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Dr' Patricia A' Gomez University of Texas at Arlington

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Title: Dr' Patricia A' Gomez University of Texas at Arlington


1
Dr. Patricia A. Gomez University of Texas at
Arlington
DUAL LANGAUGE EDUCATION Its impact on how we
view Bilingual Education Todayand Bi-literacy
Structures How to move towards creating a well
balanced instructional approach
  • April 19,2008 Lubbock, Texas

2
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
3
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • Goal
  • To understand the foundations of dual language
    Education
  • To become aware of how dual language education
    moves bilingual programs to Bi-literacy
    instruction
  • Objective
  • To use this knowledge to build capacity in your
    district to continue supporting dual language
    program
  • To develop an instructional program that will
    ensure an effective bi-literacy structure in your
    dual language program

4
PRESENTATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
FOUNDATIONS OF DUAL LANGUAGE EDUCATION
5
Maintenance, Developmental, Late Exit Bilingual
Education Model
6
Transitional or Early Exit
7
A Wake up Call for Bilingual Education
Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia P. Collier, 2004
8
Growth of Two-Way Immersion
9
PARADIGM SHIFT
10
DUAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMS ALL HAVE COMMON GOALS
  • Students will
  • Develop high levels of proficiency in their fist
    language
  • Achieve high levels of proficiency in a second
    language
  • Demonstrate positive cross-cultural attitudes and
    behaviors
  • And
  • Their academic performance will be at or above
    grade level in both languages

11
DUAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMS HAVE COMMON
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Literacy and Content instruction through two
    languages, for all students
  • Extended period of implementation (minimum K-5
    optimal K-12)
  • Extended period of implementation 50 90 of
    daily instruction in a partner language

12
Characteristics Common to Effective ProgramsFred
Genesee, Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, William
Saunders, Donna Christian (2005)
  • Attitude that All Children Can Learn.
  • Positive school environment.
  • Challenging and meaningful curriculum.
  • Alignment of curriculum to high standards.
  • Administrators and teachers that know and
    understand theory and goals of program and
    implement best practices for ELLs.

13
Characteristics Common to Effective Programs
Continued
  • Integrate rather than segregate students
  • See the program as an enrichment model
  • Program is sustained over time
  • Consistent assessment of literacy and
  • academic development.
  • Language development strategies are incorporated
    into the program

14
General Principles and Strategies
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (2006)
www.nwrel.org
  • Simplify instructions if possible
  • Make it culturally relevant or personal to
    students
  • Whenever possible, supplement a lesson with
    bilingual materials

15
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO MOST COMMONLY USED
DUAL LANGUAGE PROGRAM MODELS
16
90/10 Dual Language Model
Transition to formal literacy instruction in the
alternate language begins here
This model can be a one-way or a two-way model

17
Literacy Development in a 90/10 Model
  • Students reach a point of transition
  • from one language to another
  • Literacy development is a sequential process
  • Teachers teaching in this model must stay true to
    the language of instruction to maximize learning
    outcomes
  • Students in this model have been receiving formal
    literacy instruction in one language and the
    point in which they begin formal literacy in the
    second language is the point of transition from
    one language structure to another for those
    students

18
(No Transcript)
19
50/50 Dual Language Model
Two Languages are Maintained from the onset of
program development
20
Literacy Development in a 50/50 Model
  • Teachers teach for transfer in this model
  • Simultaneous literacy is maintained from the
    onset of the program
  • Teachers help students make connections between
    the two languages
  • Teachers recognize and address language
    interferences

21
50/50 Dual Language Program Model Balancing the
Literacy Instruction
ENGLISH 3hrs
SPANISH 3hrs
  • Direct teach for transference through content
    instruction for Ells
  • Formal English Literacy Development for
    English Speakers
  • Oral Lang. Development/ Reading Comprehension/
    Writing Skills development Letter Sound
  • (Vowels 1st) Consonant Sounds Vowel
    Consonant Blends Decoding Single Word
    Meaning
  • Scaffold and enrich skills and concepts for
    Native Spanish Speakers
  • Direct teach for transference for Native English
    Speakers
  • Formal Spanish Literacy Development
  • for Spanish
  • Oral Lang. Development/ Reading Comprehension/
    Writing Skills development Letter Sounds
  • (Vowels 1st) Consonant Sounds Vowel
    Consonant Blends Decoding Single Word Meaning
  • Scaffold and enrich skills and concepts for
    Native English speakers

22
Implications for Literacy
  • Literacy Instruction
  • Sequential (read first through L1, add on L2 in
    2nd or 3rd grade)
  • Simultaneous (learn to read in both languages)
  • Research on bilingual programs (including
    late-exit and dual) shows
  • Successive literacy approaches are more
    beneficial for ELL students who begin school with
    less developed L1 and who are from low-income
    homes in which parents have lower levels of
    education (less literacy in the home)

23
What Research Suggests for High Quality Program
Structure
  • Considerations
  • Need sufficient model speakers of each group to
    enable students to practice language.
  • The ideal is 5050, but can have as few as 1/3 of
    either group.
  • Students must be proficient in English, not just
    dominant in English to count as English model.
  • Need to consider transiency and movement out of
    program.
  • In kinder, 3-4 two-way classrooms is ideal, 2
    classrooms is an absolute minimum.
  • Special ed students do not need to exit program.

24
Dual Language Model Time and Language
Considerations Content Taught in English vs.
Spanish
  • The language of content instruction is not a
    significant variable. The major issue is to
    develop the concepts and enable students to
    develop specialized vocabulary in each language.
  • Consider specific reasons for having content
    instruction through a particular language (e.g.,
    specialized vocabulary, assessment requirements,
    proficiencies of teachers for specials--library,
    PE).

25
Questions
Questions
Questions
Questions
26
FACT
  • Few Colleges offered classes (course work) in
    methods of teaching Reading in Spanish
  • Prospective Bilingual teachers are simply told to
    learn best-practice strategies in English and do
    them in Spanish.

27
FACT
  • UNIVERSAL APPROACH
  • ONE SIZE FITS ALL
  • It is not enough to simply know the method in
    English
  • and apply it in Spanish

28
QUESTIONS
FOUNDATIONS OF LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
29
Question
In what order should literacy be introduced when
two languages are being taught ?
30
  • Language Minority
  • Students
  • Several years of uninterrupted reading and
    writing instruction in the primary language
  • Should Last from 3 to 5 years depending on
    whether the program begins in Pre-K, K or Grade 1
    .
  • At 3rd grade formal reading/Writing in the second
    language begins
  • Reading and writing must also continue in the
    primary language
  • Informal Exposure to second
  • language can occur as early as
  • grade 1
  • Language Majority Students
  • It is recommended that the second language be
    used for initial language/Literacy instruction
  • Percent of language is determined by program
    model
  • Dual Language Programs
  • Initial Literacy Instruction to both groups in
    the minority language first
  • Some programs elect to provide formal literacy
    instruction to each group of students in their
    primary language.

31
Question
WHAT SHOULD TEACHERS KNOW ABOUT TEACHING A
SECOND LANGAUGE IN A DUAL LANGUAGE PROGRAM?
32
TEACHING FOR TRANSFERENCE BETWEEN
LANGUAGESVS.TRANSITIONING FROM ONE LANGAUGE
TO ANOTHER
33
ORGANIZE INSTRUCTION FOR TRANSFER
BACKGROUND EXPERIENCES
AGE STAGE OF LANGUAGE
DEVELOPMENT
PACING INSTRUCTION Follow Sequence of
Language Learning and Language Acquisition
PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PRACTICE AND
APPLICATION OF SKILLS
Continually check for comprehension of
instruction
34
Why ?
  • BECAUSE
  • Students who do not establish a threshold level
    of competence in one language will remain at low
    levels of literacy in both languages and lack
    feelings of competence so essential to future
    learning.
  • If students do not internalize the
    graphophonemic relationships of at least one to
    their languages well, they may labor to process
    text. They may hesitate when decoding individual
    clusters of letters when reading each of their
    language.
  • (Cummins,1984)

35
QUESTION
  • WHAT TRANSFER EFFECTS CAN TEACHERS EXPECT ?

36
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH
  • Concepts of Print
  • Comprehension Skills
  • Reading Comprehension Skills
  • Punctuation
  • Study Skills
  • Consonant Sounds
  • Consonant Bends
  • Vocabulary Development
  • Structural Analysis
  • High Frequency Words
  • ( Autimaticity vs. decoding of sight words)

INCOMPLETE TRANSFER SKILLS FROM SPANISH TO
ENGLISH
  • Sentence Structure
  • Capital Letters
  • Vocabulary ( False Cognates)
  • Punctuation (Question marks/Exclamation pints)

37
NON-TRANSFERABLE SKILLS FROM SPANISH TO ENGLISH
  • Vocabulary Contractions
  • Sound / Symbol relationships
  • All vowels
  • Diphthong and vowel combinations
  • Final Consonants
  • Initial Consonant Blends
  • Consonant blend Clusters
  • Consonant Digraphs
  • Silent Consonants

38
QUESTION
WHAT ARE IMPORTANT DECODING AND ENCOING SKILLS TO
TEACH?
39
  • DECODING SKILLS
  • Phonetic analysis
  • Sight word recognition
  • Use of context analysis (background knowledge )
  • Use of previous information provided
  • Structural analysis (use of grammatical cues such
    as root words , prefixes, and suffixes)
  • Use of Visual cues such as word length or word
    shape
  • Use of references ( Looking words up in the
    dictionary , requesting assistance)
  • ENCODING SKILLS
  • Letter Sound Recognition
  • Sight Words
  • Models (Environmental Print )
  • Requesting Assistance

40
QUESTION
  • What is important to know about the language
    development of
  • English monolingual students immersed in Spanish
    Literacy Instruction ?

Kathyrn Lyndholm- Leary
41
Understand Language Differences
  • For example,
  • Spanish is more consistent between letter/sound
    correspondence than English
  • a e i o u
  • Spanish indio the i /e/ sound
  • English ice-cream long /i/ sound
  • English phonics suggests patterns
  • bit bite bat bate
  • ought boat

42
English has multiple initial consonant clusters
that are foreign to Spanish.
  • Initial Cluster beginning with S
  • SP Speak SC School
  • ST Street, SPR Spring
  • SCR Scream STR Stream,
  • SM Small SN Snow
  • SL Slate SPL Splash

43
ENGLISH SPANISH
44
Understand Language Similarities
English English
45
WORD WALLS
  • English
  • Uses words that are phonetically irregular and
    need to be learned as sight words

Spanish Words that are phonetically regular and
learning them as sight works helps to increase
reading fluency
46
Environment
  • Environment supports language acquisition beyond
    direct instruction
  • (word walls, reference charts, visual cues)
  • Room environment promotes fluency and is grade
    level appropriate.

47
Include Word Walls With
  • consonant sound positions
  • Example
  • Perro
  • Carro
  • Nina
  • Pina
  • (These words consonant sound occurs in the medial
    position)

48
Include Word Walls With
  • Nouns because it varies its use of (gender) and
    students need to learn the importance of an
    article noun agreement.
  • Example
  • el libro la mesa
  • los libros las mesas

49
SPANISHInclude Word Walls With
  • Commonly misspelled frequently confused
    letters
  • /b/ and /y/ Error Example
  • /c/ and /z/ llo boi a la escuela y
  • /g/ and /j/ despues seno con mis
  • /h/ (silent) ermanos.
  • /ll/ and /y/
  • Correction Yo voy a
    la
  • escuela y despues
    ceno
  • con mis hermanos.

50
ENGLISLH Word wall with common English
contractions helps students understand how to use
contractions
SPANISH Having a contraction word wall makes no
sense because there are only two contractions in
Spanish a el al de el del
51
Applies to Both Languages Having a word wall
with common blends in Spanish as in English makes
good sense.
  • Example
  • Spanish English
  • fr el frio fl
    flower
  • fl la flor fr -
    frozen
  • br la brisa br brush
  • bl la blusa bl- blouse
  • gr el grito gr
    green

52
A Word Wall of How to Blend Syllables together to
make words is very useful
  • pa to pato
  • ga to gato
  • ma lo malo
  • pa lo palo

53
Word Families in English are not the Same in
Spanish
English Word Family b at bat c at cat
m at mat r at rat
Spanish Word Family zapato pan
zapateria panadero zapatero
panaderia
54
QUESTION
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO TEACH ACCORDING TO STUDENTS
LEVEL OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT ?
55
STAGES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOMENT
Stage 1 Silent / Receptive Stage Stage 2
Early Production Stage 3- Speech Emergence
Stage 4 Intermediate Fluency Stage 5
Advanced Fluency
56
THE BI-LITERACY CURRICULUM
57
Curriculum Features of Effective Dual Literacy
Instruction
Continually examining student language
development and content knowledge Plan
instruction according to students language
abilities Using whole group, small group, and
differentiating instruction to meet student needs
Assessing Progress Designing Instruction Using
a Variety of Grouping Practices
58
Curriculum
  • 2. Planning related to curriculum
  • Horizontal vertical alignment.
  • Large variety types of materials.
  • Meets vision and goals of bilingualism,
  • biliteracy, and multiculturalism.

Planning is partly based on curriculum, but is
somewhat independent. Publishers and textbooks
will change over the years, but the students
needs will not.
59
THE BI-LITERACY INSTRUCTION
60
Biliteracy IssuesUse Research What does
research say aboutdeveloping biliteracy (Mora,
Genesee)
  • There is positive transfer between L1 and L2 in
    phonemic awareness, reading phonics, word
    recognition, word strategies, use of cognates,
    monitoring comprehension.
  • Some students need direct instruction before they
    can utilize the similarities.
  • Biggest obstacle is lack of vocabulary in L2
  • Background knowledge for specific texts is
    essential to comprehension
  • Some reading strategies are common to both
    languages, others are specific to the phonetic
    and grapheme systems between English and Spanish.
    Explicit instruction in these contrasts is
    helpful.

61
DESIGNING INSTRUCTION
  • Plan instruction based on assessment data
  • Group students (and regroup based on continual
    assessment).
  • Set instructional goals for each group.
  • Select and sequence appropriate tasks.
  • Identify students for additional, intensive
    instruction.

62
Dual Language Bi-literacy Instruction Language
Arts Biliteracy Issues
  • Language Arts/literacy instruction in dual
    language programs is different from other
    bilingual programs.
  • Like instruction in English, Spanish
    reading/language arts is based on ELA standards,
    but
  • Unlike English reading instruction, we do not
    start over with beginning reading instruction in
    English rather, we build on what knowledge and
    skills students have already acquired in Spanish.
  • Many ELA skills can be taught during instruction
    in Spanish.
  • ELA Standard Grade K Describe people, places,
    things (e.g., size, color, shape), locations,
    actions
  • This language arts/literacy skill can be taught
    through Spanish--understanding how to describe
    people, things, locations, actions

63
FORMING BALANCED CLASSES FOR DUAL LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTION
  • You are not trying to form LEP vs. non-LEP
    bilingual pairs
  • Focus on language skills (IPT) using raw scores
    (versus level) in English and Spanish
  • Do not use LEP versus non-LEP classification only
    to balance
  • Re-assess and re-balance classrooms at the end of
    each year
  • Some students are LEP, but with fairly good
    English skills that would be considered an
    English speaker for classroom instruction
    however, his/her target native language
    (language arts) is still Spanish
  • The need to have equal balance is not as
    crucial as having a good balance as possible of
    English and Spanish speakers regardless of their
    original native language (some non-LEP children
    may have indeed gained sufficient Spanish and
    considered Spanish speakers and vice versa)
  • This is why it is important to be assessing
    children in both languages
  • Finally try to distribute strong English
    speakers and strong Spanish speakers across the
    classrooms. For instance, if you have 20 non-LEP
    children (assuming they have strong English
    skills) and 5 classrooms, place 4 in each
    classroom, and so on

64
BI-LITERACY LESONS
Freeman Freeman 2006
65
Bi-literacy Instruction 50/50 Model
66
5 CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF SPANISH INSTRUCTION 5
CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF ENGLISH INSTRUCTION
(50/50 MODEL)
P.Gomez,2008
67
Biliteracy Delivery System
A Two Way Dual Language Program
  • Students are grouped by language dominance after
    language assessments are conducted.
  • 1. 50 native Spanish speakers
  • 2. 50 native English speakers
  • Teachers plan cooperatively to provide integrated
    lessons that are not translations.
  • Students are taught exclusively in the target
    language without translating or code switching.
  • Teachers use second language methodologies (TPR,
    concrete manipulatives, modeling, charts, graphs,
    and literature) to model and teach the target
    language.

68
INTEGRATED INSTRUCTION
69
Instruction
  • Effective strategies techniques include
  • Language input that
  • Uses sheltering strategies to promote
    comprehension
  • Uses visual aids and modeling instruction,
    allowing students to negotiate meaning
  • Is interesting, relevant, of sufficient quantity
  • Is challenging to promote high levels of language
    proficiency and critical thinking

70
Listening Speaking
71
Reading Writing
72
MAKING CONNECTIONS TO LEARNING A NEW LANGUAGE
  • Oral Connections In making presentation
    students use and develop oral language.
    Communication inspires us to use a new language.
  • Visual Connections Students draw or sketch word
    or topic of communication to represent the
    meaning they wish to convey
  • Written Connections Students
  • Students have an opportunity to demonstrate
    knowledge of clear and effective syntactic
    structures.

73
ASSESSING STUDENT PROGRESS IS CRITICAL TO A
SUCCESSFUL BALANCE OF LANGAUGE DEVELOPMENT
74
  • Develop questioning strategies
  • Use Blooms taxonomy
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

Hint Use questions that students will encounter
during assessment.
75
Balance all Assessment Approaches
  • Benchmarks-
  • Can begin in the second grade
  • Can be developed by the district
  • Often are given in 3rd grade and are previous
    versions of the TAKS test
  • Often are given in English and in Spanish to
    determine the language the TAKS will be taken in.
  • TAKS
  • Beginning in 3rd grade dual language programs.
  • Offered in English and in Spanish
  • TPRI/ Tejas Lee
  • Administered at the beginning, middle, and end of
    the year.
  • identify early reading difficulties or risk for
    reading difficulties in English/Spanish at an
    early age.
  • Offers intervention exercises.
  • DRA II / EDL II
  • Focuses on comprehension, fluency, expression,
    reading engagement and in higher levels writing.
  • Administered at the beginning, middle, and end of
    the year.

76
Conceptual knowledge and language development
are measure and assess separately
  • Combining measurement of language acquisition and
    conceptual knowledge without the child having
    fully acquired their second language could
    obstruct accurate test results.
  • Give the second language learner the opportunity
    to measure their conceptual knowledge in their
    native language until they have fully acquired
    the second language.

77
Assessment and Accountability
  • Research on effective schools, including
    schools with immersion programs, demonstrates
    that assessment plays an important role. In
    these schools, assessment is
  • Consistent and systematic (longitudinal)
  • Used to shape monitor program effectiveness
  • Aligned with appropriate state curricular
    standards and with vision and goals of
    bilingualism, biliteracy, and multiculturalism
  • Carried out with multiple measures in both
    languages
  • Interpreted accurately (data are disaggregated)
  • Disseminated to appropriate constituents
  • Included in professional development.

78
Student Success
79
Weve Come a Long Way Baby!
KEEP A FORWARD MOVEMENT
80
Questions/Comments?
  • Contact Information
  • Patricia A. Gomez
  • Cell 361-688-0902
  • Office 817-272-5144
  • E-mail drgomez_at_uta.edu
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