Survey
  • States updated data from the 2005 survey
  • Answered some new questions
  • 50 State licensing agencies responded
  • Includes DC
  • Excludes ID, which does not have licensing at the
    State level

10
Data Sources, con.
  • Review of child care licensing regulations posted
    on the National Resource Center for Health and
    Safety in Child Care and Early Education Web site
  • Site is available at http//nrckids.org/STATES/sta
    tes.htm
  • Regulations were from January 1, 2006December
    31, 2007

11
Data Sources, con.
  • Regulations for 3 types of child care facilities
    were reviewed
  • Child care centers
  • Update of 2005 study
  • Small family child care (FCC) homes
  • Large/group FCC homes

12
CHILD CARE LICENSING PROGRAMS AND POLICIES
13
Licensed Facilities
14
Types of Licensed Facilities
  • 50 States license child care facilities
  • No state-level licensing in ID

N 50 States, including DC and excluding ID
15
Family Child Care
  • Small FCC homes not licensed in 7 States
  • AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
  • Large/group FCC homes not licensed in 12 States
  • AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD, ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI

16
Number of Licensed Facilities
17
Licensed Capacity
18
Licensing Staff
19
Licensing Staff Caseloads
  • Estimated caseload across States is 108
    facilities
  • Both centers and FCC homes
  • Range of caseloads
  • Lowest 23 in TN
  • 149 line staff inspect 3,470 facilities
  • Highest 328 in VT
  • 9 line staff inspect 2,949 facilities

20
Inspections and Monitoring
21
Frequency of Inspections
22
Frequency of Licensing Renewal
23
Technical Assistance/Consultation
24
Complaint Investigations
25
Top 4 Licensing Complaintsin 2007
  • Child-staff ratios
  • Supervision
  • Discipline/behavior management
  • Health/Safety/Cleanliness/Nutrition

26
Other Common Complaints
  • Licensed capacity exceeded
  • Lack of staff qualifications/suitability
  • Illegal operation
  • Poor care of children/abuse and neglect
  • Poor administration/record keeping
  • Transportation issues

27
Licensing Information on the Internet
  • From NARA survey responses, 13 States post
    licensing information on the Internet
  • AR, AZ, FL, GA, IN, LA, MI, NH, NY, OH, TX, VA,
    VT
  • Additional 7 states
  • CO, MD, NC, OK, OR, SC, WI
  • Most post full inspection reports and information
    about substantiated complaints

Source NCCIC. (2009, February ). Licensing
information posted on the Internet. Fairfax, VA
NCCIC
28
Enforcement Actions
29
Enforcement Actions
30
Additional Data in Study
  • Types of licensing inspections
  • Inspections and monitoring
  • Full compliance reviews
  • Abbreviated compliance forms
  • Differential monitoring
  • Automation
  • Complaint investigations
  • Licensing fees
  • Licensing staff qualifications and training
  • Licensings role in quality initiatives

31
CHILD CARE FACILITY LICENSING REGULATIONS
32
Licensing Regulations
33
Dates of Center Regulations
N50 States, excluding ID
34
Dates of Small FCC Home Regulations
N44 States, excluding AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
35
Dates of Large/Group FCC Home Regulations
N39 States, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD,
ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
36
Licensing Exemptions
37
Common Exemptions for Centers
N50 States, excluding ID
38
Center Exemptions, con.
N50 States, excluding ID
39
Threshold for Licensing Small FCC Homes
N44 States, excluding AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
40
Threshold for Large/Group FCC Homes
N39 States, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD,
ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
41
Facility Roles and Age Requirements
42
Regulated Center Staff Roles
N50 States, excluding ID
43
Regulated Small FCC Home Roles
N44 States, excluding AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
44
Regulated Large/Group FCC Home Roles
N39 States, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD,
ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
45
Age Ranges for Center Roles
N50 States, excluding ID
46
Age Ranges for FCC Roles
N44 States for small FCC homes, excluding AZ,
ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA N39 States for
large/group FCC homes, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY,
LA, MD, ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
47
Staff Qualifications and Ongoing Training
Requirements
48
Qualifications for Center Staff
N50 States, excluding ID
49
Qualifications for FCC Providers
N44 States for small FCC homes, excluding AZ,
ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA N39 States for
large/group FCC homes, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY,
LA, MD, ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
50
Minimum Preservice Qualifications
  • Most common qualifications
  • Experience alone or with high school diploma/GED
    for center teachers
  • Child Development Associate for center directors
  • Early childhood education (ECE) training clock
    hours for small FCC providers
  • ECE training clock hours for large/group FCC
    providers
  • Many States have requirements for experience
  • Setting, with children, age group, verified,
    supervised

51
Ongoing Hours for Center Staff
N50 States, excluding ID
52
Ongoing Hours for FCC Providers
N44 States for small FCC homes, excluding AZ,
ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA N39 States for
large/group FCC homes, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY,
LA, MD, ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
53
Additional Requirements for Facility Staff
54
Background Checks
55
Health and Safety Training
56
Child-Staff Ratios and Group Size
57
Child-Staff Ratios in Centers
Recommended ratios for centers are from Caring
for Our Children National Health and Safety
Performance Standards Guidelines for Out-of-Home
Child Care Programs, 2nd Edition (2002), by the
American Public Health Association, the American
Academy of Pediatrics, and the Health Resources
and Services Administration. This publication is
available on the Web at http//nrckids.org/CFOC/in
dex.html.
58
Group Size Not Regulated for Centers
  • Number of States that do not regulate group size
    by age of children
  • 13 States for 9 months
  • 14 States for 27 months
  • 16 States for 3 years
  • 16 States for 5 years
  • 21 States for 10 years

N50 States, excluding ID
59
Group Size in Centers
Recommended ratios for centers are from Caring
for Our Children National Health and Safety
Performance Standards Guidelines for Out-of-Home
Child Care Programs, 2nd Edition (2002), by the
American Public Health Association, the American
Academy of Pediatrics, and the Health Resources
and Services Administration. This publication is
available on the Web at http//nrckids.org/CFOC/in
dex.html.
60
Maximum Children Allowed inSmall FCC Homes
N44 States, excluding AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
61
Maximum Children Allowed in Small FCC Homes, con.
N44 States, excluding AZ, ID, LA, NJ, OH, SD, VA
62
Maximum Children Allowed in Large/Group FCC Homes
N39 States, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD,
ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
63
Maximum Children Allowed in Large/Group FCC
Homes, con.
N39 States, excluding AR, DC, ID, KY, LA, MD,
ME, NC, NJ, VT, WA, WI
64
Care of Children
65
Behavior Guidance/Discipline
66
Activities and Equipment for Children
67
Parent Involvement
68
Specialized Care of Children
Note Data about the care of mildly ill children
and drop-in care were not collected for FCC homes.
69
Reducing Risk of SIDS
70
Additional Data in Study
  • Definition of licensed centers
  • Licensing process for FCC
  • Staff hiring requirements
  • Staff health
  • References
  • Childrens health
  • Physical exams
  • Immunizations
  • Nutrition
  • Supervision requirements
  • General and specific times/activities

71
Additional Data in Study, con.
  • Facility requirements
  • Environmental tests and health inspections
  • Square footage
  • Condition of facility and equipment
  • Safety of equipment
  • Outdoor space
  • Fire safety and emergency preparedness
  • Security
  • Transportation
  • Liability and automobile insurance
  • Medical care and related issues
  • Hand washing
  • Diapering
  • Smoking policies
  • Hazardous materials
  • Firearms
  • Animals in facilities

72
Resources
  • NCCIC Information Products about licensing are
    available at http//nccic.acf.hhs.gov/topics/topic
    /index.cfm?topicId2
  • NARA Web site is available at www.naralicensing.or
    g

73
Thank You
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