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How to write really good!

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... mammals will always have a place in our hearts, the Marine Mammal Protection ... our environment set the stage for legislative action to protect marine mammals. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to write really good!


1
How to write really good!
  • Confessions of a Bad Writer

2
Obvious grammatical mistakes
  • Its versus its
  • Its raining outside
  • The tiger licked its paw
  • Affect (v) vs. effect (n)
  • The effect of the law was .
  • The oil industry affected the outcome.

3
Capitalization
  • Do Not Capitalize
  • Civil Rights movement
  • Environmental Justice movement
  • Consultant
  • Country
  • Do Capitalize
  • Congress
  • Congressional
  • House
  • Senate
  • NY State Health Department

4
Spellchecker isnt perfect
  • Number of pubic figures
  • Command an control
  • Companies may not have bee advocating
  • Professional foresters were trained in
    silyiculture.

5
Acronyms
  • Spell out first, use acronym subsequently
  • The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA),
  • Rest of paper CCC or SDWA
  • Members of Congress (party-2 letter acronym, all
    caps)
  • Al Gore (D-TN)
  • Henry Waxman (D-CA)

6
  • Argument
  • Organization
  • Evidence
  • Style

7
If we judge a book by its cover,What Makes a Good
Title?
8
this is going to be a train wreck
  • Our Nations Pristine Polar Treasure
  • Do You Want to Know? Whats in Your Backyard.

9
More Train Wrecks
  • Environmental justice Where has all the
    sympathy gone?
  • Legislative Measures for Oil in the Ocean
  • Environmentalism and the Clean Air Act an
    anomaly of nature

10
Organization is going to be an issue
  • Because marine mammals will always have a place
    in our hearts, the Marine Mammal Protection Act
    of 1972 the initial controversies, legislation,
    and outcome

11
Originality is Lacking
  • The Clean Air Act of 1990
  • The Endangered Species Act

12
  • RCRA Another Solid Waste Plan Gone to Waste
  • Asbestos Magic Mineral or Four-Letter-Word?
  • The End of Ocean Dumping Frightened Vacationers
    and Outraged Public Prompt Legislation in
    Response to a Shocking Shoreline Discovery
  • The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Pure Vision,
    Contaminated Processes

13
  • How the Wilderness Was Won The Wilderness Act
    of 1964
  • Stripping in your Backyard Surface Mining
    Control and Reclamation Act 1977

14
Grade the Title
  • The Food Quality Protection Act
  • 1- no desire to turn the page
  • Protecting Americas Food Supply The Food
    Quality Protection Act Legislation
  • 2- might be okay, Im curious
  • The Food Quality Protection Act Warning-- May
    Contain Some Cancer Causing Chemicals
  • 3 truly outstanding, I cant wait to turn the
    page

15
Introductory Paragraph
  • What should be in the Intro?
  • 4 Things
  • First sentence
  • Thesis statement
  • Statement of the importance of topic
  • Structure of argument
  • Write the Intro Last!

16
What makes a good first sentence?
17
The Bland First Sentences
  • On August 18th, President Bush signed the Oil
    Pollution Act of 1990 into law.
  • On October 17, 1986, the Emergency Planning and
    Community Right to know Act (EPCRA) was enacted.

18
Oh Please Sentences
  • The 1970s marked a time of great environmental
    activism in response to the harmful effects of
    previous disregard, ushering in a time of great
    environmental policy change.

19
Snoopy Sentences
  • In September of 1982, North Carolina Governor
    James Hunt made a difficult and terrible
    decision.

20
Great First Sentence
  • Once depicted as the very model of
    crisis-inspired legislation at is worst by
    political scientist Walter A. Rosenbaum (2004,
    45), the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 has become
    the poster child for impulsive and rash policy
    making.

21
Thesis Statements
  • Underline the thesis statement
  • What makes a good one?
  • Clearly identifiable
  • Specific (reveals specific information/argument
    about the substance of the essay)
  • crisply stated

22
Problematic Thesis Statements
  • written so specifically that it runs on too long,
    or occupies an entire paragraph rather than one
    tight sentence
  • written so generally that it does not reveal much
    specific information about the substance of the
    essay
  • written as a road map for the essay rather than
    an argument that the essay will defend
  • difficult to identify or quite difficult to
    understand

23
Thesis Statements
  • Before the advent of the NFMA, environmental
    concerns stood largely at the periphery of the
    forest policy regime, and such economic concerns
    as timber production largely dominated the policy
    agenda. Since this time, aggressive
    environmental litigation, growing national
    environmental concern, and congressional
    legislation have worked to expand the managerial
    role the Forest Service play in habitat and
    species preservation.

24
Evaluating the 1st Paragraph
  • Is there a clear thesis?
  • Statement of the importance of topic
  • Is it clear why this is an important issue?
  • Structure of argument
  • Do you know what is coming?

25
Body Paragraphs
  • What makes a good one
  • Organization
  • Clear how paragraph relates to previous one
  • Paragraph has clear theme or point
  • All examples support the theme/internally
    consistent
  • Evidence- details/specifics
  • Frequent concrete examples
  • Skillfully analyzed

26
Body Paragraphs
  • Clear topic sentence
  • Transitions-bridges between paragraphs

27
Beautiful Transitions
  • While the event in Warren County gained crucial
    public support for the environmental justice
    movement, the driving forces had long been
    simmering in unrepresented and environmentally
    degraded regions of the US.

28
Beautiful Transitions
  • (flipper, Jacques Costeau, seal clubbing) These
    and many other examples that could be cited of
    growing public awareness of the need to protect
    our environment set the stage for legislative
    action to protect marine mammals.

29
The Value of Specifics to Your Argument
  • The amendment would require 10 of motor fuel
    sold by refiners would be considered
    alternative, such as ethanol, methanol, etc.
    Members from oil producing states were staunchly
    opposed to such provisions.

30
  • The amendment would require 10 of motor fuel
    sold by refiners would be considered
    alternative, such as ethanol, methanol, etc.
    Members from oil producing states were staunchly
    opposed to such provisions. Don Nickles (R-OK)
    argued that oil refiners in his state would not
    be able to produce alternative fuels. He reasons
    that it is like trying to mandate to the apple
    tree that you produce 10 oranges. Coupled with
    the Bush Administrations threat of veto, this
    amendment was tabled with a voice vote.

31
Details Require Analysis
  • The appealing idea of burying nuclear waste out
    of sight quickly overruled suggestions of taking
    time to develop technology which would nullify
    radioactivity. Instead, money was thrown at the
    seemingly simple solution of digging holes for
    the waste.

32
Quotes
  • When and why do we use quotes?

33
Quote Necessary or Unnecessary
  • Efforts to allow development of the coastal
    plain of the ANWR in northeastern Alaska
    effectively ended with the Exxon Valdez oil
    spill.
  • Dont use quotes to describe factual events

34
Quote Necessary or Unnecessary
  • Since the House leadership failed to establish
    procedures for a multicommittee bill before it
    met to amend the legislation, Each version
    approved by the committees created a thicket of
    jurisdictional conflicts.
  • Or about ANWR divide, Its a theological issue.

35
Quote Necessary or Unnecessary
  • Citizens blamed species extinction on hunters,
    not the larger issues of habitat degradation.
  • (fn To Save a Tiger, New York Times op ed.)

36
Great Quotes
  • Post Bhopal accident- VP for CMA remarked that
    It will be difficult for the industry, not just
    for Union Carbide, to recover public trust.
  • (About compromise energy bill) Few interested
    parties were thrilled, yet virtually all
    factions found something to like in the bill.

37
Writing
  • Eliminate Unnecessary Words
  • These and many other examples that could be cited
    of growing public awareness of the need to
    protect our environment set the stage for
    legislative action to protect marine mammals.
  • It is important to understand that.
  • The compromise was important.
  • Important! DO NOT USE THIS WORD

38
Reverse Outline
  • Write your thesis
  • Write the controlling idea and topic sentence of
    each of your body paragraphs
  • Does each paragraph have specific details (your
    opinions supported by textual evidence) that
    refer back to the topic sentence and clarify the
    controlling idea of the paragraph

39
Acronyms
  • Spell out first, use acronym subsequently
  • The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA),
  • Rest of paper CCC or SDWA
  • Politicians (party-2 letter acronym, all caps)
  • Al Gore (D-TN)
  • Henry Waxman (D-CA)

40
References
  • How many newspaper and magazine articles?
  • How many scholarly/academic articles?
  • How in-depth does the research seem?

41
Rewrite for Tuesday
  • Argument bold your thesis
  • Organization
  • underline transitions
  • Outline sheet- paragraphs by topic 1. Intro 2.
  • Evidence
  • Details
  • Style put your best crafted sentence in italics

42
Impact of BODs on Fish
Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch,
bass, mayfly, stonefly)
Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches)
Fish absent, fungi, sludge worms, bacteria (anaero
bic)
Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches)
Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch,
bass, mayfly, stonefly)
8 ppm
Types of organisms
Dissolved oxygen (ppm)
8 ppm
Biological oxygen demand
Clean Zone
Recovery Zone
Septic Zone
Decomposition Zone
Clean Zone
43
NPEDES
  • Rulemaking Process
  • Regulatory Output
  • Abatement Costs
  • Compliance
  • Environmental Impact
  • Perverse Incentives

44
Permitting
  • Permits are the legally binding terms that a
    control authority imposes on a pollution sources
    as a conditions for building or operating the
    sources. Permits are designed to reconcile what
    the source emits with what standards allow.
    Permits are the basis for compliance, the key to
    pollution control, the nexus between the control
    authority and the pollution sources.
  • Davies, Reforming Permitting

45
Permitting Process
  • Expensive
  • Complex, Long
  • Many agencies,
  • Separate permit for each media
  • CAA, Title V
  • CWA
  • RCRA
  • Dynamic nature of process

46
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47
Regulatory Impact
  • Permits Bargaining
  • Consent of regulated? Success
  • New facilities versus Renewal

48
Compliance
  • Bethlehem Steel, MD
  • 48th biggest toxic metal polluter
  • CWA permit expires 1985
  • Fragmentation- Frigidaire

49
Power!
  • Administrative Discretion Power!
  • Manchester Sewer Overflow
  • Permit requirements are in policy guidance to
    states
  • No one sues, it is legal

50
A Better Way?
51
Cheaper, Faster, Better
  • Goals of the program are to achieve a cleaner
    environment at the lowest cost.
  • President Clinton
  • "The old way of doing business was that
    government dictates every move a business must
    take to protect the environment. The new system,
    envisioned by Project XL, is to work
    cooperatively and focus on the results a cleaner
    environment a faster, less costly system with
    more input from the local community."
  • Intel CEO, Gordon Moore

52
Project XL
  • Flexibility for Superior Environmental
    Performance (SEP)
  • Site-specific plans
  • Stakeholder negotiations
  • Voluntary

53
Intel
  • Why go XL?
  • Deliver SEP?
  • Stakeholders?

54
SEP
  • Intel trades
  • 50 less air pollutants
  • Conserve water
  • Reduce Chemical waste 60
  • Pretty Campus
  • EPA
  • Modest flexibility
  • Sound good?

55
Weyerhaeuser, GA
  • 500 jobs, 75 million
  • 320,000 mton of bleached softwood kraft market
    fluff pulp

56
Weyerhauser
  • SEP
  • 60 air emissions
  • Renewable forest mgmt practices 300k acres
  • Stricter h2o effluents limits
  • Innovation
  • Closed loop
  • No bleach dumping
  • Reduce hazardous waste 90

57
Merck Stonewall Plant
  • Trading Ozone for Smog

58
Substantive Issues
  • What is superior environmental performance
  • Whats the baseline, Kenneth?
  • Clear reduction in risk ?
  • Whose environmental priorities habitat, green
    space, parks
  • Okay to trade for social/political benefits

59
Procedural Issues
  • Role of outside stakeholders
  • Power of stakeholders, veto?
  • Absolute consensus
  • Expertise
  • Time Consuming
  • Legal?
  • No protection from citizen suits

60
Big ?s
  • Goals of Reinvention?
  • Balance between environmental quality and
    reducing compliance costs
  • When to trade-off
  • Who makes trade off?
  • What if no-one wanted to reinvent the process?

61
Alcoa- Massena
Alcoas Massena Operations is the longest
continually operating aluminum facility in the
world, serving customers in the automotive,
transportation, aerospace and industrial
distribution markets. Currently employing more
than 1400 people, Massena Operations is the
largest private employer north of Syracuse,
contributing 250 million annually to the local
economy in payroll, local purchases and tax
payments.
62
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63
prebake (PB) cell technologies smelters
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