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Why Exceptional Leadership Prof Jeff Malpas Centre For Applied Philosophy and Ethics University of T

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Is leadership exceptional or is it mundane? Do we need more leadership or less? ... as their rulers lord it over them, and their great ones are tyrants over them. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Why Exceptional Leadership Prof Jeff Malpas Centre For Applied Philosophy and Ethics University of T


1
Why Exceptional Leadership?Prof Jeff
MalpasCentre For Applied Philosophy and
EthicsUniversity of Tasmania
  • (And Why Leadership?)

2
Some questions
  • Is leadership exceptional or is it mundane?
  • Do we need more leadership or less?
  • What is a leader?
  • When is leadership exceptional?
  • Can there be leadership without ethics?

3
The Leader(Der Führer)
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11
What is leadership about?
  • Charisma and personal presence?
  • Oratory and skills of persuasion?
  • Decisiveness and ability to act?
  • Judgment and understanding?
  • Ability of listen and to respond?
  • Ability to enable and support others?
  • Ability to manage oneself?

12
Leadership and recognition
  • Leadership is not about the title you have, but
    about the respect you earn
  • Good leaders are those people whom others are
    willing to follow leadership depends on trust
  • Your legacy as a leader is not something you
    decide, but what others recognise in what you
    have done

13
Leadership and Management
  • Is Leadership the same as management? Is it the
    same as administration?
  • Leadership is distinct from both of these and yet
    both of them often depend upon and incorporate
    skills of leadership just as leadership itself
    depends on skills of management and
    administration
  • No effective management without good leadership
  • No good leadership without effective management

14
Two Theories of Leadership
  • James McGregor Burns Transformational Leadership
    See Leadership (New York Harper, 1978)
  • Robert Greenleaf Servant Leadership See
    Servant Leadership A Journey into the Nature of
    Legitimate Power and Greatness (New York Paulist
    Press, 1977, 2002)

15
Transformational leadership
  • Developed from the work of Max Weber, McGregor
    Burns distinguished true leaders from those who
    merely have a desire for the exercise of power -
    true leadership is transformational and ethical
  • Transformational leadership focuses on ends
    rather than means, and in this respect is opposed
    to bureaucratic forms of leadership that concerns
    itself only means

16
  • our main hope for disenthralling ourselves from
    our overemphasis on power lies more in a
    theoretical, or at least conceptual, effort, than
    in an empirical one. . . . We must see power --
    and leadership - as not things but as
    relationships. We must analyze power in a context
    of human motives and physical constraints. If we
    can come to grips with these aspects of power, we
    can hope to comprehend the true nature of
    leadership - a venture far more intellectually
    daunting than the study of naked power
    (Leadership, p. 11).

17
  • Such leadership occurs when one or more persons
    engage with others in such a way that leaders and
    followers raise one another to higher levels of
    motivation and morality. Their purposes, which
    might have started out as separate but related
    become fused. Power bases are linked not as
    counterweights but as mutual support for common
    purpose. . . . transforming leadership ultimately
    becomes moral in that it raises the level of
    human conduct and ethical aspiration of both
    leader and led, and thus it has transforming
    effect on both (Leadership, p. 20).

18
Servant Leadership
  • According to Greenleaf, leaders function as
    leaders through serving those who follow them
  • Leadership is freely bestowed on leaders in
    virtue of trust willingness to follow
  • Servant leadership is also transformational

19
  • So Jesus called them and said to them, You know
    that among the Gentiles those whom they recognize
    as their rulers lord it over them, and their
    great ones are tyrants over them. But it is not
    so among you but whoever wishes to become great
    among you must be your servant, and whoever
    wishes to be first among you must be slave of
    all. For the Son of Man came not to be served but
    to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for
    many. (Mark 10, 42-45)

20
Greenleafs test of leadership
  • Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while
    being served, become healthier, wiser, freer,
    more autonomous, more likely themselves to become
    servants? And, what is the effect on the least
    privileged in society? Will they benefit or at
    least not be further deprived? (Servant
    Leadership, p. 27).

21
The elements of servant leadership
  • - Listening - Empathy
  • - Healing - Awareness
  • - Persuasion - Conceptualisation
  • - Foresight - Stewardship
  • - Commitment to the growth of people
  • - Building Community

22
Leadership and personality
  • Leadership requires personal skills, but
    leadership is not merely about individual
    personality
  • Leadership is about character, but character has
    to be here understood as based in a body of
    ethical capacities and modes of awareness that
    may be possessed by people with very different
    personalities
  • Leadership is about negotiating difference and
    enabling community, and this is as much cognitive
    as it is emotional, collective rather than
    individual

23
Mintzberg and community-ship
  • Burns and Greenleaf both emphasise leadership as
    about the formation of communities and about
    facilitating others rather than advancing
    oneself.
  • Renowned management theorist Henry Mintzberg has
    argued that we need less leadership not more
  • What we really need, says Mintzberg, is what he
    calls community-ship
  • See Henry Mintzberg, Community-ship is the
    Answer, Financial Times, October 23, 2006, but
    also many other works.

24
  • We have this obsession with leadership. Its
    intention may to be to empower people, but its
    effect is often to disempower them. By focusing
    on the single person, even in the context of
    others, leadership becomes part of the syndrome
    of individuality that is sweeping the world and
    undermining organisations in particular and
    communities in general (Mintzberg, 2006)

25
  • Isnt it time to think of our organisations as
    communities of cooperation, and in so doing put
    leadership in its place not gone, but alongside
    other important social processes This obsession
    with leadership is the cause of many of the
    worlds problems. And with this, let us get rid
    of the cult of leadership, striking at least one
    blow at our increasing obsession with
    individuality (Mintzberg, 2006).

26
Ethics, leadership, and community
  • Mintzbergs comments connect with
  • a growing emphasis on the need for more
    decentralised and distributing models of
    organisations with a focus on community and
    collective models of decision-making
  • with a developing contemporary emphasis on the
    need for greater connection between leadership
    and ethics with a focus on value-centred models
    of organisational structure and culture

27
  • Mintzbergs comments also connect with recent
    critiques of individual and economist models in
    business that emphasise competitiveness and
    individual performance and that have been seen
    as an element in the current financial crisis
    (and that were already evident in previous
    collapses such as Enron)
  • See S. Ghoshal, Bad Management Theories Are
    Destroying Good Management Practices, Academy of
    Learning and Management Education 4, (2005) 75-91
    M. P. Huehn, Unenlightened Economism The
    Antecedents of Bad Corporate Governance and
    Ethical Decline, Journal of Business Ethics 81
    (2007), 823-835.

28
The varieties of leadership
  • The form of leadership will vary with social and
    cultural circumstance - eg in military situations
    leadership will inevitably differ compared to
    civil situations most significantly it will
    vary according to the availability of knowledge
    and expertise
  • Whatever its form, good leadership always depends
    on trust weak leadership relies on fear and the
    imposition of the will of the leader the weak
    leader is preoccupied with the appearance of
    strength (the head-kicker who gets results)

29
Why be concerned with leadership?
  • Good leadership is the basis for strong
    organisations and functioning communities
  • Good leadership is the basis of effective
    decision-making and problem solving
  • Good leadership enables people to work together
    for the benefit of all
  • Good leadership is at the heart of good business
    and good governance

30
Some answers
  • Leadership is mundane it is an essential part
    of the working of communities
  • If leadership means the privileging of the
    individual wielder of power then less leadership
    is needed, not more
  • What is a leader but someone who facilitates a
    community to articulate its own vision and
    enable its realisation, and leadership is
    exceptional when it achieves this at a
    superlative level
  • There can be no leadership without ethics
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