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Stem Cell Research 101

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Title: Stem Cell Research 101


1
Stem Cell Research 101
Some slides provided by Barbara Atkinson,
MD Executive Vice Chancellor, University of
Kansas Medical Center, Executive Dean, KU School
of Medicine
January 2006
2
Why Is Vocabulary Important?
  • Key Terms
  • Mature versus adult stem cells
  • Early versus embryonic stem cells
  • Therapeutic versus reproductive cloning
  • Alive versus a life

3
What Is a Stem Cell?
  • Unspecialized cells
  • Give rise to more than 250 specialized cells in
    the body
  • Serve as the bodys repair system
  • Renew itself
  • Replenish other cells

4
What Are the Two Major Types?
5
What Is the History of SCR?
6
Mature Stem Cells (MSC)
7
What Are the Sources of Mature Stem Cells?
Mature Body Tissues
8
What Are the Sources of Mature Stem Cells?
Umbilical Cord Placenta
  • Isolated immediately following birth
  • multipotent
  • Research is limited but growing

9
What Are the Characteristics?
  • Mature Stem Cells typically develop into the cell
    types of the tissue or organ from which they
    originate
  • Specific sources within each tissue type are not
    well understood yet

10
What Is a Treatment Example?
11
What Are the Advantages?
  • Mature Stem Cells
  • Organ/tissue rejection unlikely if patient
    receives own stem cells
  • Some are easy to find (e.g., blood stem cells)
  • Partly specialized
  • Less coaxing in culture required to stimulate
    growth of specific cell types

12
What Are the Disadvantages?
  • Mature Stem Cells
  • Limited longevity in cell culture (60-80
    doublings)
  • Difficult to isolate and extract
  • Limited flexibility or types of cells that can be
    made
  • Uncommon cells more scarce with age
  • Questionable quality due to age, toxins, and
    disease

13
Early Stem Cells (ESC)
14
What Are the Sources of Early Stem Cells?
15
Where Are Early Stem Cells Found?
5 days of development
  • Who did it first?
  • In 1998, U. Wisconsin research team isolates
    stem cells from IVF-blastocysts

16
What Is a Blastocyst?
17
How Big Is a Blastocyst?
18
What Are the Characteristics?
  • Early stem cells are pluripotent
  • Retain the special ability to develop into nearly
    any cell type

19
What Are the Advantages?
  • Early Stem Cells
  • Easy to grow in cell culture
  • Very flexible can make all body cell types
  • If SCNT, immune rejection unlikely
  • Can be maintained for long periods of time in
    cell culture
  • Potential unlimited source of all types of
    clinically relevant cells
  • If IVF, available
  • More than 400,000 unwanted pre-embryos in U.S.

20
ESC What Are the Disadvantages?
  • Early Stem Cells
  • If IVF, rejection is possible, but we dont know
    yet
  • Difficult to control differentiation (Teratomas)
  • Requires many intermediate steps to coax into
    desired cell type
  • SCNT has not worked
  • yet (Korean team
  • adjusted their results)

21
Teratoma
22
How Are Stem Cells Derived fromIVF-Blastocysts?
23
ESC How Are Stem Cells Derived from
SCNT-Blastocysts?
24
What Should You Know About SCNT?
  • Purpose
  • Find cures and therapies for diseases
  • Awaken the natural capacity for self-repair that
    resides in our genes
  • Potential Results
  • Patients will receive own stem cells to treat
    disease
  • No need for donor match
  • Like transplantation, but without rejection

25
What Should You Know About SCNT?
  • No sperm involved in SCNT
  • Works with the cells of an already-living person
  • SCNT stem cells are alive in a Petri dish
  • No different than any other cell in a Petri dish
  • New evidence suggests that SCNT stem cells may
    never develop into a human
  • Blastocysts produced by an egg and sperm and SCNT
    are fundamentally different
  • Scientists are ethical
  • No reputable scientist wants to clone babies

26
How Would SCNT Treat Disease?
27
Which States Currently Support ESCR?
28
Which States Are Joining the Support for ESCR?
29
What Does the Public Think?
30
What Do Americans Think?
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