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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
Protecting the Land During Suppression and
Holding Actions
3
Objectives
  • Describe Appropriate Management Response and
    Minimum Impact Strategy and Technique used to
    manage wildland fire.

4
Continued
  • Identify how AMR and MIST can be selected to
    reduce resource damage and rehabilitation needs.

5
Continued
  • Describe rehabilitation of fire management
    actions.

6
  • Appropriate Management Response

(AMR)
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Historic Perspective
  • Early fire suppression emphasized full control
    with 100 mop-up.
  • 1944 Biologist Dr. McDougall expresses concern
    over cost and environmental damage resulting from
    suppression impacts on a fire in Big Bend.

9
Historic Perspective
  • Mid-1970s Yellowstone NP FMO Bob Sellers coins
    phrase Light Hand on the Land during review of
    wetline tactics successfully used on a fire.

10
Historic Perspective
  • Also during this era, land management agencies
    begin evolving from FIRE CONTROL to FIRE
    MANGEMENT.
  • Late1980s- The first Minimum Impact Suppression
    Tactics (MIST) trainings are developed by Bill
    Moody and Francis Mohr.

11
Concurrently
  • 1980s Wilderness managers grapple with two key
    principles of the Wilderness Act
  • Natural processes should be allowed to operate as
    freely as possible.
  • Motorized and mechanized equipment are allowed
    only as necessary to meet minimum requirements
    for the administration of the area(including
    measures required in emergencies) NOT given
    blanket approval.

12
During the 1990s
  • Late 1990s
  • Fire policy is approved which allows a full range
    of management responses.
  • The definition of FIRE MANAGEMENT includes that
    the fire organization is responsive to, and
    supportive of, the land management objectives.

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Selecting Implementing Appropriate Management
Response
15
Impacts From Tactical Activity Can Occur During
  • Firelining
  • Helispot construction
  • Mop-up
  • Rehab
  • Base/spike camp situations
  • Introduction of noxious weeds

16
Selecting the AMR
  • Surveillance / Monitoring.
  • Lining to halt fire spread.
  • Use of aerial support.
  • Use of burn-out associated with natural barriers,
    trails, etc.
  • Wet line.
  • Dry line.
  • Minimal or extensive mop-up.

17
As the Fuel Situation Changes
  • A decision to stop growth at fire edge or to use
    natural barriers.
  • Use of more intensive fireline.
  • Use of more intensive burn-out tactics.

18
Tool Kit for AMR Decisions
  • Fire history maps
  • Weather forecasts
  • Forest fire behavior characteristics
  • Minimum Requirement Decision Guide

19
Fire History Map
20
Weather Forecasts
  • Long Range.
  • Managers have more flexibility in planning for
    fire use if long range forecasts are favorable
    (stable).
  • Short Range.
  • These include isolated disturbances which
    significantly affect fire behavior and short time
    frames for planning.

21
Fire Behavior Characteristics
  • Based on weather effects
  • Various precipitation effects.
  • Annual average daily temperatures, Relative
    Humidities, and winds.
  • Effects - typical cold front passages.
  • Effects - atypical cold front passages.
  • Average date of killing curing frosts high
    and low elevations.

22
Minimum Requirement Decision Guide
  • Consider this basic analysis in each incident, at
    least informally
  • Are there other less intrusive actions that
    should be tried first?
  • Develop alternatives, using motorized equipment
    and mechanized transport, not using these, or
    some combination.
  • Assess biophysical, social, political, health and
    safety effects of each.

23
  • M.I.S.T.
  • Minimum Impact Strategy and Technique

24
Myths Associated With Minimum Impact Technique
25
  • Minimum Impact means doing something less than
    what is necessary to accomplish the strategic
    objectives.
  • Minimum Impact Technique jeopardizes firefighter
    safety.

26
  • The Appropriate Management Response allows
    flexibility in managing any fire.

27
Implementing the AMRSelecting Minimum Impact
Strategy and Technique
28
Hand Line
29
  • Locate line in minimal fuels.
  • Use only the width and depth necessary to halt
    fire spread.
  • Widen minimal line by burning fuels between the
    line and the fire.
  • Limb or fall only when necessary for safety and
    to prevent fire spread.

30
  • Minimize clearing fuels next to the fire edge.
  • Roll logs rather than buck, or reroute around.
  • Scrape fuels from the base of snags.
  • Consider explosives.

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Machine Line
37
  • Remove surface fuels without gouging the soil. If
    possible, tip the blade on dozers.
  • In light fuels, equipment tracks may suffice.
  • In moderate fuels, route around trees.
  • In heavy fuels, choose direct route.

38
  • Dont use dozers or feller/bunchers on slopes gt
    35.
  • In some situations,excavators or rubber tired
    skidders may be effective.
  • Involve your timber folks.

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Burn-outTactics
44
Burning out can be very effective, however a high
degree of expertise is needed
45
  • When applied from natural barriers, burn-out may
    reduce the need to build handline.
  • However, mass ignition from aerial applications
    may be
  • More extensive.
  • Higher intensity.
  • More expensive.

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Mop-up
49
Considerations
  • Mop-up standards are a decision negotiated
    between the forest, the team and the line
    overhead.
  • Strive for the minimum necessary to secure the
    line from escape, based on anticipated weather.
  • The standard is a balance between resource values
    and our ability to mitigate for safety.
  • Minimizing mop-up impacts requires longer
    patrolling.

50
  • Use cold trail techniques.
  • Use water rather than tools.
  • Minimize soil disturbance.
  • Cool, remove or burn fuels.
  • Allow fuels to burn out.
  • Fire line around problems rather than fall.

51
Tree Cutting
  • There is no question safety is paramount, but do
    firefighters need to be there?
  • Snags are important to a functioning ecosystem.
  • Stumps are not natural in appearance.

52
  • When building line, locate away from snags where
    possible.
  • During mop-up
  • Identify hazard trees with flagging or glow
    sticks.
  • Extinguish burning trees with water or dirt.
  • Consider blasting.

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Precautions Around Water
  • Avoid use of retardants, foams and surfactants
    within 300 of waterways.
  • If chemicals are used, pump from fold-a-tank 300
    from water.
  • Provide spill prevention and containment measures
    for pump operations.
  • If retardants, foams or surfactants come within
    300 of waterways, notify fisheries specialist.

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Helicopter Operations
59
  • During planning consider the objectives.
  • If primarily as crew support
  • Use paracargo drops or stock support.
  • Longline gear into natural openings.
  • If primarily for crew shuttles
  • Avoid construction in high use areas.
  • Are there others within reasonable walking
    distance?
  • Provide specific instruction for construction.

60
  • During construction
  • Flush cut stumps.
  • Limit bucking and limbing.
  • Use directional falling so trees will be
    crisscrossed in a naturally appearing arrangement.

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Spike Camp Management
66
  • Use existing and impact resistant sites.
  • Change location, if impacts are unacceptable.
  • Evaluate coyote camp impacts vs. travel.
  • Flag travel routes from camp to other areas to
    minimize proliferation of trail impacts.

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Use Leave-No-Trace Fires
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Avoid Clearing, Trenching and Bough Beds!
75
Locate Latrines 200 From Water And 8 Deep.
76
Consider River-Style Porta-potties
  • Use RV toilet paper.

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78
Use and Rehab Slit Trenches
79
Hang Food Away From Camp in Bear Country.
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81
Leave No Weeds
  • Locate helibases and camps in weed-free areas,
    when possible.
  • If camps have weeds, flag off areas and establish
    travel routes through weed-free areas.
  • Power wash all equipment used on the fire
    (including hose), going in and out.
  • Minimize disturbance areas, including hand line.

82
Rehabilitation
83
  • The objective is to mitigate or eliminate
    resource damage to as natural a condition as
    possible. The standards applied can significantly
    affect the cost of a fire.

84
  • Rehab of fire line.
  • Fill in berms and provide drainage, if necessary.
  • Scatter bone piles.
  • Slant cut large logs at 45-60 degrees on bottom
    side.
  • Naturalize.

85
  • Helispots
  • Consider burning piles at later date.
  • Spike Camps
  • Cover latrine.
  • Pick up all litter and naturalize.
  • IC, Staging Areas and Drop Points
  • Rehab commensurate with resource values.

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101
Before Leaving
  • Walk through to once again eliminate any
    remaining evidence of human presence.

102
Land Stewardship During Wildland Fire Situations
  • The concept of light hand on the land
  • Involves a change in thinking and attitude.
  • Is applicable on all lands.

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Chain of Command
  • Attend all briefings and planning meetings
    religiously!
  • Develop a working relationship with the
    Operations section, especially individual crews
    working the areas you are concerned with.
  • Dont be afraid to call BS when you disagree w/ a
    planned tactic.
  • DO NOT engage in tactical decision making unless
    you have the experience, are qualified and are
    asked!

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