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The Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland

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Title: The Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland


1
The Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland
  • Calvin and the French Reformation

2
(No Transcript)
3
Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
  • The leader of the Reformed church after the
    death of Zwingli.
  • Produced 50 volumes of commentaries 35 volumes
    of correspondence 2500 unpublished sermons
  • Logical, clear, systematic thinker.

4
The Education of Jean Calvin
  • Born of humble ancestry
  • Yet maintained manners of nobility father was a
    notary
  • Born at Noyon, Picardy, 60 miles northeast of
    Paris
  • 26 years younger than Luther
  • Belonged to second generation of reformers
  • Father wanted him to be a priest but Calvin
    studied law and pursued humanist studies (in
    Orleans 1528).
  • After his fathers death, he returns to Paris in
    1531
  • Receives the Doctor of Laws (1532)
  • His first book was a commentary on Seneca (1533)

5
Calvin Museum constructed at location of his house
Noyon Cathedral
6
Calvin and Protestantism
  • Testifies to some mysterious experience in 1532.
  • Very secret about it
  • Other students came to him to learn what he
    believed
  • Convinced of Gods sovereignty and omnipotence
  • Felt himself the chosen instrument of God
  • Wrote a sermon for Nicholas Cop that was preached
    on Nov 1, 1533.
  • It quoted Luther and was Protestant in tone.
  • Cop and Calvin had to flee Paris in 1534 because
    the persecution of Protestants had begun.

7
Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
  • After studying law in Paris and Orleans, he
    emerged in 1534 as a leading Reformer in France.
  • Francis I of France issued an edict suppressing
    Protestants in 1535.
  • In 1536 Calvin produced a brief, systematic
    summary of the Protestant faith. Through 26
    editions and many translations, it became the
    classic statement of ProtestantismInstitutes of
    the Christian Religion.

8
Calvins Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • First published in 1536 in Basel and dedicated to
    Francis I, King of France.
  • First edition was only 6 chapters, but the last
    edition was 80 chapters.
  • Total of 10 editions (1536 to 1560), published in
    Latin and French.
  • The structure was originally based on the
    Apostles Creedsystematic, clear and orderly
    with strong rooting in Scripture and Augustine
    (and other church fathers).
  • The most influential book of the Reformation.

9
Geneva
  • Geneva was the focus of concern as Swiss Cantons
    were dividing between Protestant and Catholic,
    and French Catholic Savoy wanted to retain Geneva
    within its territory.
  • Protestant cities, like Bern, rescued Geneva from
    Savoys attack in 1530.
  • Farel (1489-1565), a reformer in Basel, came to
    Geneva in 1532 and persuaded magistrates to favor
    Reform by 1534 through several disputations.
  • By 1535, the city council gave Catholic clergy
    the choice to convert or leave the city.
  • Calvin, traveling through the city in July 1536,
    was convinced to remain as a leader of the
    Reformation there.

10
Geneva Reformation
  • The initial movements (1536-1538) did not go well
    and after a stay in Strasbourg (1538-1541),
    Calvin returned to the city triumphantly.
  • The source of the conflict was the relationship
    between the Council and the church.
  • Calvin favored ecclesiastical control of church
    discipline and regulating church ordinances while
    the Council wanted to control discipline.
  • Calvin was inexperienced, and the Council drove
    the Reformers out of the city in 1538.

11
Calvin in Strasbourg (1538-1541)
  • Calvin served a French refugee church in
    Strasbourg.
  • Bucer influenced Calvin
  • Organization of the church
  • Meaning of the Lords Supper
  • The Importance of Church Discipline
  • The Role of the Holy Spirit in the Sanctification
    of the Believer.

12
Calvin in Strasbourg
  • Calvin married an Anabaptists widow, Idelette de
    Bure
  • Wrote his commentary on Romans
  • Met Melancthon at the 1541 dialogue.
  • Taught at an academy.

13
The Ordinances of God
  • Creation
  • Nature
  • External Order (State)
  • Recreation
  • Scripture
  • External Means
  • Preaching
  • Sacraments
  • Church Discipline
  • Internal Change
  • Holy Spirit
  • Sanctification
  • Union with God in Christ

14
Calvins Theology
  • Wanted to restore purity of Christianity before
    corrupted by Roman Catholicism
  • Saw God as creator, preserver, governor of
    universe
  • Creation, Fall, Redemption as the story of
    Scripture.
  • God worked out one consistent scheme of
    redemption through a covenant of grace.

15
Calvin and Grace
  • Humanity sinful and incapable of good works
  • Cannot save itself
  • Dependent entirely on Gods grace
  • Gods justice satisfied by death of Christ
  • Believers justified when they trust in Christ
  • Christ takes humanitys sin believers are
    clothed with the perfect righteousness of Christ
  • Faith itself is a gift of Gods grace (like
    Zwingli)

16
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • Human nature is wholly corrupted.  Blind in
    spirit and depraved in heart, humankind has lost
    all integrity not a trace remains.  Humanity
    retains some capacity to distinguish between good
    and evil, but in seeking God even this light is
    turned to darkness.  Therefore people cannot
    approach God by their own intelligence and
    reason.  The human will may inspire people to a
    range of actions, but it remains utterly captive
    to sin, so that humankind has no freedom except
    that which God gives. 

17
Gallic Confession of Faith
  • We believe that the foundation of our
    justification is the remission of our sins.  (In
    this, says David, we find our only happiness.) 
    This is why we reject all other means of seeking
    justification before God.  Rather than presuming
    our own virtue or merit, we rely solely on the
    obedience of Jesus Christ, which is ascribed to
    us for the covering over of our sins as well as
    for granting us favor before God. 

18
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We also reject all the various means by which
    people presume to be redeemed before God,
    disparaging the sacrificial suffering and death
    of Jesus Christ.  Finally, we consider purgatory
    to be an illusion found in the same marketplace
    as monastic vows, pilgrimages, prohibition of
    marriage and eating of meat, ceremonial days,
    private confession, indulgences, and everything
    else that people imagine will merit grace and
    salvation. We reject these things not only
    because of their false understanding of merit,
    but also because these are human inventions that
    burden consciences. 

19
Election Preservation
  • Calvin believed in Gods eternal election God
    has chosen who will be saved by his own grace.
  • Thus God will preserve his elect to eternal life
  • Calvins interest in the doctrine of
    predestination was pastoralto give assurance.
  • Humanity has the responsibility to respond to
    Gods grace in holiness, good works, and faithful
    obedience

20
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We believe that from the general corruption and
    condemnation into which all are plunged, God
    rescues those who are elect in our Lord Jesus
    Christ according to God's eternal and unchanging
    counsel.   All this is by God's goodness and
    mercy alone, without regard to anyone's works,
    that the riches of God's mercy shine forth in
    them.   Others, however, are left in corruption
    and condemnation in order to demonstrate God's
    justice in them.  In reality, those who are
    rescued are no better than those who are left in
    corruption and condemnation.  God distinguishes
    between them according to his eternal counsel,
    determined in Jesus Christ before the creation of
    the world. 

21
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We believe that we are illuminated in faith by
    the unfathomable grace of the Holy Spirit. 
    Because God imparts this gracious and distinctive
    gift to whomever he chooses, the faithful have no
    cause to glorify themselves.  Instead, the
    faithful are doubly indebted that they have been
    chosen rather than others.  Moreover, faith is
    not given to the elect merely to introduce them
    to the way of righteousness, but to enable them
    to persevere in faith to the end.  God begins the
    way, and God brings it to completion. 

22
The Church to Calvin
  • The one Church of Christ was the sum of Gods
    elect, invisible, members known to God
  • Believers in one community become visible church
  • Exists wherever word faithfully preached and
    heard sacraments (baptism and the Lords
    Supper) faithfully administered
  • Published Ecclesiastical Ordinances 1541

23
Sacraments
  • Accepted Bucers doctrine of the spiritual (not
    substantial but neither merely symbolic) presence
    in communion
  • Wanted communion in all churches at least once
    weekly, but council denied his request
  • Held high view of importance and necessity of
    baptism baptism is an instrumental means of
    grace through which God ordinarily works.
  • Consensu Tigurinus (Zurich Agreement) with
    Bullinger (1504-1575) in 1549.

24
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We believe that God truly and effectively gives
    us what is represented in the Lord's Supper and
    in Baptism, and that the signs are united with
    the true possession and benefit of all they
    present.  Thus, all who bring the receptacle of
    pure faith to the sacred table of Christ truly
    receive what the signs signify.  The body and
    blood of Jesus Christ are food and drink for the
    soul just as bread and wine are nourishment for
    the body. 

25
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We believe that the sacraments are joined to the
    Word so that it may be more fully confirmed.  The
    sacraments are pledges to us and seals of God's
    grace, giving needed aid and comfort to our faith
    because of our weakness and immaturity.  We
    believe that the sacraments are outward signs
    through which God works in the truth of his
    Spirit, and we know that what they signify is not
    in vain.  At the same time we hold that their
    substance and power are in Jesus Christ alone
    apart from him, they are nothing more than shadow
    and smoke. 

26
Confession of Faith (1559)
  • In Baptism we are grafted into the body of
    Christ, washed and cleansed by his blood, and
    renewed in holiness of life by his Spirit. 
    Although we are baptized only once, the benefit
    it signifies lasts through life and death, so
    that we have an enduring testimony that Jesus
    Christ will be our justification and
    sanctification forever. Baptism is a sacrament of
    faith and repentance, yet because God receives
    little children into his church together with
    their parents, we declare under the authority of
    Jesus Christ that little children born of the
    faithful ought to be baptized. 

27
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We confess that the holy Supper of the Lord is a
    testimony of our unity with Jesus Christ. He died
    only once and was raised for our sake, yet we are
    truly fed and are nourished by his flesh and
    blood.  Thus we are made one with him and his
    life is communicated to us.  Although he is in
    heaven until he comes to judge the world, we
    believe that he gives us life and nourishes us
    with the substance of his body and his blood.  
    This takes place in the unfathomable and
    incomprehensible power of his Spirit.  We
    maintain that this is done spiritually, which
    does not mean that we substitute imagination or
    fantasy for reality and truth, but that the
    greatness of this mystery exceeds the capacities
    of our minds and the order of nature.  In short,
    because it is heavenly, it can only be
    apprehended by faith. 

28
The Scriptures
  • Held high view of Scripture
  • One book, Old New Testament
  • Revealing one plan of human redemption
  • His people truly a People of the Book
  • Believed that we should not act without
    Scriptural authority

29
Gallic Confession of Faith (1559)
  • We believe that the word contained in the books
    of Scripture has come from God,  receiving its
    authority from God alone and not from humans.  As
    such, this word is the rule of all truth,
    containing everything necessary for the service
    of God and for our salvation.  Thus, neither
    humans nor angels are permitted to add to it,
    subtract from it, or change it in any way.  It
    follows that no authority may be set above Holy
    Scripture not antiquity, or tradition, or
    majority opinion, or human wisdom not judgments,
    or pronouncements, or edicts, or decrees, or
    councils not visions or signs.  On the contrary,
    everything must be examined, measured, and
    reformed according to Scripture.  It is because
    they conform to the Word of God that we confess
    the  Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the
    Athanasian Creed.

30
Second Call to Geneva
  • Political shift in Geneva
  • People wanted preachers back
  • Catholic Church had sought to return and Calvin
    opposed through his Letter to Sadoleto
  • Farel persuaded him to return with him
  • Left Strasbourg in tears
  • Stayed in Geneva the rest of his life
  • Next 28 years

31
Geneva 1541-1564
  • Very successful reformer
  • Preached, supervised church, encouraged commerce
    trade, advised council
  • Founded University of Geneva
  • Public morality successfully enforced
  • Geneva became city of refuge for Protestants in
    exile from all over Europe

32
Geneva The Reformed City
  • From 1541-1564, Geneva was the heartbeat of the
    Reformed Protestant faith (e.g., Calvinism).
  • It sent missionaries into France and southern
    France was significantly influenced (by 1561 2150
    Protestant churches).
  • It became a refugee city for persecuted French,
    Dutch, Scottish and English Protestants.
  • Through this influence, the Netherlands became
    the locus of the Dutch Reformed Church, the
    Scottish Kirk became Presbyterian, the Puritans
    sought reform in England and the Huguenots were a
    religious and political force in France.

33
French Reformed Church
  • France had always had a certain independence
    (Gallicanism).
  • Calvin encouraged missionaries to France from
    GenevaFrench pastors were under the cross
    (trained to be executed).
  • Henry II (1547-1559) persecuted the French
    Reformed church.
  • First National Synod of the French Reformed
    Church in 1559 and they adopted the Gallic
    Confession.
  • By 1562, over 2000 churches and 3,000,000 members
    in a nation of only 20,000,000 people.

34
Calvinism as a System
  • T Total Depravity
  • U Unconditional Election
  • L Limited Atonement
  • I Irresistible Grace
  • P Perseverance of the Saints
  • Synod of Dordt (1618-1619) the official
    confirmation of this system as the theology of
    the Reformed Faith (Calvinism).

35
The English Reformation
  • The Anglican (Episcopal) Church

36
England Ready for Reformation
  • England had fiercely independent rulers.
  • Work of John Wycliffe (1324-1384) Lollards
    (14-15th centuries).
  • Sola Scriptura, rejected relics/saints, favored
    clerical marriage, denied transubstantiation,
    vernacular translations, emphasized faith
  • Twelve Conclusions drawn up by the Lollards in
    1395.
  • Resentment against papal interference
  • Strong humanist tradition (John Colet)
  • Writings of Erasmus Luther
  • Though Henry VIII condemned Luther and was given
    title Defender of the Faith by Pope Leo X

37
Political Situation
  • Spain had a population of 8,000,000 France a
    population of 20,000,000, but England only
    4,000,000.
  • After the loss of territory on the continent in
    the 100 years war, England sought to regain power
    and prestige.
  • England is regarded as a secondary and rather
    backward nation.

38
Henry VIII King of England1509-1547
  • Henry proclaimed Defender of the Faith for his
    response to Luthers Babylonian Captivity
  • Theologically Catholic, but politically
    Protestant.
  • Persecuted Protestants throughout the 1520s.
    Executed Bible translators (e.g., William
    Tyndale).
  • Henry wanted to restore Englands prestigeas it
    was a secondary power in Europe at the time.

39
Henry VIII Wants a Divorce
  • Married to Catherine of Aragon
  • She was the wife of his deceased brother
    (received papal dispensation to marry her)
  • She only had one surviving child, Mary.
  • She was the Aunt of Emperor Charles V.

40
Anne Boleyn
  • She wanted to marry and Henry wanted a male
    heirso, Henry needs a divorce.
  • Anne Boleyn bore him his daughter Elizabeth
  • Anne was ultimately executed on suspicion of
    unfaithfulness in 1536

41
Henry Had Problems
  • Cardinal Wolsey, Chancellor of England, refused
    to grant divorce
  • He was hoping for consideration for papacy
  • Also formed alliance with emperor Charles V who
    was the nephew of Catherine

42
Henry Had Problems
  • Pope Clement VII was unwilling to grant the
    divorce
  • Henry had received papal dispensation to marry
    sister-in-law
  • Clement under house arrest in Castle San Angelo
    in Rome by emperors forces

Pope Clement VII
43
Henry Reacts
  • Dismisses Wolsey who died in disgrace in 1530 on
    his way to prison
  • Confiscated his palace of Hampton Court

44
Henry Reacts
  • Appointed Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Consulted Parliament
  • Gained their appointment as head of English
    Church, called the Reformation Parliament of 1529
  • 1532, the act of Submission of the Clergy to the
    King.

45
Thomas Cranmer, 1489-1556
  • Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII
  • Originally Lutheran, through his contact with
    Zurich, Strasbourg and Geneva he became
    increasingly Reformed
  • Architect of Protestant church in England

46
England Evicts the Pope
  • Pope excommunicated King Henry
  • Henry appointed his own bishops
  • Act of Supremacy 1534 forced all government
    officials to accept
  • Thomas More, Chancellor after Wolsey, would not
    accept
  • Executed

Sir Thomas More
47
Henry Reorganized Church
  • Destroyed all the monasteries
  • Liturgy Cranmers Book of Common Prayer
  • Creed Cranmers Ten Articles (1536)
  • Henry found it too Protestant
  • Replaced it with Catholic Six Articles (1539)
  • Act of Succession names Annes children as his
    heirs (no son)

48
Ten Articles (1536)
  • The binding authority of the Bible, the three
    œcumenical creeds, and the first four œcumenical
    councils
  • The necessity of baptism for salvation, even in
    the case of infants
  • The sacrament of penance, with confession and
    absolution, which are declared 'expedient and
    necessary'
  • The substantial, real, corporal presence of
    Christ's body and blood under the form of bread
    and wine in the eucharist
  • Justification by faith, joined with charity and
    obedience
  • The use of images in churches
  • The honoring of saints and the Virgin Mary
  • The invocation of saints
  • The observance of various rites and ceremonies as
    good, such as clerical vestments, sprinkling of
    holy water, bearing of candles on Candlemas-day,
    giving of ashes on Ash-Wednesday
  • The doctrine of purgatory, and prayers for the
    dead in purgatory

49
Six Articles (1539)
  • transubstantiation
  • the reasonableness of withholding of the cup from
    the laity during communion,
  • clerical celibacy,
  • observance of vows of chastity,
  • permission for private masses,
  • the importance of oral confession.

50
Thomas Cromwell named Vicar General to supervise
the affairs of the Church (Even over the
Archbishop of Canterbury)
51
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Great monuments such as Bury St. Edmunds and St.
Albans were totally destroyed
52
Henrys Third Wife
  • Henry noticed Jane as he was becoming
    disenchanted with Anne Boleyn
  • Jane Seymour bore him a son, Edward
  • Henry deeply loved Jane
  • She died shortly after giving birth (1536)

Queen Jane Seymour
53
The Wives of Henry VIII
  • Anne of Cleves, whom Henry divorced because she
    was so ugly
  • He called her The Flemish Mare
  • But he did provide well for her
  • (1515-1557)

Queen Anne of Cleves
54
The Wives of Henry VIII
  • Catherine Howard, whom Henry executed for
    unfaithfulness
  • Henry loved her
  • He did not want to believe she was unfaithful
  • Had no choice when he was convinced

Queen Catherine Howard
55
The Wives of Henry VIII
  • Catherine Parr, who outlived Henry
  • She cared for him in his old age

Queen Catherine Parr
56
Was Henry a Protestant?
  • Theologically he remained Catholic
  • Ruled under Six Articles
  • Condemned and executed William Tyndale for
    publishing English Bible
  • Burned Thomas Bilney at stake for advocating
    Luthers teachings
  • Yet Cranmer, Cromwell remained in power and set
    up English Bibles in churches

57
King Edward VI, 1547-1553
  • Sickly, yet intelligent
  • A committed Protestant
  • Cranmer free to create a true Reformed Church
  • Issued The Forty-Two Articles
  • Worship became much more Protestant

King Edward VI
58
Edwards Advisors
  • Duke of Somerset
  • Duke of Northumberland

Protector Somerset, 1547-1549 John
Dudley, First Duke of Edwards uncle, Edward
Seymour, Northumberland, first Earl of Born
about 1500, executed 1552 Warwick,
1502-1553
59
Bucer and the English Reformation
  • Martin Bucer came to England 1549 at Cranmers
    invitation
  • Influenced Cranmer theologically
  • Helped write Book of Common Prayer
  • (1551 edition)

Martin Bucer 1491-1551
60
Bucer and the English Reformation
  • Wrote De Regno Christi
  • To advise King Edward
  • How to create a true Christian community
  • Lectured at Cambridge
  • Worked with other Protestant leaders

61
Queen Mary I, 1547-1553
  • Saw her task as restoring papacy in England
  • Arrested executed Lady Jane Grey Lord Dudley
  • Married to Philip II, King of Spain, the son of
    Emperor Charles V.
  • No children

62
The Execution of Lady Jane Grey by Paul
Delaroche
63
Marian Persecution
  • Mary executed 300 Protestant leaders (Bloody
    Mary)
  • Including Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and
    Nicholas Ridley
  • Brought Cardinal Reginald Pole in as Papal Legate
  • Died a broken woman in 1558
  • England did not want pope back.

64
Execution of Thomas Cranmer
Cranmer signed a recantation under
torture Recanted his recantation Thrust first in
the hand that betrayed the Lord
65
Martyrdom of Latimer Ridley
Latimer Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, we
shall this day light such a candle by Gods grace
in England as, I trust, shall never be put out!
66
Queen Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
  • Found the via media (or middle way)
  • Protestant creed The Thirty-Nine Articles
  • High liturgical worship
  • Followed Hookers Ecclesiastical Polity
  • Archbishop, Bishops, priests, deacons

67
Queen Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
  • 1559 Act of Supremacy Supreme Governor in
    church realm
  • 1563 Test Act required oath of allegiance to
    queen as head of church

68
Elizabeths Religious Policy
  • Fairly tolerant of divergent groups arising
  • Puritans
  • Quakers
  • Baptists
  • John Foxe published Book of Martyrs
  • Account of Marian persecutions

John Foxe
69
Puritanism under Elizabeth
  • Anti-Vestment Party wicked to rebel against
    Queen, but opposed clerical vestments (1560s)
  • Passive-Resistance Party disliked English
    popery (even wedding rings)wanted to abolish
    the episcopacy.
  • Presbyterian Party wanted a presbyterian system
    in England and strengthen parliament.
    Established ties with Reformed churches in
    Switzerland, France and Netherlands.
  • Separatists congregational regarded England as
    apostate and separated from them into new
    congregations. John Smyth was a separatist.

70
39 Articles (1563)
  • Not every deadly sin willingly committed after
    Baptism is sin against the Holy Ghost, and
    unpardonable. Wherefore the grant of repentance
    is not to be denied to such as fall into sin
    after Baptism. After we have received the Holy
    Ghost, we may depart from grace given, and fall
    into sin, and by the grace of God we may arise
    again, and amend our lives. And therefore they
    are to be condemned, which say, they can no more
    sin as long as they live here, or deny the place
    of forgiveness to such as truly repent.

71
39 Articles (1563)
  • The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of
    faithful men, in which the pure Word of God is
    preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministered
    according to Christ's ordinance, in all those
    things that of necessity are requisite to the
    same.
  • As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and
    Antioch, have erred, so also the Church of Rome
    hath erred, not only in their living and manner
    of Ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith.

72
39 Articles (1563)
  • The Church hath power to decree Rites or
    Ceremonies, and authority in Controversies of
    Faith and yet it is not lawful for the Church to
    ordain any thing that is contrary to God's Word
    written, neither may it so expound one place of
    Scripture, that it be repugnant to another.
    Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a
    keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to
    decree any thing against the same, so besides the
    same ought it not to enforce any thing to be
    believed for necessity of Salvation.

73
39 Articles (1563)
  • Sacraments ordained of Christ be not only badges
    or tokens of Christian men's profession, but
    rather they be certain sure witnesses, and
    effectual signs of grace, and God's good will
    towards us, by the which he doth work invisibly
    in us, and doth not only quicken, but also
    strengthen and confirm our Faith in him.

74
39 Articles (1563)
  • The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in
    the Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual
    manner. And the mean whereby the Body of Christ
    is received and eaten in the Supper, is Faith.
  • The Cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the
    Lay-people for both the parts of the Lord's
    Sacrament, by Christ's ordinance and commandment,
    ought to be ministered to all Christian men
    alike.

75
39 Articles (1563)
  • It is not necessary that Traditions and
    Ceremonies be in all places one, or utterly like
    for at all times they have been divers, and may
    be changed according to the diversity of
    countries, times, and men's manners, so that
    nothing be ordained against God's Word.
    Whosoever, through his private judgment,
    willingly and purposely, doth openly break the
    Traditions and Ceremonies of the Church, which be
    not repugnant to the Word of God, and be ordained
    and approved by common authority, ought to be
    rebuked openly, (that others may fear to do the
    like,) as he that offends against the common
    order of the Church, and hurts the authority of
    the Magistrate, and wounds the consciences of the
    weak brethren.
  • Every particular or national Church hath
    authority to ordain, change, and abolish,
    Ceremonies or Rites of the Church ordained only
    by man's authority, so that all things be done to
    edifying.

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James I, 1603-1625
  • Succeeded according to Henry VIIIs Act of
    Succession
  • Brought up under Reformed Presbyterian in
    Scotland (James IV of Scotland)
  • Puritans hoped for restructuring of English
    Church along Presbyterian lines
  • James refused, but did command the translation of
    a new BibleThe King James Bible (1611).
  • Published his Book of Sports
  • Activities permissible on Sunday

King James I
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James I, 1603-1625
  • Many Puritans left England
  • Some to Holland under John Robinson
  • Later to America as Pilgrims under William
    Bradford William Brewster
  • Many Puritan pastors lost their pulpits
  • Told on what topics to preach sermons

King James I
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The City on a Hill
  • John Winthrop left with 1500 Puritans for
    Massachusetts in 1618.
  • Set up model Christian community that could be
    used for Church in England
  • Became Massachusetts colony

John Winthrop
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Catholic Reaction
  • Catholics had not given up
  • Wanted papacy restored by any means possible
  • Several attempts to assassinate the king
  • Gunpowder Plot of 1605 rumor Guy Fawkes was
    going to blow up Houses of Parliament
  • Caused James to be more insistent on royal
    prerogatives

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Summary English Kings of Reformation
  • Henry VIII, 1509-1547 (Broke with Papacy)
  • Edward VI, 1547-1553 (Protestant Church)
  • Mary I, 1553-1558 (Tried to bring Papacy back)
  • Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 (Moderate Reform)
  • James I, 1603-1625 (Puritans form)

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Presbyterianism
  • Scottish Presbyterianism ministers belong to
    congregation but participate in a regional church
    council.
  • American Presbyterianism elders are members of
    the congregation but ministers are members of the
    Presbytery.
  • Dutch Reformed (Presbyterian) elders and
    ministers belong to the presbytery and there is
    only one per city.

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Via Media of Elizabethean Anglicanism
  • Catholic Features
  • Organization is episcopal (bishops)
  • Liturgy is traditional and respect for tradition
  • Maintain a high honor for saints, icons
  • Use of the creeds and four ecumenical councils
  • King rules both secular and sacred estates in the
    land only the monarch can call a general council
  • The role of Free Willone can fall from grace
  • Protestant Features
  • Theology is Protestant (Justification Lords
    Supper)
  • Rejection of Roman Primacy
  • Communion in both kinds married priests
  • Mass not a sacrifice
  • Only two sacraments

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