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Methods of vegetation sampling:

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Methods of vegetation sampling: http://www.blm.gov/nstc/library/pdf/samplveg.pdf ... Sparrow, A., M. Friedel, and D. Tongway. 2003. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Methods of vegetation sampling:


1
  • Methods of vegetation sampling
  • http//www.blm.gov/nstc/library/pdf/samplveg.pdf
  • http//www.blm.gov/nstc/library/pdf/MeasAndMon.pdf
  • Range cover types of the US
  • ftp//ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/GLTI/technical/publi
    cations/cover.pdf
  • Ecological site inventory technical reference
  • http//www.blm.gov/nstc/library/1734-7direct.html
  • Indicators of rangeland health
  • http//www.blm.gov/nstc/library/pdf/1734-6.pdf

2
Seminars
  • EECB seminar Thurs 400 PM OSN 120. Dr. Larry
    Stevens, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council.
    Biogeography of the Grand Canyon, and Colorado
    River Management.

3
Reading
  • Textbook Chapter 12 and 13
  • Sparrow, A., M. Friedel, and D. Tongway. 2003.
    Degradation and recovery processes in arid
    grazing lands of central Australia part 3
    implications at landscape scale. Journal of Arid
    environments 55 349-360.

4
Outline
  1. Case study identifying communities and relating
    to environmental conditions
  2. Student case studies
  3. Productivity plants and ecosystems
  4. GPP, NPP, and Efficiency
  5. Global and environmental patterns of NPP
  6. Production in forest VS rangeland
  7. Factors influencing productivity fire,
    herbivory, nutrient pulses, etc.
  8. Climate change, CO2 accumulation, and carbon
    sequestration

5
Species interactions and restoration
  • Rangeland in Kenya high productivity, high
    rainfall (600mm/yr).
  • Massai traditionally nomadic pastoralists but now
    becoming sedentary.
  • Can no longer move when pasture bad must use
    land stewardship.
  • Land highly overgrazed, and desertification
    widespread (80?).

6
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7
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8
Fertile islands?
  • Aloe secundiflora shrubs have vegetation around
    them even in eroded areas
  • Aloe is unpalatable as an adult
  • Positive effect appears to extend beyond range of
    aloe canopy
  • Potential facilitation effect?

9
Theory of facilitation
  • Presence of one plant species enables others to
    persist
  • One species ameliorates environment facilitation
    important in harsh conditions.
  • Positive environmental effects outweigh possible
    negative competition effects
  • This may switch with plant life stage (e.g.
    facilitate as seedling, compete as adult)

10
Additional Value of Aloe?
  • Aloe is a medicinal plant poached from the
    wild for sap
  • Massai ranchers need cash rather than cattle
  • If planting aloe can facilitate range recovery,
    is this a win-win situation for Massai?

11
What ecological interactions/processes need to be
considered?
12
Aloe as facilitator
  • Quantification of spatial pattern (circumstantial
    evidence)
  • Basic experimentation on species interactions
    (does aloe facilitate other species?)
  • Establishment of dryland agriculture and range
    restoration program
  • Work by Elizabeth King, UC Davis

13
Aloe as facilitator
  • Quantification of spatial pattern (circumstantial
    evidence)
  • Spatial pattern aloe plants retain soil, have
    higher soil fertility, more litter, greater soil
    seed bank, higher cover and diversity of
    surrounding vegetation. Soil retention

14
Aloe as facilitator
  • Quantification of spatial pattern (circumstantial
    evidence)
  • Basic experimentation on species interactions
  • Plant Aloe, compare to thorns (grazing
    protection) and control (soil disturbance)
  • Plant Cenchrus cilliaris, observe growth.
  • Cenchrus growth substantially enhanced by Aloe,
    effect extended away from plants

15
Aloe as facilitator
  • Quantification of spatial pattern (circumstantial
    evidence)
  • Basic experimentation on species interactions
    (does aloe facilitate other species?)
  • Establishment of dryland agriculture and range
    restoration program
  • Growing and planting Aloe and Cenchrus on Massai
    group ranch hope to harvest Aloe sap as cash
    crop and graze between rows.

16
Your turn
  • List management issues/projects you know of in
    range and forest ecosystems.
  • Which of the ecological processes or interactions
    we have discussed so far do you need to
    understand?
  • Can you make predictions or recommendations based
    on your understanding of the ecological systems?

17
Future lectures
  • 10 minutes at beginning of class for students to
    present case studies pertaining to previous
    lectures topic.
  • Start Wed topic is measurement and definition
    of communities

18
Community working definition
  • Two concepts continuum or community type
  • Continuum vegetation changes along gradients of
    environmental conditions. Species may co-occur by
    chance/shared environmental tolerances.
  • Community type species occur in association,
    such aggregations have adaptations holding them
    together as units. Show boundaries between them.

19
Community working definition
  • These two concepts are not mutually exclusive
    both patterns occur to a greater or lesser extent
    in natural vegetation. Sharpness of community
    boundaries often relate to abrupt changes in site
    conditions (e.g. serpentine soil patch).
  • Community best thought of as a level of
    organization rather than a distinct entity with
    boundaries.

20
Community working definition
  • Visually distinct features of a landscape.
  • Interpreting composition, stand structure,
    dynamics, and spatial distribution requires
    understanding of site conditions, disturbance,
    history, and ecological processes. Barnes et al
    1998.
  • Forest type a community defined solely on the
    basis of canopy species
  • Ecotone transition area between two community
    types. e.g. grassland and forest broad change
    in community due to longer term
    climate/environment BUT exact position of
    treeline depends on local disturbance,
    competition, history, etc.

21
Community attributes
  • Physiognomy
  • Architecture, LAI, life-forms, phenology, etc.
  • Composition, spatial pattern, and diversity
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Demand, storage, rate of cycling, efficiency
  • Productivity
  • Control of environment
  • Plant-environment feedback
  • Change over time
  • Succession, stability, migration

22
Community structure
  • Physiognomy physical structure of vegetation
    (appearance, structural complexity, architecture,
    growth forms)
  • Why is vegetation structure important?

23
Community structure
  • Leaf Area Index LAI.
  • Square meters of leaf area per square meter of
    ground.
  • Higher LAI, usually more sunlight intercepted,
    greater efficiency and productivity. e.g.
    tropical forest LAI11, uses 1.5 incident
    radiation, desert LAI1, uses 0.04 incident
    radiation.

24
Life forms
  • Characteristic structure of plantlife form will
    affect disturbance tolerance, physical structure,
    regeneration, etc.
  • Raunkiaer (1934) classified plants based on
    location and protection of meristems and/or
    reproduction (see handout).

25
Community composition
  • Communities composed of species are all species
    necessary to define a community?
  • Biodiversity
  • What is biodiversity?
  • What does diversity signify? Why is it important?
  • Types of diversity richness, evenness,
    functional diversityothers?

26
Patterns of diversity
  • Species and individuals distributed in different
    ways in different communities.
  • Spatial patterns
  • alpha diversity diversity or richness in
    species within a habitat
  • Beta diversity diversity of habitats in an
    area species turnover
  • Gamma diversity diversity of a region

27
Upcoming lectures
  • Next lectures will address aspects of communities
    and diversity concepts
  • Mar 3 productivity
  • Mar 8-9 plant-soil interactions, nutrients
  • Mar 10 disturbance and succession
  • Mar 22 state and transition dynamics
  • Mar 24 fire ecology and climate change
  • Mar 29 functional groups and biodiversity

28
Example of community description
  • Ecological sites BLM, USFS, and NRCS
  • Used for both range ecological sites and forest
    ecological sites.
  • Details of range site description given in
    handout
  • Details of forest site description given in
    national Forestry Manual
  • ftp//ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/NSSC/
    National_Forestry_Manual/2002_nfm_complete.pdf
  • Range and forest type sites are differentiated by
    HISTORIC VEGETATION.

29
Ecological site
  • Definition A distinctive type of land with
    specific physical characteristics that differs
    from other types of land in its ability to
    produce a distinctive kind and amount of
    vegetation.
  • Clementsian?

30
Ecological site description
  • Vegetation is product of
  • Soils
  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Disturbances
  • Differentiated by
  • Differences in dominant plant species
  • Changes in proportion of plant species
  • Changes in productivity

31
Ecological site description
  • Utility of site descriptions
  • Rangeland landscapes are divided into ecological
    sites for the purposes of inventory, evaluation,
    and management
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