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Title: II.%20The%20Magic%20of%20Synchronous%20and%20Asynchronous%20Tools%20and%20Techniques


1
II. The Magic of Synchronous and Asynchronous
Tools and Techniques
  • Curt Bonk, Professor, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare and SurveyShare
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk
  • http//CourseShare.com

2
Ten Minnie-Myths of E-Learning and the Data to
Dispel Them (Corporate)
  • Dr. Curtis J. Bonk
  • Alias Mickey Mouse
  • President, CourseShare.com
  • Associate Professor, Indiana University
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk,
    cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
  • With supporting Help from
  • Ms. Minnie Mouse
  • Orlando, Florida
  • Minnie_at_disney.com

3
Corporate E-Learning Myths
For full report, see http//PublicationShare.com
4
Myth 1. E-learning will soon go away.
5
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6
Myth 2. E-learning can now take place at home
and on the road.
7
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8
Myth 3. Everyone is evaluating e-learning but us.
9
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10
Myth 4. Learner completion rate has magical
importance.
11
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12
Myth 5. Work-related incentives are important in
motivating e-learners.
13
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14
Myth 6. Thiagi has convinced the world of the
need for interactivity and social ice-breakers.
15
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16
Myth 7. Watch outtrainers will soon be out of a
job.
17
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18
Myth 8. Traditional instructional strategies
(e.g., lecture, role play, etc.) will not work
online.
19
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21
Myth 9. Trainers operate alone and do not want
to give away trade secrets.
22
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23
Myth 10. Trainers are loyal.
24
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25
Want a copy of the report??? See
PublicationShare.com
26
Free Reports!!!
27
What are your e-learning myths???
28
II. E-Learning Magic.or lack thereof
29
Lack of Motivation or Incentive to Complete!!!
  • Corporate Study
  • 55 did not track or did not know their
    completion rates
  • Of those that did, 22 reported completion rates
    of less than a fourth of students.
  • Nearly half reported less than 50 completion
    rates
  • Only 2 reported 100 completion.

30
E-Learning Harnessing the hype. Cohen
Payiatakis (2002, Feb). Performance Improvement,
41(7), 7-15.
  • both instructional and graphic (design)must be
    compelling and engaging enough to keep the
    learner involved, interested, and stimulatedThe
    ideal future is a learning experience designed to
    be memorable, motivational, and magical if it is
    to make a lasting impact on the capabilities of
    the learner.

31
Motivating Employees During Down Times, Training
Magazine, April 2002
  • True motivation comes from within. Programs of
    manipulation, incentive schemes and other
    gimmicks never bring about the ongoing change
    that is truly needed. Ultimately, we have to be
    inwardly motivated and emotionally engaged while
    doing it.
  • R. Brayton Bowen, Author
  • of Recognizing and
  • Rewarding Employees.

32
Online Training Boring? From Forrester, Michelle
Delio (2000), Wired News. (Interviewed 40
training managers and knowledge officers)
33
Six Types of E-learning Content Clark Aldrich, A
Field Guide to Educational Simulations
  1. Extended Books
  2. Extended Lectures
  3. Extended Communities
  4. Extended Expert Access
  5. Embedded Help
  6. Simulations

34
Part III. Motivational Strategies Asynchronous
E-Learning
35
Types of Asynchronous Activities
  1. Online Testing
  2. Learner-Content Interactions
  3. Scenarios
  4. Games and Simulations
  5. Sharing Perspectives from Cases, Internships,
    Jobs, Field Experiences
  6. Collaborative or Virtual Team Writing
  7. Reflection on Online Cases
  8. Web Resource Reviews
  9. Concept Mapping
  10. Annotations and Animations in E-Books

36
1. Online Testing
37
1. Online Exams and Gradebooks
38
Test Selection Criteria (Hezel, 1999 Perry
Colon, 2001)
  • Easy to Configure Items and Test
  • Handle Symbols, Timed Tests
  • Scheduling of Feedback (immediate?)
  • Flexible Scoring and Reporting
  • (first, last, ave, by individual or group)
  • Easy to Pick Items for Randomizing
  • Randomize Answers Within a Question
  • Weighting of Answer Options
  • Web Resource http//www.indiana.edu/best/

39
Electronic Gradebooks (Vockell Fiore, 1993)
  • Calculate scores, store info
  • Weight scores
  • Flag students with certain characteristics
  • Print reports by individual or group
  • Provide prompt feedback
  • But inflexible, impersonal, can be incorrect

40
2. Learner-Content Interactions (Option 6)
41
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Multiple Choice Pros
  • Simple to figure out
  • Provides new info
  • Cheap to create
  • Multiple Choice Cons
  • Can lead the learner too much
  • Railroads people into a certain decision
  • May be too easy
  • May not be sufficiently rich to capture real world

42
2. More Learner Content Interaction from Option 6
43
2. Even More Option 6 (Option 7?)
44
3. Scenarios Wisdom Tools Time-Revealed
Scenarios (TRS)
45
Strengths of Scenarios per Marty Siegel (May,
2003)
  • They take little time to build
  • They are (in comparison) cheap to build and
    implement weeks vs. months (soon, even in days!)
  • They follow a fixed path (some may see this as a
    flaw, but it's not) the designer controls the
    path experience thus, important
  • Paths are always experienced.
  • Because they describe a reality, like a good
    novel, it can feel VERY realistic.

46
WisdomTools Scenarios
  • Scenarios
  • Incorporate case study methodology, simulation
    and story-telling
  • Occur in a rich context and are authentic in form
  • Allow exploration of multiple paths from various
    perspectives
  • Involve interactive real-world tasks with no
    single, correct answer

47
Why Scenarios?
  • Scenarios equip individuals or teams to achieve
    results on mission critical or complex issues
  • Scenarios create a shared experience at the
    learners convenience
  • Learners can see failure, be challenged by
    other viewpoints, reflect and apply new learning,
    build community and culture
  • Self and group assessment provided via quizzes,
    surveys, and facilitators/coaches
  • Scenarios lead to insight, judgment, and
    strategic thinking

48
4. Games and Simulations
  • Theres something new on the horizon, though
    computer-based soft skills simulations, which let
    learners practice skills such as negotiation and
    team building.
  • Clark Aldrich, The State of Simulations, Sept.
    2001, Online Learning

49
  • 4. A. Simple Games (7-Down)
  • (see Thiagi.com
  • Or deepfun.com)
  • Puzzle games
  • Solve puzzle against timer
  • Learn concepts
  • Compete
  • Get points

50
4. Games and Simulations B. Online Jeopardy
Game www.km-solutions.biz/caa/quiz.zip
51
Simulation Based
Airline Flight Simulators
SimuLearn
Off-the-Shelf Flight Simulators
The Sims
Medal of Honor
Accenture/Indeliq
Solitaire
Visual Purple
Cognitive Arts
Wheel of Fortune
Will Interactive
Games2Train
You Dont Know Jack
Choose-your-own Adventure
Game based
Story Based
(Clark Aldrich, 2003)
52
Simulation-Based Number of Calculations/Turn (Cla
rk Aldrich, 2003)
1000K
100K
10K
1000
100
10
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
53
Simu-game-story Development Budget (Clark
Aldrich, 2003)
2M
500K
50K
5K
1990
1995
2000
2005
54
Mark Brodsky, May 7, 2003
  • Another business driver that will ultimately
    perpetuate an important trend in e-learning,
    specifically the greater use of simulation-based
    e-learning, is the migration of more and more
    services to automated or "self-service"
    applications. With the greater use of
    self-service applications, the type of training
    organizations provide their employees will
    change.

55
Marty Siegel, IU Professor, and Founder of Wisdom
Tools (May, 2003)
  • Simulations are data driven. There's a model of
    behavior that underlies them, simulating some
    process or behavior.
  • A simulation approximates reality. It is not
    reality.
  • Simulations allow users to interact with
    characters or events or processes and see what
    happens.
  • They're very interactive (most of the time) and
    can include sophisticated graphics.
  • Many computer games employ simulation technology.
    MAXIS makes great games.

56
Marty Siegel, IU Professor, and Founder of Wisdom
Tools
  • If you're building a game and selling 10s of
    thousands of copies, you can invest a lot to
    build them and sell them for 50 a pop.
  • If you're using them for training, they'll still
    cost a bundle to build, and you'll need to charge
    a lot to implement (that is, if the simulation is
    specific to a company if it's general, then you
    can sell it for less it still costs a bundled to
    produce).... And it takes a lot of time to
    produce.

57
4D. Turn Based Simulations (e.g., Chess)
58
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Turn-Based Simulation Pros
  • Promotes contemplation, thoughtfulness, and
    reflection
  • Less expensive
  • Sense of flow
  • Turn-Based Simulation Cons
  • Not real
  • People get more manipulative
  • Need to be highly positive experiences

59
4E. Complex Virtual Worlds/Virtual Reality
  • Avatars--representations of people
  • Objects--representations of objects
  • Maps--the landscape which can be explored
  • Bots--artificial intelligence

60
The Sims What will strike you? Clark Aldrich,
Simulations and the Future of Learning,
Jossey-Bass, Fall 2003
  • Rudimentary and incomplete the game feels
  • The Sims dont talk, they mumble, cleaning the
    house is a drag
  • The interface is confusing
  • How much fun it is
  • Earning money is rewarding, you can decorate your
    house, flirt with the neighbors spouse, buy
    expensive tools, sleep late, invite friends over
    instead of going to work
  • You might even reflect on your own life
  • Time is a precious commodity

61
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Abstract Manipulation Pros
  • More options
  • Interface can help organize info
  • Responsive in real time
  • Intuitive
  • Abstract Manipulation Cons
  • Very expensive
  • Need instructions to use must be committed
  • As much art as science
  • Many are younger than age 35

62
4F. SimuLearns Virtual Leader
63
Virtual Leader Components
  • Power explores the effects of informal (i.e.,
    expertise and recognized alliances) and formal
    (e.g., title) power
  • Ideas explores effective strategies for
    generating ideas
  • Tension looking at how tension affects
    performance
  • Once the 3 ingredients are aligned and balanced,
    the leaders commit to a course of action.

64
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Computer Graphics Pros
  • Easy to tweak
  • Taps creativity of user
  • Explores uncharted territory
  • Generalizes skills
  • Good for high level business skills
  • Computer Graphics Cons
  • Expensive
  • Requires significant processing power
  • Skill base to produce is hard to find

65
4G. Ninth House Publishing
66
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Video Based Pros
  • Lots of details, nuances, specific behaviors
  • Feel serious and real
  • Over-forty people are used to TV
  • Works off dumb terminals
  • Video Based Cons
  • Expensive
  • Huge bandwidth required
  • Interaction with video has delays
  • Hard to get just right
  • Hard to make small changes

67
4H. eDrama (Front Desk Hiring)
68
4I. Intermezzon MoneyMaker Sales Training
69
4J Virtual University Adminstrator
70
4K. Indeliq
  • Simulation Perform Real-World Tasks
  • Conduct analyses, make decisions, see immediate
    results, model expert decisions and behaviors
  • Feedback Evaluate and Coach
  • Identify mistakes, reinforce best practices,
    provide individualized coaching, offer feedback
    unique to each learner
  • Reference Fill Knowledge Gaps
  • Access expert war stories and perspectives, read
    industry examples and cases consult rich
    glossary, complete practice activities

71
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72
4L. Florio simulation to see connection between
individuals actions and overall corporate
performance
73
Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to Educational
Simulations
  • Branching Calculation Models Pros
  • Adaptive
  • You know how they got there, so can embed linear
    instructional content
  • Allows for more hand-holding
  • Can be cost effective
  • Consistency in assessment
  • Good for story telling
  • Branching Calculation Models Cons
  • More of an assessment than an experience
  • Feels manipulative if cant do what want to do
  • Feels confined to set space

74
Army Simulations
75
4M. Army AC3-DL Simulation Tools
76
4N. Americas Army
  • A highly realistic and innovative PC video game
    that puts you inside an Army unit.
  • Youll face your first tour of duty along with
    your fellow Soldiers.

77
Differences between Scenarios and
Simulations Marty Siegel, 2003
  1. Scenarios are designed to ensure learners are
    directed towards a specific outcome or path
    whereas simulations can yield different results
    or outcomes and important paths are often missed
  2. Simulations take significantly more time,
    resources and money to develop than Scenarios
  3. People tend to try to game a simulation by
    tweaking inputs vs. directly facing the types of
    challenging situations they see on the job
  4. Simulations tend to be built for individuals
    instead of encouraging collaboration amongst
    individuals grappling with a complex challenge
  5. Collaborative simulations are very expensive and
    time consuming to build and even then must be
    operated in a synchronous environment
  6. Scenarios allow learners to build upon each
    others experiences as they are reacting to the
    story
  7. Scenarios provide necessary context around
    available resources and ensure their proper use,
    leveraging the prior investments made in these
    resources

78
Simulation Issues Clark Aldrich, A Field Guide to
Educational Simulations
  • Harder to evaluate simulation contentno ID
    theories
  • Huge cultural shift from
  • Just-enough, just-in-time, fast, relevant,
    bite-sized content
  • Hard to know how much guidance to give learner
  • SME and designers difficult to identify
  • People may try beat to system rather than learn
  • Bandwidth an issue especially on multiplayer
    games
  • Tough to evaluate what people learned
  • No real standards

79
5. Case-Based Learning A. Business
80
5. Case-Based Learning B. Medical My
Patient.com
81
5. Case-Based Learning B. Medical My
Patient.com
82
5. Case-Based Learning C.Educational SimTeacher
83
6. Sharing Perspectives Experiences
  • Perspective sharing discussions Have learners
    relate the course material to a real-life
    experience. Real situations or cases.
  • Example In a course on leadership development,
    have learners share experiences where they were
    all-of-a-sudden been put in charge of some
    project or activity and describe what happened as
    well as what they would do differently.

84
7. Collaborative Writing
85
Groove.net
86
8. Web Resource Reviews
87
8. Perhaps Turn a Resource Review into a Debate
88
9. Concept Mapping
  • Visual, Auditory, or Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners
    prefer diagrams, flowcharts, timelines, pictures,
    films, and demonstrations.

89
Concept Mapping Inspiration Example
90
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91
10. Annotations and Animations in Electronic
Books MetaText (eBooks)
  • June 2003, Page 4D
  • E-books are getting a boost at BookExpo Free
    Adobe software helps get word out
  • By Jefferson Graham USA TODAY
  • LOS ANGELES -- E-books are still alive and are
    getting a new sales pitch, judging from the
    weekend's BookExpo America, the annual
    booksellers' convention.

92
Pick an Idea
  • Definitely Will Use ___________________________
  • May Try to Use ___________________________
  • No Way ___________________________

93
Part III. Motivational Strategies Synchronous
E-Learning
94
Growth in Live-eLearning (USM) (Cushing
Anderson, 2002, IDC)
65 WW
54 growth in US
95
Online Learning Goes Synchronous (see Tom Barron,
ASTD, Learning Circuits, Jan 2000)
  • Just when you were getting used to the idea of
    Web-based training (WBT), with its easy content
    distribution, electronic bulletin boards, and
    self-paced learning model, the Webs
    technological juggernaut has thrown the workplace
    learning field a new curve synchronicity.

96
Synchronous WBT Products Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD,
Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan)
  • Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra)
  • 2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video,
    course scheduling, tracking, text chat,
    assessment (requires thick client-side software)
  • Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare)
  • One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio,
    text chat, application viewing, (requires thin
    client-side app or browser plug-in)
  • Economy (Blackboard, WebCT)
  • Browser-based, chat, some application viewing
    (Requires Java-enabled browsers, little cost,
    free)

97
Web Conferencing Tools (e.g., Meetings, events,
seminars, application sharing see Tom Barron,
Demoing Synchronous WBTon the Skinniest of
Bandwidths, ASTD, Learning Circuits, Jan 2000)
  • Astound (Genysis)
  • Centra
  • HorizonLive
  • Interwise
  • LearnLinc (Mentergy)
  • Lotus LearningSpace (DataBeam)
  • NetPodium (Intervu)
  • PlaceWare
  • WebEx

98
There are, say, 20 features that encompass live
e-learning, and all the products have 17 of
them. Jennifer Hofmann, quoted by Wendy Webb,
Online Learning, November, 2001, p. 44.
99
Web Conferencing Features
  • Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming
  • Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word and
    PowerPoint) Includes remote control and emoticons
  • Text (QA) Chat (private and public)
  • Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports
  • Synchronous Web Browsing
  • File Transfer

100
Web Conferencing Features
  • Content WindowsHTML, PowerPoint
  • Discussion Boardspost info, FAQs, post session
    assignments
  • Archive Meetingrecord and playback
  • Breakout Rooms
  • Shared Whiteboards
  • Hand-Raising and Yes/No Buttons

101
Web Conferencing Features
  • Assistant instructor options
  • Pre-session content distribution
  • Assessment/Testingpre and post session
  • Buttonfor students to notify instructor they are
    stepping away.
  • Breakout Roomsto share info or gossip
  • Web Tours

102
Types of Synchronous Activities
  1. Webinar, Webcast
  2. Guest speaker or expert moderated (or open) QA
    forum
  3. Peer and Expert Chats and Online Communities
  4. Wearable and Wireless Technologies
  5. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
  6. Online Role Play or 6 Hats Technique
  7. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking, Surveys
  8. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
  9. Synchronous Course Training
  10. Discuss Content and Invite Author in for Chat

103
1. Webinar
104
1. Live Application Sharing in HorizonLive
105
2. Electronic Guests Mentoring
  • Find article or topic that is controversial
  • Invite person associated with that article
    (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  • Hold real time chat
  • Pose questions
  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change
    their minds?)
  • (Alternatives Email Interviews with experts
  • Assignments with expert reviews)

106
2. Chat in HorizonLive
107
3. Peer and Expert Chats and Communities
108
  • Some Expertise is Misleading!
  • LearnKey's e-learning model integrates all of the
    proven products that LearnKey has developed and
    introduced worldwide into the growing IT
    certification market. We call this new product
    OnlineExpert, a hybrid next generation delivery
    infrastructure and e-learning platform.
  • March 2003, Chief Learning Officer

109
3. Expert and Peer Chat. Online Language Support
and Translation (pronunciation, communication,
vocabulary, grammar, etc.)
110
Typical Features (e.g., Englishtown (millions of
users from over 100 countries)
  • Online Conversation Classes
  • Experienced Teachers (certified ESL)
  • Expert Mentors
  • Peer-to-Peer Conversation
  • Private Conversation Classes
  • Placement Tests
  • Personalized Feedback
  • University Certification
  • Self-Paced Lessons

111
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112
4. Wireless and Wearable Computing
113
5. Brainstorming
  • Come up with interesting or topic or problem to
    solve
  • Anonymously brainstorm ideas in a chat discussion
  • Encourage spin off ideas
  • Post list of ideas generated
  • Rank or rate ideas and submit to instructor
  • Calculate average ratings and distribute to group

114
5. Group Brainstorming and Decision Making with
GroupSystems
115
5a. Group Brainstorming in GroupSystems
  • GroupSystems
  • Although each person has her own computer,
    everyone is working on the same list of ideas. If
    Mary from Marketing enters an idea, everyone else
    sees it.

116
5a. Group Brainstorming in GroupSystems
  • GroupSystems
  • However, all inputs are fully anonymous, so each
    participant is free to be honest and open. If Joe
    from Sales doesn't agree with one of Mary's
    ideas, he can enter his opinion without worrying
    about offending Mary. Likewise, Mary can debate
    an issue without even knowing who entered it.
    Ideas are the focus, not their authors.

117
5a. Group Brainstorming in GroupSystems
  • GroupSystems
  • At the end of the session, Sally, the team
    leader, creates a report that includes not only
    the team's end result, but full documentation of
    each step leading to that outcome. The report is
    complete and in the participants' own words.

118
5a. Sample Tool Voting Tool
119
6. Role Play Six Hats (from De Bono, 985
adopted for online learning by Karen Belfer,
2001, Ed Media)
  • White Hat Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
  • Red Hat Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage
  • Yellow Hat Positive, sunshine, optimistic
  • Black Hat Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
  • Green Hat New ideas, creativity, growth
  • Blue Hat Controls thinking process
    organization
  • Note technique used in a business info systems
    class where discussion got too predictable!

120
7. Synchronous Tools Voting and Polling During
Webinar
121
8. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Digital Whiteboards)
122
Mapedit Tool
  • The Mapedit program, was developed to create map
    overlays, emulating plastic sheets on which
    symbols are drawn that are laid onto a map (like
    football playbooks for the maneuver officer).
    And if students want a whiteboard, they simply
    have to open a blank overlay (no map background).

123
Mapedit Tool
  • Mapedit allows multiple users to add, delete, and
    move symbols and lines on the map overlay. In
    Mapedit, the driver chooses which file to open,
    and names the file to save, but all users can
    edit the contents.

124
8. Electronic Whiteboard in HorizonLive
125
9. Synchronous Training (Coast Guard)
126
10. Asynchronous Discussion in SiteScape Forum
127
10. Discussion plus Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper
Sync Guest Chat) (Discuss books and invite
authors in for a chat)
128
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