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NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Scramjets: Introduction and Overview

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Title: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Scramjets: Introduction and Overview


1
NASA DrydenFlight Research CenterScramjets
Introduction and Overview
Dr. Stephen A. Whitmore Aerodynamics
Branch Research Engineering Directorate Briefin
g to the Naval Postgraduate School August 22, 2002
2
NASA Field Centers
Headquarters Corporate Office Ames
Research Center Information Technology
Dryden Flight Research Center Atmospheric
Flight Operations/Research Glenn Research
Center Turbomachinery Goddard Space Flight
Center Scientific Research Jet Propulsion
Laboratory Deep Space Systems Johnson Space
Center Human Operations in Space Kennedy
Space Center Launch and Cargo Processing
Systems Langley Research Center Aeronautics,
Structures and Materials Marshall Space Flight
Center Space Propulsion Stennis Space Center
Propulsion Testing Systems
NASA HQ 10 Field centers 4 Strategic
Enterprises
3
NASA Strategic Plan
Code R centers
4
Office of Aero-Space Technology
5
DFRC is a Code R Center
NASA Center-of-Excellence For Atmospheric
Flight Research
Mission Elements - Conduct flight research
in support of global civil aviation, new
technology, and access to space Support
technology developments and operations for Space
Shuttle and future access-to-space vehicles
Conduct airborne science mission and flight
operations Develop piloted and un-piloted
aircraft test beds for research and science
missions High Speed Flight Test / Flight
Research
6
X-planes
Long Legacy of Piloted"X-planes" Used to
Develop Space Access Technologies
7
Why Flight Research?
"...to separate the real from the imagined and
to make known the overlooked and the unexpected
problems..." Hugh L. Dryden
8
Flight Testing IS A Tough Business
Not a good sign
9
Why High Speed Flight Research?
10
Why is Space Access So Expensive?
  • Launch is the single largest sink for space
    access
  • Current chemical rocket performance tops-out _at_
    Isp 350s (hydrocarbon), 450 (Lox/LH2)
  • Bottom-line either increase engine performance,
    or reduce the mass-fraction of propellant
    oxidizer carried

11
Why is Space Access So Expensive?
12
Tsiolkowskys Rocket Equation
Conservation of Momentum says that a rocket
Has a given maximum available Delta-Vee for a
given propellant load
13
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14

15
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16
The Rocket Motor
combine


17
What if we didnt have to take Oxidizer along?
X-43 airbreathing SCRAMjet engine
What happens to our Isp?
OK .. Lets loose the Oxidizer and our Isp goes
up by a factor Of 7!
18
Hypersonic Applications
19
Scramjets Hypersonic High Efficiency
20
Supersonic Combustion Ramjet
Take a Rocket motor and lop the top off
Works Ok for subsonic, but for supersonic flow
cant cram enough air down the tube Result
is a normal shock wave at the inlet lip
21
What Happens Across a Normal Shockwave
M?
M?
Mechanical Energy is Dissipated into Heat
Huge Loss in Momentum
22
Huge rise in temperature
Huge loss of momentum
23
Ramjet design
So we put a spike in front of the inlet

How does this spike Help? By forming an
Oblique Shock wave ahead of the inlet
Actually the J-85 engine on the SR-71 is a
turbojet but you get the picture
24
Ramjet design (contd)
So we put a spike in front of the inlet
How does this spike Help? By forming an
Oblique Shock wave ahead of the inlet
25
Ramjet design (contd)
Behind 30? Oblique Shock
Detached shockwave
Oblique Shockwave
26
Ramjet design (contd)
Behind 30? Oblique Shock and Normal Shock
Total Momentum Loss Reduced But Engine Flow is
still subsonic
90? Shockwave
90? Shockwave
27
ScrRamjet design
How do we keep the Inflow supersonic? Very
careful design of the Flow path
Series of very weak (highly oblique)
shockwaves and expansion shocks keep the flow
supersonic throughout the engine
28
ScrRamjet design (contd)
Series of very weak (highly oblique)
shockwaves and expansion shocks keep the flow
supersonic throughout the engine
29
ScrRamjet design (contd)
30
ScrRamjet design (contd)
OK now wrap a vehicle around the engine
Voila! Scramjet design 101
31
Scramjet Features
32
The X-43A Research Vehicle
33
Hyper-X Overview
  • A key element of the overall National
    Hypersonic Plan
  • X-43A is the first ever flight demonstration of
    an airframe-integrated, scramjet powered,
    hypersonic vehicle
  • Flight data will be used to validate the tools,
    test and analysis techniques, and methodology for
    designing scramjet powered, hypersonic vehicles

34
X-43A Overview
  • A three-flight project
  • Fly three scramjet powered vehicles at Mach 7
    10
  • Accelerate the vehicles
  • A 12' long vehicle boosted to test conditions
    by a modified Pegasus booster
  • Hydrogen fueled scramjet engine
  • Scaled version of a "cruise" configuration
  • It is not flight weight at 3000 lbs
  • The booster (HXLV) and experimental vehicle
    (HXRV) is air launched from NASA's B-52

35
OK . There is another big problem sorta like
the crazy uncle in the basement no one wants to
talk about
This! Thing cant fly very well at
non-hypersonic speeds Vehicle stability is a
real problem
  • 2-D SCRAMjet design is a Mindset left over from
    the
  • National Aerospace plane (NASP) days

36
Stability? Just ask the X-43 folks
Not a good sign
Here Comes the MIB.
Aero instabilities of X-43 Overwhelmed
Pegasus Control System
37
Axi-symmetric SCRAM-engine concepts need to be
revisited
Configuration is aerodynamically stable
38
Sample Launch Comparison
Atlas III Launcher Replace Upper Stage
Centaur Rocket Motor with Notional SCRAMjet
Design Look at Launch Mass Loadings Required
to achieve Same orbit
39
Launch Comparison
Atlas III
SCRAM-atlas
Total Launch Mass 93,250 kg Dry mass 20,360
kg Pmf 3.58
Total Launch Mass 177,800 kg Dry Mass 19,460
kg Pmf 8.14
40
Launch Cost Models
Operational Costs for Unmanned,
Expendable Launch Vehicle Wow!
Atlas III
Scram-Atlas
extrapolated
41
HyShot Scramjet Project
  • University of Queensland, Australia
  • 30 July 2002

Axi-symmetric (cylindrical) Launch
Configuration is far more aerodynamically
stable than X-43 2-D configuration
42
HyShot Mission Profile
  • Terrier-Orion Mk 70 rocket
  • Max liftoff spd Mach 8
  • Liftoff accl 22 g (60 g for 0.5 s)
  • Apogee 330 km
  • Nose is pushed over, cone
  • ejected (Bang-Bang maneuver)
  • Max descent spd Mach 7.6
  • Scramjet stage
  • Hydrogen Fueled

43
HyShot Scramjet (contd)
  • NASA X-43A (Hyper-X)
  • 185 million
  • 2-D Integrated SCRAMjet
  • Phase I unmanned
  • 2 Jun 01 flight failure
  • Destruct vehicle instability
  • U of Q HyShot
  • 1.5 million
  • SCRAMjet only
  • 3 yr design and construction
  • COTS
  • International assistance
  • 30 July 2002
  • First Successful SCRAMjet
  • flight test

44
HyShot Inlet
45
HyShot Links
  • Latest news http//www.uq.edu.au/news/hyshot/hys
    hot-gallery.php
  • Project site http//www.mech.uq.edu.au/hyper/hys
    hot

46
Alternate RLV Concepts
Simplified Approach to Scramjet Testing
(SAST) Propulsion Performance Branch
(RP), NASA Dryden Small directionally-symmetric
Mach 6 Scramjet design Configuration is
aerodynamically stable
47
Alternate RLV Concepts (contd)
48
SAST Objectives
  • Build experience with hypersonic flight test
    techniques and instrumentation at NASA Dryden.
  • Evaluate the feasibility and value of a simple,
    low cost hypersonic flight testbed.
  • Obtain hypersonic propulsion flight data for a
    simplified scramjet engine.
  • Get operational expertise through high flight
    rate

49
Simplified Approach to SCRAMjet Testing (SAST)
50
Simplified Approach to SCRAMjet Testing (SAST)
51
Simplified Approach to SCRAMjet Testing (SAST)
52
Rocket Motor Description
  • Viper-V Block-II solid rocket motor
  • Manufacturer -- Industrial Solid Propulsion, Inc.
  • Propellant -- 87 solids HTPB/AP/AL
  • Dimensions -- 131 in. length and 7 in. dia.
  • Weight -- 225 lbs.
  • Thrust -- approx. 6,000 lbs for 5.5 seconds
  • Motor case -- carbon/epoxy composite
  • Launch lugs -- fixed T-rail aft lug, ejectable
    T-rail forward lug

53
Scramjet Fuel System
  • High pressure, gaseous blow down system.
  • Gaseous hydrogen-silane fuel stored in fuel tank
    at 1800 psi.
  • Pyrotechnic valve used to release fuel to fuel
    injectors.
  • Pressure switch sensing booster burn-out opens
    pyrotechnic valve.
  • Fuel injectors sized for initial ER0.2.
  • Scramjet burn time of about 2 sec. (with
    decreasing ER).
  • Predicted peak combustion pressure of about 300
    psi and change in force of about 150 lbs.

54
First Flight March 2000
Guess What? Booster Failure
Dust yourself off, try it again!!!
55
Viper V Block II Motor Cross Section
Booster Burn through
56
Summary How to Proceed?
  • Team together NASA/NPS/NRL/NAWC
  • Use NPS thesis students as substantive
    research staff
  • NASA/NAVY partners to provide programmatic
  • administration and intellectual guidance
  • Forge alliance with commercial interests to
    capitalize on research
  • The Goal?

57
How about Navy/NASA Joint Institute of for
High-Speed Flight Research
Radm. David R. Ellison, USN Superintendent, Naval
Postgraduate School Monterey, CA Mr. Kevin L.
Petersen Director, NASA Dryden Flight Research
Center Edwards, CA Radm. Michael C. Bachmann,
USN Commander, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons
Division China Lake, CA


58
Navy/NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics
Precedent?
  • Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the
    Ames Research Center (ARC) of the National
    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a
    Joint Institute of Aeronautics was established in
    July 1986.
  • The purpose of the Institute is to provide NPS
    students with opportunities to perform their
    thesis research in an ARC Laboratory, to involve
    NPS faculty and students in NASA scientific and
    engineering projects, to develop special courses
    and seminars for NPS and ARC scientists and
    engineers to refresh and strengthen professional
    knowledge at NPS and ARC, and to encourage the
    enrollment of federal employees for graduate
    study at NPS with the possibility of performing
    the thesis research at ARC.

59
The First Step?
Dr. Trong Bui (RP/DFRC) has proposed that small
missiles from our weapons inventory be examined
for their potential use as boosters for high
supersonic/hypersonic small flight research
testbeds (approach to be discussed in an upcoming
NPGS presentation by Dr. Bui) Missiles Galore
AMRAAM, Harpoon (AGM-84),HARM, Hellfire Missile
(AGM-114), Sparrow (AIM-7M), Folding Fin Aircraft
Rocket (FFAR), JDAM, JSOW, Maverick, Phoenix,
Sidewinder (AIM-9M), SLAM, SLAM-ER
60
Trade Study
25k fenced-off for FY03 Thesis research
sponsorship of NPS student(s) Trade study
examines existing operational and/or obsolete
(legacy) weapons systems to assess
feasibility of exploiting these platforms to
facilitate high speed flight research ...
61
Trade Study (contd) .
Likely to be a Classified Thesis Topic, Ideal
Topic for Surface Warfare (SWO) Officers
End-product laundry list of recommended
platforms and applicable missions, feasible
trajectories, etc. "Seed planting" for
follow on tests ... eventually leading to
operational readiness for "hot
fire Potential to leverage support from
Navys Hypersonic Strike Initiative
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