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Classification of Living Things


Classification of Living Things. Non-Science Example of Classification ... Praying Mantis. Green but.. Mobile. Aristotle's Grouping of life not specific enough ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Things

Classification of Living Things
Non-Science Example of Classification
  • The item in this picture is
  • Automobile
  • Truck, Car, or SUV? Car
  • Made by? Ford
  • Type of Ford car? Mustang
  • -Was made in what year? 2002
  • -Is it Convertible? No
  • -Color? Silver

Classification Goes from General to Specific
  • Automobile Biggest
  • Car
  • Ford
  • Mustang
  • 2002
  • -Non Convertible
  • -Silver - Specific

  • Classify to group things together based on
  • Why Classify?
  • To make organisms easier to identify
  • To make organisms easier to compare
  • How do we classify?
  • Compare Traits features or characteristics of
    an organisms
  • The Science of Classification is called Taxonomy

Shoe Classification
  • Everyone take off one shoe
  • Put it in the front of the room on the front desk
  • As a group, lets classify the shoes
  • Use the characteristics of the shoes to classify
    them into categories
  • Remember to start in general and get more
  • The Categories we come up with will be written on
    the board

Challenges of Classification
  • 1. Many different kinds of living things
  • Today we have identified and named 1.5 million
  • Millions more are believed to be unclassified
  • Organisms scattered all over the world, some in
    harsh, difficult to reach environments
  • 2. Classifications are made by people
  • Opinions may differ from scientist to scientist

Tools Used to Classify Organisms
  • 1. Comparative Morphology
  • Compares Physical Structures, Traits
  • 2. Evolutionary Relationships
  • Related Organisms with common ancestors, Derived
  • 3. DNA/RNA comparison

Timeline of Classification
  • 1. 384 322 B.C. Aristotle
  • 2 Kingdom Broad Classification
  • 2. 1735 - Carl Linnaeus
  • 2 Kingdom Multi-divisional Classification
  • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family Genus,
  • 3. Evolutionary Classification (After Darwin)
  • Group By lines of Evolutionary Descent
  • 4. 5 Kingdom System 1950s
  • 5. 6 Kingdom System 1990s
  • 6. 3 Domain System 1990s

Early Classification Aristotle 384-322 B.C.
  • 2 Groups Plants and Animals
  • Plants Green, Non Mobile
  • Further classified based on growth pattern Traits
  • Tree, Herb, Shrub
  • Animals Not Green, Mobile
  • Further classified based on Trait of where
    organism lives
  • Water, Air, Land

How would you classify this using the
Plant/Animal system?
Praying Mantis Green but.. Mobile
Aristotles Grouping of life not specific enough
Systema Naturae Carl Linnaeus
  • Carl Linnaeus (1735) Swedish Botanist
  • Reworked Classification system
  • Based on Comparative Morphology
  • Called his classification Systema Naturae
  • Used a hierarchy of categories to classify
  • Compared physical traits of Organisms
  • Used Comparative Morphology

Linnaeus Divisions Still Used in Modern
  • 1. Kingdom largest group
  • 2. Phylum
  • 3. Class
  • 4. Order
  • 5. Family
  • 6. Genus
  • 7. Species
  • (Most Closely Related)

Mnemonic Device To help remember categories and
  • Kingdom - King
  • Phylum - Phillip
  • Class Came
  • Order Over
  • Family - For
  • Genus - Ginger
  • Species - Snaps

  • Within each category, a particular group is
    called a Taxon
  • Many Taxons for each category
  • Ex Mammalia is the Taxon for the Class category
    in Humans
  • Ex Homo is the Taxon for the Genus category in
  • Carnivora is the Taxon for the Order category in

Changes Linnaeus Made to Aristotles System
  • Both had 2 Kingdom Systems
  • Plantae and Animalia
  • Differences
  • 1. Plants and Animals were classified using more
    divisions - to account for diversity
  • 2. Each division from Kingdom to species is based
    on specific traits
  • Ex Vertebrae, Mammary Glands, Diet
  • 3. Taxons of each group are descriptive of trait
    being used in forming that group
  • Ex Class Mammalia mammary glands are used to
    nurse young

Linnaeus Introduced Scientific Naming
  • Binomial Nomenclature is the 2 word scientific
    name of an organism
  • Uses Genus and Species
  • Genus is capitalized, not species, all italicized
  • In writing the name, cant italicize, so
  • Homo sapien (Genus and species of Human)
  • Panthera leo (Genus and species of Lion)
  • Used Latin Universal unifying, dead language
  • Latin can be understood by all scientists,
    regardless of native language
  • Uniform, unlike common name usage
  • Ex Cougar, Puma, Panther- all same organism
  • name depends upon where you live, but Scientific
  • Felis concolor

Example Classification
  • Lion
  • 1. Kingdom Animalia (all Animals)
  • 2. Phylum Chordata (All vertebrate animals)
  • 3. Class Mammalia (All Mammals mammary
  • 4. Order Carnivora (Meat eaters)
  • 5. Family Felidae (includes all Cats)
  • 6. Genus Panthera (Includes all roaring
  • 7. Species leo (Lions)

Linnaeus Classification Cont.
  • Species shows most closely related orgs. in
    system, but still may show variation
  • Ex All common dog breeds are in the same species
    (Canis familiaris)
  • Basic Unit of Evolution is the Species
  • Speciation is continuous, so Taxonomists have to
    keep naming new species
  • Reproductive Barriers try to keep species
  • Does not always work Hybrids
  • Donkey and Horse make a sterile Mule

From Kingdom to Species
Classification Key
  • Also Known as
  • Dichotomous Key, Biological Key
  • Useful in Identifying Organisms
  • Based on Comparison of Morphological Traits
  • Use physical features to compare, contrast
  • Determine if Organism is in group or not, based
    on Key criteria
  • At each level you only have a few contrasting
    characteristics to choose from (if have, if not
  • Ex Tennis shoe, non Tennis shoe
  • Body shape plans, Characteristics such as fur
  • Refer to your Shark Lab Hand Out

What are these organisms and how are they
Evolutionary Classification
  • Groups represent lines of Evolutionary Descent
  • Not simply based on simply on Morphology
  • Ex Even though they have similar Morphology,
    Dolphins and Sharks are not closely related
  • Sharks and Dolphins developed Analogous
  • due to similar environments
  • not common ancestry or common development
  • Traits, DNA and RNA analysis used to determine
  • Determines Common Ancestry more basic form of
    life from which new species came

Cladistics Determines Evolutionary Classification
  • Evolutionary Classification compares Homologous
    Structures as well as Genetics
  • Homologous Structures Structures with similar
    function and development patterns
  • -Divergent Evolution organisms that have a
    common ancestor
  • Derived Character new trait which appears in
    more recent (newer) organisms not seen in the
    ancestor organism
  • Derived Characters are distinguishing traits
    between organisms in an evolutionary
  • See Overhead of plant adaptations

Cladogram vs. Comparative (Traditional)
Morphology p.452
Derived Characters
Common Ancestor ?
lt-- Common Ancestor
? ?
Common Ancestor ?
Common Ancestor ?
Molecular Clock can Determine Relationships and
Derived Characters of Species
New mutations (or characteristics) are added over
evolutionary time the more recent the organism,
the more mutations are seen
Like Derived Character -
We Know how newer species are related to ancestor
orgs due to mutation patterns
Linnaeus System Evolves from 2 Kingdoms to 6
  • As we learned more about different kinds of life,
    there needed to be more Kingdoms
  • 1800s Added Kingdom Protista
  • Amoeba, Slime Molds
  • 1950s Added Fungi and Monera
  • Fungi distinguished from Plants
  • Prokaryotes (no nucleus) Bacteria given category
  • 1970s Split Kingdom Monera into 2 separate
  • Eubacteria bacteria with peptidoglycan
  • Archaebacteria bacteria without peptidoglycan

6 Kingdom System
Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Eubacteria Archaea
From 2 Kingdoms to 6p. 458
Three Domain System
  • 1990s
  • Domain is larger classification than Kingdom
  • Used Technology to compare Ribosomal RNA
    sequences of organisms from bacteria to animals
  • Determined how long organisms had been evolving
  • Shows Evolutionary Relationships
  • Uses molecular clock to determine how long ago
    orgs were related
  • Based on how many sequences are different ( of
    mutations, order of mutations)

Comparison of Kingdom and Domain Systems P.459
  • Three Domains contain 6 different Kingdoms
  • Domain Bacteria Eubacteria
  • Domain Archaea Archaeabacteria
  • Domain Eukarya Protista, Fungi, Plantae,

4. Three Domain System
  • 1. Domain Bacteria
  • Corresponds to Eubacteria Kingdom
  • Unicellular Prokaryotic Organisms
  • No Nucleus
  • Ecologically Diverse live everywhere!
  • Metabolically Diverse
  • Cell Walls contain substance called Peptidoglycan
    special protein and sugar
  • Trait used to distinguish between
  • Bacteria and Archaea
  • Target of many Antibiotics

Three Domain System
  • 2. Domain Archaea Ancient Bacteria
  • Corresponds to Kingdom Archaeabacteria
  • Unicellular, Prokaryotes
  • Metabolically Diverse
  • No nucleus
  • Live in Extreme environments like those of early
  • Cell walls without Peptidoglycan
  • A trait used to distinguish between Archaea and
    Bacteria Domains

Three Domain System
  • 3. Eukarya
  • Contains Kingdoms
  • Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
  • Eukaryotic, single or multi-cellular Organisms
  • Nucleus
  • Most visible life
  • Humans are in Domain Eukarya

Three Domains of LifeP. 460-461