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Kristiina Vogt

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Inherent carrying capacity for how large a city can be? ... A Prairie Dog Lies Flat on the Pavement to try to Cool Off in Tokyo JAPAN: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kristiina Vogt


1
Kristiina Vogt
  • Professor of Ecosystem Management, CFR, UW
  • March 3, 2004

2
Part 5 Urban Development and Sustainable Cities
  • Inherent carrying capacity for how large a city
    can be?
  • Is most livable city a large city or a small
    city does size matter?
  • What makes a city sustainable?

3
Bio 2, Arizona
4
All food grown and waste produced contained in
BIO2
BIO 2, Arizona
5
BIO 2 Arizona
Oxygen 16 (normal 21) CO2 3,500 ppm
submarine air (normal 345 ppm) Not enough
food Grumpy people
6
Urban Growth
  • Until recently, the vast majority of humanity has
    always lived in rural areas
  • Industrialization and urbanization shift from
    agrarian to industrial
  • Nearly 50 of the worlds people now live in
    urban areas (in decade 80-90)
  • Megacities (megalopolises) giant urban
    complexes from merged cities(Ex Boston and
    Washington DC with 35 million people
    Tokyo-Yokohama-Osaka-Kobe corridor with 50
    million people)

7
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8
U.S. Urban Core Agglomerations
Mostly coastal, transportation links
Linked flow information, capital, labor, goods,
services
9
Cities in Developing Countries
10
1900 13 cities population gt 1 million (except
Tokyo, Peking were in Europe or North
America)1995 235 gt 1 million (only 3 of
largest 12 in developed world)
Is there an inherent carrying capacity for a
city? Zurich, Switzerland most livable city 2002
11
Worlds Larges Metropolitan Regions (pop in
millions)
1990
1995
1 London (6.6 million) 1 Tokyo (26.9)
2 New York (4.2) 2 Mexico City (16.6)
3 Paris (3.3) 3 Sao Paulo (16.5)
4 Berlin (2.4) 4 New York (16.3)
5 Chicago (1.7) 5 Mumbai, India (15.1)
6 Vienna (1.6) 6 Shanghai (13.6)
7 Tokyo (1.5) 7 Los Angeles (12.4)
8 St. Petersburg (1.4) 8 Calcutta (11.9)
9 Philadelphia (1.4) 9 Seoul S. Korea (11.6)
10 Manchester (1.3) 10 Beijing (11.3)
12 Moscow (1.1) 11 Osaka
12 Peking (1.1) 12 Lagos Nigeria (10.3)
12
Future Growth Developing Countries
Developing country
urban
urban
rural
rural
13
Causes Urban Growth natural (Latin America,
East Asia), immigration (Africa, West Asia)
Jakarta
  • Immigration push-and-pull factors
  • Government policies Zambia no agriculture so
    large pool workers for cobalt mining (50 of
    economic revenue)

14
Part 8 City Planning, Sustainability
City planning has a long history (centers
education, religion, commerce, politics, culture)
Mesopotamia, India, Egypt Buildings
deteriorating air pollution, microbes, etc
15
Part 6 Urban Problems in Developing Countries
Housing
  • Around 100 million people are homeless
  • Slums 20 world population lives
  • Shantytowns - illegal

16
Air and Water Pollution
  • Dense traffic, smoky factories, use of wood or
    coal fires
  • Lenient pollution laws, corrupt officials,
    ignorance
  • Only 35 of urban residents in developing
    countries have satisfactory sanitation services

17
Higher energy need to cool cities big heat sinks
A Prairie Dog Lies Flat on the Pavement to try to
Cool Off in Tokyo JAPAN November 8, 2002
temperatures hit 36.5 C YEAREND PICTURES , Story
by TA/CP Photo by TOSHIYUKI AIZAWA
18
Waste manage big problem
10,000 Enforcement Officer Monitors Littering in
Hong Kong - crack down on people
littering CHINA June 11, 2002 Reuters News
Services
19
Coal Vendor Makes Delivery in Traditional
Alleyway in Beijing CHINA November 26,
2002 Story by ASW/RCS Photo by ANDREW WONG
Reuters News Service In China, millions of people
suffer from fluorosis caused by pollution from
burning high fluoride coal. A number of studies
in China have found that exposure to indoor coal
pollution is linked with higher rates of lung
cancer.
Non-renewable fuel, highly polluting
20
Big cities not isolated from outside landscape
activities
An environment worker distributes masks to
motorists in Indonesia'a city of Pontianak, West
Kalimantan province haze from forest fires
September 20, 2002 (Reuters News Service)
21
Indian commuters, rush hour traffic in the
central hub of New Delhi August 12, 2002 Reuters
News Services Story by JSG/RCS, Photo by B MATHUR
Thick cloud of pollution over South Asia UN
Panel climate change concerned (Air Pollution has
no boundaries, transfer effects)
22
Part 7 Urban Problems in the Developed World
  • Rapid growth of central cities in Europe, North
    America has now slowed or even reversed
  • The good news better air and water quality,
    safer working conditions, fewer communicable
    diseases
  • The bad news urban decay and sprawl,
    transportation issues

Book treats developed from developing world
differently (problems same) Book suggests
different solutions for each part of the world
23
Developed World
Urban Decay and Sprawl Las Vegas, Nevada
24
Transportation
  • Most American cities devote 1/3 of their land
    area to cars
  • Freeways profoundly reshaped our lives (opposite
    Europe but changing WalMart proliferation)
  • Public transportation is expensive,difficult to
    establish

25
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26
Green Business, Green Design decrease energy
use quality work environment
Native grass roof insulation, reduce
runoff Natural lighting Open design, consider
adjacent areas
Award winning GAP Inc corporate offices, San
Bruno, CA best features of environmental design
27
Urban Sustainability in the Developed World
  • Limit city sizes
  • Greenbelts, open space
  • Development planning
  • Encourage walking, car alternatives
  • More diverse housing
  • Grow food locally
  • Public participation

28
A Tale of Three Cities Portland and Vancouver
get going while Seattle Stalls by William
Dietrich, Seattle Times February 2, 2003
  • Seattle few parks downtown uninviting
    waterfront pales in comparison transportation
    choices limited sidewalks plainer fewer street
    trees, housing choices narrower, towers uglier

Note what indicators are used. What is missing?
29
Conventional Subdivision versusCluster
Housing(Open-Space Zoning)
Quality of environment but not waste, food
production
Both plans provide 36 home sites.
30
Sustainable Development in the Third World
31
What Can Be Done to Improve Conditions in Third
World Cities (a la class book)?
  • Civic action, environmental education
  • Redistribution unproductive land, squatters
    rights
  • Rolling land banks
  • Democracy, security, improved economic conditions
  • Social welfare safety net
  • Local nontraditional exchange of good

How compare these solutions to industrialized
world?
32
New Views of Urban Sustainability
  • Tri-partite model economic, social,
    environmental requirements
  • Life Cycle thinking and management
  • Ecological Footprint measurement
  • Total cost analysis include externalities and
    not just direct costs
  • Move from Trade-off mentality to value creation

Rowledge LR and CL Figge. 2000. Urban
Sustainability. Executive Summary. Summary Report
to the City of Seattle January 2000 EKOS
International
33
United States organized, large scale recycling,
dumps
China organized, small scale recycling Chinese
Woman Collects Recyclable Rubbish Along the
Construction Site of Main Dam of Three Gorges Dam
Hubei province, China, November 3, 2002.
(Reuters)
34
CONSERVING RESOURCES -Scavengers generalities in
the Developing World
  • Are immigrants from rural areas
  • Respond to market demand, not environmental
    considerations (disease problems)
  • Material recovered variety conditions (open
    dumps, garbage floating in canals, rivers)
  • Authorities in Asia, Latin America not recognize
    social, economic and environmental benefits of
    scavenging

35
Scavenger cooperatives in Asia and Latin
America(M. Medina, Resources, Conservation and
Recycling 31(2000) 51-69)
  • Successful scavenger cooperatives (largely paper,
    scrap metal) Columbia, Brazil, Mexico,
    Philippines, India, Indonesia
  • Garbage in developing countries more organic,
    dense, humid than industrialized - need different
    solutions (waste technology developed in
    industrialized countries limited application
    elsewhere)

NICARAGUA Gleaning Managua's rubbish piles for
recyclable aluminum, plastic and paper.Reuters
CHINA In Beijing, a migrant worker sifting for
leavings. Natalie Behring for The New York Times
http//www.rider.edu/phanc/courses/richpoor/povert
y/scavengers.htm
36
Scavengers live on fringe of wealth
PAKISTAN A girl feeding her brother while their
parents scavenge for salable items from
Islamabad's trash.
BOSNIA A refugee eating an American military
meal.The Associated Press
http//www.rider.edu/phanc/courses/richpoor/povert
y/scavengers.htm
37
Genetically Engineered Chicken That Has No
Feathers ISRAEL May 22, 2002 Story by HO, Photo
by HO , REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE - dubbed
low calorie bird because lack of feathers means
the chicken has less fat
Grow enough food in less space, less waste
materials, food safety issues, better quality?
38
Ban imposed by the Ministry of Agriculture
Fisheries - outbreak of Crimean Congo Hemorrhages
Fever virus among Iranian livestock - affects
animals, humans.
Idle animal traders sit, gossip amid almost empty
pens at the Sharjah Animal Market, a result of a
ban on the import of Iranian livestock June 6,
2002. (Reuters News Services 2002)
Antiobiotics, Hormone Use Beef Production, Intl
trade
39
New Views of Urban Sustainability
  • Tri-partite model economic, social,
    environmental requirements
  • Life Cycle thinking and management
  • Ecological Footprint measurement
  • Total cost analysis include externalities and
    not just direct costs
  • Move from Trade-off mentality to value creation

Rowledge LR and CL Figge. 2000. Urban
Sustainability. Executive Summary. Summary Report
to the City of Seattle January 2000 EKOS
International
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