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Title:

Wildlife Management

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describe relationships between wildlife and humans. understand ... Other types include woodcock, pheasants, deer, bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wildlife Management


1
Wildlife Management
2
Competencies
  • define wildlife terms
  • identify characteristics of wildlife
  • describe relationships between wildlife and
    humans
  • understand relationships with humans
  • describe classifications of wildlife
  • identify approved practices
  • discuss future of wildlife in the U.S.

3
Terms to Know
  • Wildlife
  • Habitat
  • Vertebrate
  • Predators
  • Prey
  • Parasitism

4
Terms to Know
  • Warm-blooded animals
  • Mutualism
  • Predation
  • Commensalism
  • Competition
  • Wetlands

5
In the early years....
  • Wildlife provided the bulk of food available
  • Supplies seemed exhaustible
  • Humans destroyed wildlife habitat

6
Characteristics of Wildlife
  • All non-domesticated animals
  • Have man of the same characteristics as humans
  • growth processes
  • laws of heredity
  • general cell structure

7
Environment without control
  • Must adapt or perish
  • Possess senses for protection from predators
  • Avoid overpopulation

8
Wildlife Relationships
  • Parasitism
  • Mutualism
  • Predation
  • Commensalism
  • Competition

9
Parasitism
  • Relationship between two organisms, either plants
    or animals, in which one feeds on the other
    without killing it.
  • Parasites can be internal or external

10
Mutualism
  • Two types of animals that live together for
    mutual benefit
  • There are many examples of mutualism in the
    wildlife community

11
Predation
  • When one animal eats another animal
  • Is important in controlling populations of
    wildlife

12
Commensalism
  • A Plant or animal that lives in, on, or with
    another, sharing its food, but not helping or
    harming it
  • One species is helped, but the other is neither
    helped or harmed

13
Competition
  • When different species of wildlife compete for
    the same
  • food supply
  • nesting sites
  • breeding sites
  • One species may increase in numbers while the
    other declines

14
Relationships Between Wildlife and Humans
  • Biological
  • Ecological
  • Economic
  • food
  • clothing
  • shelter

15
Six Positive Values
  • Commercial
  • Recreational
  • Biological
  • Aesthetic
  • Scientific
  • Social

16
Commercial
  • Sale of wildlife or wildlife products
  • Raising of animals for
  • hunting
  • fishing

17
Recreational
  • Hunting and Fishing
  • Watching
  • Photographing

18
Biological
  • Value of the biological relationship between
    humans and wildlife is difficult to measure
  • Examples
  • Pollination of crops
  • Soil Improvement
  • Water conservation
  • Control of parasites

19
Aesthetic
  • Refers to beauty
  • Is not measurable in economic terms
  • Can contribute to the mental well-being of the
    human race

20
Scientific
  • Often benefits humans
  • Has existed since the beginning of time
  • Early humans watched wild animals to determine
    which plants and berries were safe to eat

21
Social
  • Difficult to measure
  • Wildlife has the ability to enhance the value of
    their surroundings just by their presence
  • Provide humans the opportunity for variety in
    outdoor recreation, hobbies, and adventure

22
Classifications of Wildlife Management
  • Farm
  • Forest
  • Wetlands
  • Stream
  • Lakes and Ponds

23
Farm Wildlife
  • Probably the most visible wildlife management
    classification
  • Includes
  • development of fence rows
  • minimum tillage
  • improvement of woodlots
  • controlled hunting

24
Forest Wildlife
  • More difficult to manage
  • Planned so that timber and wildlife can exist at
    desired populations and possibly be harvested
  • Includes population controls to prevent habitat
    destruction

25
Wetlands Wildlife
  • Most productive wildlife management area
  • Includes all areas between dry upland and open
    water
  • Includes
  • marshes
  • swamps
  • bogs

26
Stream Wildlife
  • Often a difficult task
  • Water pollution and the need for clean water for
    a growing human population continue to increase
    at a rapid pace

27
Lake and Pond Wildlife
  • Normally easier than in streams
  • Concerns include
  • population levels
  • oxygen levels
  • pollutants
  • availability of food resources

28
Approved Practices - Farm Wildlife
  • Usually a by-product of farming
  • Little attention usually given by the farmer
    except when cause crop damage or financial loss
  • Management involves providing habitat
  • Timing of operations is important
  • Planting crops attractive to wildlife
  • Providing water during dry periods

29
Approved Practices - Forest Wildlife
  • Types and numbers of wildlife differs with
  • type and age of the trees
  • natural forest openings
  • types of vegetation on the forest floor
  • presence of natural predators
  • Management is geared towards increases numbers of
    desired species of wildlife
  • If desired populations are present the goal is to
    maintain those populations

30
Approved Practices - Wetland Wildlife
  • No area of American land is more important
  • Are constantly changing
  • Provide food, nesting sites, and cover
  • Ducks and geese are the most economically
    important types of wildlife that need wetlands
  • Other types include woodcock, pheasants, deer,
    bears, milk, muskrats, and raccoons

31
Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife
  • Two general categories
  • warm water
  • cold water
  • Based on water temperature at which the wildlife,
    primarily fish, can best grow and thrive
  • Little difference in managing the two types
  • In general, fish are the type of stream wildlife
    that is managed

32
Approved Practices - Stream Wildlife
  • Maintenance of population levels is important
  • Removal of unwanted species by
  • netting
  • poisoning
  • electric shocking
  • Artificial rearing and stocking
  • Regulations of sport fishing

33
Approved Practices - Lake and Pond Wildlife
  • Very similar to managing stream wildlife
  • Pollution must be controlled
  • Populations must be monitored and harvesting
    controlled
  • Differences include
  • oxygen levels are critical in the summer
  • water temperatures are more variable
  • may have to drain to remove unwanted species

34
Future of Wildlife in the U.S.
  • A bright future is not ensured for all species
  • Human population continues to compete
  • Outlook is not bleak, however
  • Humans have recognized the ability to coexist
  • Humans are working to clean-up the environment
  • Parks and wildlife refuges are increasing in
    numbers
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