Geography 101 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Geography 101


1
THE IRAQ WARS ZOLTAN GROSSMANAssistant
Professor of Geography
War is Gods way of teaching Americans
geography. --Ambrose Bierce, writer
(1842-1914)
2
Mesopotamia, Fertile CrescentOrigin of some of
the earliest seed agriculture, cities
3
Ancient City of BaghdadFounded 762, became key
Islamic capital, controlled by Arabs and others
4
Ottoman (Turkish) Empire to WWI Iraqis welcomed
1917 British liberation, then fought Brits
5
British mandate, 1920-32
Mideast divided between Brits, French Iraqis
fought British mandate independent 1932 Iraqis
ousted Hashemite monarchy, declared republic,
1958
King Faisal II
6
(No Transcript)
7
Oil fields
8
Water conflicts
Turkey
Turkey building dams on Tigris Euphrates
rivers upstream from Iraq
Iraq
9
Ethnic religious divisions Ethnic Arabs
vs. Kurds Religious Sunnis vs. Shias Rulers
are Sunni Arab
Ethnic/religious groups mixed in some regions.
10

Kurds
Ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria.
Many Kurds for state of Kurdistan. States pit
Kurds against each other US betrays Kurds in 1975
11
Iraqi Tribes (some cross ethnic or
religious divides)
12
Baath Party take power, 1968 Arab (ethnic)
nationalists want one Arab country Against
Islamic (religious) fundamentalists Against
Kurdish nationalists, Communists Saddam took
power by 1979, modeled regime on
Stalinism Favored relatives from Tikrit
13

Iranians
Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88
IRAN (Shia Persian) vs. IRAQ (Sunni Arab
leaders) Iraq seized Irans oil fields
after Irans Islamic revolution, but Iran fought
to stalemate Iraqi Shias fought for Iraq, not
Iran U.S. supported Iraq with weapons also later
supplied weapons to Iran
Iraqis
14
Israel first in Mideast to have nuclear, chemical
arms Saddam wanted to match Israel bombs Iraqi
reactor, 1981 Both Iran and Iraq used poison gas
in 1980-88 war Iraq gassed Kurdish
minority U.S. continued to back Iraq had sold
bio-chemical equipment
Chemical weapons
Rumsfeld meets Saddam
Halabja 1988
15
Iraq invades Kuwait, 1990
Kuwait small oil- rich monarchy Iraq claimed
from Ottoman days U.S. turned against Saddam,
sent troops with UN backing Allies paid 52
billion US paid 9 billion
16
Gulf War I, 1991
Large coalition drove Iraqis out of
Kuwait Saddam launched missiles at Israel, Saudi
Arabia Allied bombing focused on troops in open
desert Month of bombing followed by 100-hour
ground war
17
(No Transcript)
18
Gulf War I, 1991
Iraqi troops surrender
19
Gulf War I, 1991
US bombed retreating Iraqis on Highway of
Death from Kuwait to Basra
20
Gulf War I, 1991
Iraqi civilians also died Civilian
infrastructure targeted (water treatment plants)
21
After Gulf War I, 1991
Trying to eliminate Saddam...would have incurred
incalculable human and political costs.
Apprehending him was probably impossible.... We
would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in
effect, rule Iraq....there was no viable "exit
strategy" we could see, violating another of our
principles. Furthermore, we had been
self-consciously trying to set a pattern for
handling aggression in the post-Cold War world.
Going in and occupying Iraq, thus
unilaterally exceeding the United Nations'
mandate, would have destroyed the precedent of
international response to aggression that we
hoped to establish. Had we gone the invasion
route, the United States could conceivably still
be an occupying power in a bitterly hostile
land. From George H.W. Bush  and Brent
Scowcroft, A World Transformed (1998), pp.
489-90
22
Chemical releases in Gulf War?
Detections of chemicals in air
Bombing of biochemical sites, 1991
Saddam had chemical weapons did not use them due
to retaliation fears
23
Chemical arms bunkers in Iraq, 1991
Detonation of Iraqi chemical/biological
storage after end of Gulf War Possible exposure
to troops?
24
Kuwait oilwell fires, 1991
Set by withdrawing Iraqi forces also spilled oil
into Persian Gulf
25
Depleted Uranium (DU)
  • Dense munitions to penetrate
  • tanks, armor. Made from
  • nuclear waste.

26

Depleted Uranium (DU)
Releases radioactivity when explodes or burns,
leaves behind dust
  • Huge cancer rates in
  • southern Iraq (387 tons
  • of DU left behind)

82 of U.S combat troops in Iraq came in contact
with DU dust
27
Gulf War Syndrome
Agent Orange of the 1990s A variety of
illnesses reported by military personnel
Increase in personnel cancers, 1991-97
28
Gulf War Syndrome
CAUSES? Depleted Uranium? Chemical
releases? Oil well fires? Pesticides? A
combination?
Children of U.S. troops affected
Iraqi civilians also affected leukemia victim in
Basra hospital.
29

Shia Rebellion against Saddam, 1991
Bush stopped war when Kuwait goals met Shias
revolted as he had urged, but US watched as
rebels killed US felt that Shias would form
Pro-Iran Islamic state Saddam meant stable
Sunni rule A democratic Iraq could take control
of its oil
30
Saddams draining of southern Iraqmarshes, 1992
Area was haven for Marsh Arabs, Shia rebels
31

Kurdish Rebellion against Saddam, 1991
Saddam also crushed Kurds in north U.S. created
safe havens for Kurds, grew into mini-state Turke
y fears example for its Kurds, sent
troops Splits among Iraqi Kurds
32

No-Fly Zones, 1990s
Iraq cannot send aircraft over Kurdish north
and Shia south Iraq fires on US, British
aircraft Aircraft often bomb Iraqi military
sites
33

Economic sanctions
Lack of medicines, sanitation, diet led to high
infant mortality Iraq had been modern,
educated technological society Resignations by
UN officials perceive civilians as
victims Iraqi civilians trying to survive less
likely to organize revolt. Saddam can blame US
for economy
34

Economic sanctions
500,000 children died since Gulf War (UN Food
Agriculture Organization) Sec. Albright price
is worth it. One reason for less global
support for war to oust Saddam
Infant mortality since sanctions
35

UN weapons inspections, 1990s
Inspectors destroyed nearly all chemical
weapons Inspectors destroyed Iraqi nuclear
capability (IAEA) Biological weapons
more difficult to track
36

Clinton bombing, 1998
Iraq blocked some inspections UN ordered out
inspectors US bombed for 4 days Inspectors
could not return, track developments
37

Project for a New American Century, 1990s
Later leaders of Bush II Administration (Rumsfeld
, Wolfowitz, Perle etc.) Pre-emption
Doctrine (Dont need immediate threat to
invade) Start with Iraq, extend to others
38
G.W. Bush Administration
Outgoing Defense Sec. Cohen (R) Iraq kept at
bay Former inspectors Need to return to
confirm disarmament New cabinet leaders Regime
change no matter what weapons Saddam has
39
September 11th, 2001
Hijackers almost all Saudi (none were Iraqis)
all Islamic fundamentalists Some nearly accused
Iraq, but no evidence found Bush
decision Afghanistan first, Iraq
later Intelligence led to decision, or decision
led to intelligence? (Clarke, ONeill on 9/11,
WMD)
40

Saddam could aid Bin Laden?
Bin Laden wanted to fight Saddam on his own in
1991, resented US bases left behind Bin Laden
wants a (religious) Islamic state Saddam wants a
(secular) ethnic Arab state Bin Laden sees
Saddam as infidel enemy Al Qaeda group in
Kurdish zone
41
New U.S. military bases
  • BASE CLUSTERS
  • Gulf War,
  • 1991
  • 2. Yugoslav Wars,
  • 1995-99
  • 3. Afghan War,
  • 2001
  • 4. Iraq War,
  • 2003

42
Next to the U.S. nuclear monopoly, there was no
more universally recognized symbol of the
nations superpower status than its overseas
basing system. -- James Blaker, former Senior
Advisor to the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, 1990
43
Moves toward war, 2002
Originally unilateral pre-emptive regime
change, not internal coup Objections from
some former Gulf War Commanders (Zinni,
Schwarzkopf) Powell urges Bush to go to UN,
appeal on weapons of mass destruction, but
little new information
44
UN inspectors return, 2002
IAEA confirmed nuclear disarmament
views (aluminum tube, Niger uranium stories not
hold) No evidence of biochemical arms Iraq
violated ballistic missile ban, ordered to
dismantle If Saddam had chemical weapons, why
not used when cornered?
45
Fears of terrorism
Bin Laden opposes Bush and Saddam Sees war as
chance for new Islamic caliphate in
Baghdad Recruiting new followers, planning
attacks? War might radicalize Muslims, especially
if quick and successful?
46
War debate in U.S.
Largest antiwar movement before a war in U.S.
history Also some pro-war protests

47
(No Transcript)
48
War debate around world
U.S., Britain, Australia send combat
troops support from 27 smaller
governments Largest protests in capitals backing
war Germany, France, Russia, China, opposed to
war, had most votes in UN Canada, Mexico, most
other countries opposed to US war without UN
backing

49
Shock and Awe
1000 Cruise missiles in 2 days more intense
bombardment than all 1991 U.S. strategy for
Iraqi military to surrender

50
Civilian casualties refugees
Civilian neighborhoods bombed Thousands dead or
injured. Cluster bombs hit civilians

Kurds fled cities in fear of Saddam
51
Reception for U.S. troops
Shia Arabs opposed Saddam (yet hostilities
greater in south than expected) Kurds opposed
Saddam and Turks Sunni Arabs in Baghdad, central
Iraq fear Shiite ( Kurdish) rule

52
Baghdad
5 million 2 x Twin Cities metro area
Capital of Sunni Arab heartland
Half of population under 15

53
Winning was the easy part
No WMDs found. Many Iraqis want U.S. to leave
now that Saddam captured--the job is done How
to keep together such an ethnically and
religiously fragmented country? Humiliation of
foreign occupation?

You have humiliated us more than our enemies
--Umm Qasr Shiite If Bush stays here, he is
just another Saddam -- Baghdad Shiite
54
Thumbs-up to thumbs-down
Iraqis glad that Saddam gone, and using newfound
freedoms Shiites hated Saddam, but
mistrust U.S.-British intentions on oil. U.S.
failure to provide water, power, security from
looters, museum looted, but oil ministry
guarded. Shiites sensitive to holy sites.

55
Tensions increase, 2004
Iraqi sovereignty June 2004, but U.S.
troops/bases staying Is Occupation preventing a
civil war or worsening internal
conflicts? Sunni Shiite opponents of U.S.
banding together?

56

Interim Government
Lack of democratic history or foreign support for
democracy U.S.-backed exiles divided unpopular
(elite did not suffer) Training new Iraqi
police and troops has been difficult Poor
Shiites are majority Sunni Arabs Kurds
nervous
Iyad Allawi (Secular Shiite Prime Minister)
Paul Bremer (U.S. administrator)
57

Insurgents Baathists
Support Saddams Baath Party Secular Arab
nationalists (win over with threat of
Iran?) Former military/police who went
underground during war Stronghold Sunni Triangle
Saddams general Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri
58

Insurgents Sunni Jihadists
Support Bin Ladens Jihad (Struggle) using
suicide bombings, kidnappings, terror Want Sunni
religious state Iraqis, some foreign
fighters not active in Saddams
Iraq Stronghold Fallujah in Sunni Triangle
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
59

Insurgents Shiite Mahdi Army
Support Shiite Cleric Al-Sadr, fought U.S. at
holiest mosque Al-Sadrs dad was killed by
Saddam, who saw him as pro-Iran Anti-U.S.
Occupation, want state led by poor Shiite
majority Strongholds South (Najaf,
Kufa), Baghdad (Sadr City)
Moqtada al-Sadr at Imam Ali Mosque in holy city
of Najaf
60

Insurgents Iraqi nationalists
Some tribes hated Saddam oppose foreign
occupation Lost family or friends to U.S.
bombing or troops Do not want U.S. bases
or support for Israel U.S. fought Saddams worst
enemies in 2004 Shiites Iraqi nationalists
Iraqis protest U.S. decision to let Baathists in
new police force
61

Election 2005
Premier Ibrahim al-Jaafari (Shiite)
Large turnout by Shiite Arabs, Sunni Kurds to
elect parliament Sunni Arabs boycott election,
largely left out of government (internal
conflict may intensify) Shiites majority in
parliament leaders had been exiled in Iran Iran
ends up with influence in Iraq, without firing a
shot
President Jalal Talabani (Kurd)
62

The Toll
1,500 U.S. military 150 U.S.
allies 17,000-18,000 Iraqi civilians www.IraqBod
yCount.net 9,00020,000 Iraqi
military Countless injured
63
Domestic Debates in U.S.
How long should U.S. forces stay? Iraq diverting
from anti-terrorism? Losing international
support? (Spain, Central America, East
Europe) Will new govt bring freedom or more
centralized rule? Will occupation prevent civil
war or cause a civil war?
Pro-war rally, March 2003
Anti-war veterans rally, Sept. 2004
64
The Future of Iraq
How to overcome economic disasters of Saddam,
sanctions, and wars?
65
Dr. Zoltán GrossmanAssistant Professor of
GeographyP.O. Box 4004, 258 Phillips
Hall,University of Wisconsin-Eau ClaireEau
Claire, WI 54702Tel. (715) 836-4471
E-mail grossmzc_at_uwec.eduWebsite
www.uwec.edu/grossmzc
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Geography 101

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Title: Geography 101


1
THE IRAQ WARS ZOLTAN GROSSMANAssistant
Professor of Geography
War is Gods way of teaching Americans
geography. --Ambrose Bierce, writer
(1842-1914)
2
Mesopotamia, Fertile CrescentOrigin of some of
the earliest seed agriculture, cities
3
Ancient City of BaghdadFounded 762, became key
Islamic capital, controlled by Arabs and others
4
Ottoman (Turkish) Empire to WWI Iraqis welcomed
1917 British liberation, then fought Brits
5
British mandate, 1920-32
Mideast divided between Brits, French Iraqis
fought British mandate independent 1932 Iraqis
ousted Hashemite monarchy, declared republic,
1958
King Faisal II
6
(No Transcript)
7
Oil fields
8
Water conflicts
Turkey
Turkey building dams on Tigris Euphrates
rivers upstream from Iraq
Iraq
9
Ethnic religious divisions Ethnic Arabs
vs. Kurds Religious Sunnis vs. Shias Rulers
are Sunni Arab
Ethnic/religious groups mixed in some regions.
10

Kurds
Ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria.
Many Kurds for state of Kurdistan. States pit
Kurds against each other US betrays Kurds in 1975
11
Iraqi Tribes (some cross ethnic or
religious divides)
12
Baath Party take power, 1968 Arab (ethnic)
nationalists want one Arab country Against
Islamic (religious) fundamentalists Against
Kurdish nationalists, Communists Saddam took
power by 1979, modeled regime on
Stalinism Favored relatives from Tikrit
13

Iranians
Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88
IRAN (Shia Persian) vs. IRAQ (Sunni Arab
leaders) Iraq seized Irans oil fields
after Irans Islamic revolution, but Iran fought
to stalemate Iraqi Shias fought for Iraq, not
Iran U.S. supported Iraq with weapons also later
supplied weapons to Iran
Iraqis
14
Israel first in Mideast to have nuclear, chemical
arms Saddam wanted to match Israel bombs Iraqi
reactor, 1981 Both Iran and Iraq used poison gas
in 1980-88 war Iraq gassed Kurdish
minority U.S. continued to back Iraq had sold
bio-chemical equipment
Chemical weapons
Rumsfeld meets Saddam
Halabja 1988
15
Iraq invades Kuwait, 1990
Kuwait small oil- rich monarchy Iraq claimed
from Ottoman days U.S. turned against Saddam,
sent troops with UN backing Allies paid 52
billion US paid 9 billion
16
Gulf War I, 1991
Large coalition drove Iraqis out of
Kuwait Saddam launched missiles at Israel, Saudi
Arabia Allied bombing focused on troops in open
desert Month of bombing followed by 100-hour
ground war
17
(No Transcript)
18
Gulf War I, 1991
Iraqi troops surrender
19
Gulf War I, 1991
US bombed retreating Iraqis on Highway of
Death from Kuwait to Basra
20
Gulf War I, 1991
Iraqi civilians also died Civilian
infrastructure targeted (water treatment plants)
21
After Gulf War I, 1991
Trying to eliminate Saddam...would have incurred
incalculable human and political costs.
Apprehending him was probably impossible.... We
would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in
effect, rule Iraq....there was no viable "exit
strategy" we could see, violating another of our
principles. Furthermore, we had been
self-consciously trying to set a pattern for
handling aggression in the post-Cold War world.
Going in and occupying Iraq, thus
unilaterally exceeding the United Nations'
mandate, would have destroyed the precedent of
international response to aggression that we
hoped to establish. Had we gone the invasion
route, the United States could conceivably still
be an occupying power in a bitterly hostile
land. From George H.W. Bush  and Brent
Scowcroft, A World Transformed (1998), pp.
489-90
22
Chemical releases in Gulf War?
Detections of chemicals in air
Bombing of biochemical sites, 1991
Saddam had chemical weapons did not use them due
to retaliation fears
23
Chemical arms bunkers in Iraq, 1991
Detonation of Iraqi chemical/biological
storage after end of Gulf War Possible exposure
to troops?
24
Kuwait oilwell fires, 1991
Set by withdrawing Iraqi forces also spilled oil
into Persian Gulf
25
Depleted Uranium (DU)
  • Dense munitions to penetrate
  • tanks, armor. Made from
  • nuclear waste.

26

Depleted Uranium (DU)
Releases radioactivity when explodes or burns,
leaves behind dust
  • Huge cancer rates in
  • southern Iraq (387 tons
  • of DU left behind)

82 of U.S combat troops in Iraq came in contact
with DU dust
27
Gulf War Syndrome
Agent Orange of the 1990s A variety of
illnesses reported by military personnel
Increase in personnel cancers, 1991-97
28
Gulf War Syndrome
CAUSES? Depleted Uranium? Chemical
releases? Oil well fires? Pesticides? A
combination?
Children of U.S. troops affected
Iraqi civilians also affected leukemia victim in
Basra hospital.
29

Shia Rebellion against Saddam, 1991
Bush stopped war when Kuwait goals met Shias
revolted as he had urged, but US watched as
rebels killed US felt that Shias would form
Pro-Iran Islamic state Saddam meant stable
Sunni rule A democratic Iraq could take control
of its oil
30
Saddams draining of southern Iraqmarshes, 1992
Area was haven for Marsh Arabs, Shia rebels
31

Kurdish Rebellion against Saddam, 1991
Saddam also crushed Kurds in north U.S. created
safe havens for Kurds, grew into mini-state Turke
y fears example for its Kurds, sent
troops Splits among Iraqi Kurds
32

No-Fly Zones, 1990s
Iraq cannot send aircraft over Kurdish north
and Shia south Iraq fires on US, British
aircraft Aircraft often bomb Iraqi military
sites
33

Economic sanctions
Lack of medicines, sanitation, diet led to high
infant mortality Iraq had been modern,
educated technological society Resignations by
UN officials perceive civilians as
victims Iraqi civilians trying to survive less
likely to organize revolt. Saddam can blame US
for economy
34

Economic sanctions
500,000 children died since Gulf War (UN Food
Agriculture Organization) Sec. Albright price
is worth it. One reason for less global
support for war to oust Saddam
Infant mortality since sanctions
35

UN weapons inspections, 1990s
Inspectors destroyed nearly all chemical
weapons Inspectors destroyed Iraqi nuclear
capability (IAEA) Biological weapons
more difficult to track
36

Clinton bombing, 1998
Iraq blocked some inspections UN ordered out
inspectors US bombed for 4 days Inspectors
could not return, track developments
37

Project for a New American Century, 1990s
Later leaders of Bush II Administration (Rumsfeld
, Wolfowitz, Perle etc.) Pre-emption
Doctrine (Dont need immediate threat to
invade) Start with Iraq, extend to others
38
G.W. Bush Administration
Outgoing Defense Sec. Cohen (R) Iraq kept at
bay Former inspectors Need to return to
confirm disarmament New cabinet leaders Regime
change no matter what weapons Saddam has
39
September 11th, 2001
Hijackers almost all Saudi (none were Iraqis)
all Islamic fundamentalists Some nearly accused
Iraq, but no evidence found Bush
decision Afghanistan first, Iraq
later Intelligence led to decision, or decision
led to intelligence? (Clarke, ONeill on 9/11,
WMD)
40

Saddam could aid Bin Laden?
Bin Laden wanted to fight Saddam on his own in
1991, resented US bases left behind Bin Laden
wants a (religious) Islamic state Saddam wants a
(secular) ethnic Arab state Bin Laden sees
Saddam as infidel enemy Al Qaeda group in
Kurdish zone
41
New U.S. military bases
  • BASE CLUSTERS
  • Gulf War,
  • 1991
  • 2. Yugoslav Wars,
  • 1995-99
  • 3. Afghan War,
  • 2001
  • 4. Iraq War,
  • 2003

42
Next to the U.S. nuclear monopoly, there was no
more universally recognized symbol of the
nations superpower status than its overseas
basing system. -- James Blaker, former Senior
Advisor to the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, 1990
43
Moves toward war, 2002
Originally unilateral pre-emptive regime
change, not internal coup Objections from
some former Gulf War Commanders (Zinni,
Schwarzkopf) Powell urges Bush to go to UN,
appeal on weapons of mass destruction, but
little new information
44
UN inspectors return, 2002
IAEA confirmed nuclear disarmament
views (aluminum tube, Niger uranium stories not
hold) No evidence of biochemical arms Iraq
violated ballistic missile ban, ordered to
dismantle If Saddam had chemical weapons, why
not used when cornered?
45
Fears of terrorism
Bin Laden opposes Bush and Saddam Sees war as
chance for new Islamic caliphate in
Baghdad Recruiting new followers, planning
attacks? War might radicalize Muslims, especially
if quick and successful?
46
War debate in U.S.
Largest antiwar movement before a war in U.S.
history Also some pro-war protests

47
(No Transcript)
48
War debate around world
U.S., Britain, Australia send combat
troops support from 27 smaller
governments Largest protests in capitals backing
war Germany, France, Russia, China, opposed to
war, had most votes in UN Canada, Mexico, most
other countries opposed to US war without UN
backing

49
Shock and Awe
1000 Cruise missiles in 2 days more intense
bombardment than all 1991 U.S. strategy for
Iraqi military to surrender

50
Civilian casualties refugees
Civilian neighborhoods bombed Thousands dead or
injured. Cluster bombs hit civilians

Kurds fled cities in fear of Saddam
51
Reception for U.S. troops
Shia Arabs opposed Saddam (yet hostilities
greater in south than expected) Kurds opposed
Saddam and Turks Sunni Arabs in Baghdad, central
Iraq fear Shiite ( Kurdish) rule

52
Baghdad
5 million 2 x Twin Cities metro area
Capital of Sunni Arab heartland
Half of population under 15

53
Winning was the easy part
No WMDs found. Many Iraqis want U.S. to leave
now that Saddam captured--the job is done How
to keep together such an ethnically and
religiously fragmented country? Humiliation of
foreign occupation?

You have humiliated us more than our enemies
--Umm Qasr Shiite If Bush stays here, he is
just another Saddam -- Baghdad Shiite
54
Thumbs-up to thumbs-down
Iraqis glad that Saddam gone, and using newfound
freedoms Shiites hated Saddam, but
mistrust U.S.-British intentions on oil. U.S.
failure to provide water, power, security from
looters, museum looted, but oil ministry
guarded. Shiites sensitive to holy sites.

55
Tensions increase, 2004
Iraqi sovereignty June 2004, but U.S.
troops/bases staying Is Occupation preventing a
civil war or worsening internal
conflicts? Sunni Shiite opponents of U.S.
banding together?

56

Interim Government
Lack of democratic history or foreign support for
democracy U.S.-backed exiles divided unpopular
(elite did not suffer) Training new Iraqi
police and troops has been difficult Poor
Shiites are majority Sunni Arabs Kurds
nervous
Iyad Allawi (Secular Shiite Prime Minister)
Paul Bremer (U.S. administrator)
57

Insurgents Baathists
Support Saddams Baath Party Secular Arab
nationalists (win over with threat of
Iran?) Former military/police who went
underground during war Stronghold Sunni Triangle
Saddams general Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri
58

Insurgents Sunni Jihadists
Support Bin Ladens Jihad (Struggle) using
suicide bombings, kidnappings, terror Want Sunni
religious state Iraqis, some foreign
fighters not active in Saddams
Iraq Stronghold Fallujah in Sunni Triangle
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
59

Insurgents Shiite Mahdi Army
Support Shiite Cleric Al-Sadr, fought U.S. at
holiest mosque Al-Sadrs dad was killed by
Saddam, who saw him as pro-Iran Anti-U.S.
Occupation, want state led by poor Shiite
majority Strongholds South (Najaf,
Kufa), Baghdad (Sadr City)
Moqtada al-Sadr at Imam Ali Mosque in holy city
of Najaf
60

Insurgents Iraqi nationalists
Some tribes hated Saddam oppose foreign
occupation Lost family or friends to U.S.
bombing or troops Do not want U.S. bases
or support for Israel U.S. fought Saddams worst
enemies in 2004 Shiites Iraqi nationalists
Iraqis protest U.S. decision to let Baathists in
new police force
61

Election 2005
Premier Ibrahim al-Jaafari (Shiite)
Large turnout by Shiite Arabs, Sunni Kurds to
elect parliament Sunni Arabs boycott election,
largely left out of government (internal
conflict may intensify) Shiites majority in
parliament leaders had been exiled in Iran Iran
ends up with influence in Iraq, without firing a
shot
President Jalal Talabani (Kurd)
62

The Toll
1,500 U.S. military 150 U.S.
allies 17,000-18,000 Iraqi civilians www.IraqBod
yCount.net 9,00020,000 Iraqi
military Countless injured
63
Domestic Debates in U.S.
How long should U.S. forces stay? Iraq diverting
from anti-terrorism? Losing international
support? (Spain, Central America, East
Europe) Will new govt bring freedom or more
centralized rule? Will occupation prevent civil
war or cause a civil war?
Pro-war rally, March 2003
Anti-war veterans rally, Sept. 2004
64
The Future of Iraq
How to overcome economic disasters of Saddam,
sanctions, and wars?
65
Dr. Zoltán GrossmanAssistant Professor of
GeographyP.O. Box 4004, 258 Phillips
Hall,University of Wisconsin-Eau ClaireEau
Claire, WI 54702Tel. (715) 836-4471
E-mail grossmzc_at_uwec.eduWebsite
www.uwec.edu/grossmzc
About PowerShow.com