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Aquaculture and the environment


4. Salmon lice. The salmon louse - Lepeophtheirus. salmonis is a parasite that occurs ... invests significant resources in preventing and combating lice ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aquaculture and the environment

Aquaculture and the environment
A presentation from
Norwegian Seafood Export Council/Per Eide Studio
1. Environmental standpoint 2. Sustainable food
production 3. Environment and choice of
location 4. Salmon lice and wrasse 5. Use of
copper 6. Disease and antibiotics 7. Escaped
Photo Norwegian Seafood Export Council
1. Environmental standpoint
  • One of the aims of the fish farming industry is
    to be eco-friendly
  • Good ethical husbandry and sustainable
    management of resources are the industrys
    fundamental principles
  • Like all other industrial activity, aquaculture
    also involves environmental challenges
  • Consequently, the industry focuses on the
    environment in all areas from feed production and
    until the fish reaches the market

2. Sustainable food production
  • Of all farm animals, salmon makes the most
    efficient use of the energy in the feed
  • 1.15 kg feed is required to produce 1 kg salmon.
  • For the same growth, poultry must have 1.94 kg
    and pigs 3 kg
  • Fishmeal and fish oil are important raw
    ingredients in fish feed, but these marine
    resources are in short supply.
  • However, new raw ingredients mean that the
    industry can continue to grow, without overtaxing
    the worlds fish stocks.

Growth using new raw ingredients
  • Research on alternative raw ingredients, such as
    vegetable oils, algae and protein from gas, has
    been conducted since the 1980s
  • Salmon and trout feed produced in Norway today
    contain a combination of marine and vegetable
  • Like marine oils, plant oils are full value raw
    ingredients in the feed

3. The environment and choice of location
  • It is very important to choose the right
  • for a locality
  • A good environment is important for the health
    and quality of the fish
  • Current, depth and bottom conditions are
    decisive factors
  • Fish farmers continuously monitor the
    environment around the localities

Nutrient salts
  • The main sources of discharges of nutrient
  • salts are agriculture, households and fish
  • farming
  • The nutrient salts help to maintain a rich flora
  • and fauna
  • Over-accumulation of solid waste /bottom
    sediment may lead to undesirable algae growth
  • Therefore, there is strong focus on finding
    localities with favourable current and bottom

4. Salmon lice
  • The salmon louse - Lepeophtheirus
  • salmonis is a parasite that occurs
  • naturally on salmon in saltwater
  • Salmon lice may damage the fish skin
  • This may cause problems with salt
  • balance and increase the risk of infection
  • The industry invests significant resources in
    preventing and combating lice

Photo Anne-Mette Kirkemo, Norsk friluftspresse
Eco-friendly lice treatment
  • All farms are obliged to prepare a monthly
  • report with regard to lice, any treatment
  • required and use of wrasse
  • A growing number of fish farmers have opted
  • to use wrasse to combat lice
  • Wrasse eat the salmon lice and the
  • plankton on the nets
  • Work is also in progress to develop a vaccine
    against salmon lice

Photo Kamilla Utgård
5. Copper
  • The nets are impregnated with copper to
  • prevent fouling
  • The trend is toward more frequent
  • cleaning as an eco-friendly alternative
  • Research is being carried out to find
  • alternatives to copper, among other things,
  • based on algae

Ban on copper discharge
  • In 2004, the authorities introduced a ban on
    discharge of copper from businesses that clean
    and impregnate nets
  • This ban applies to new facilities already and
    will come into effect for existing facilities
    from 2006
  • The cleaning methods introduced mean that the
    copper may be recycled. Research is being
    conducted on methods for this.

6. Healthy fish
  • Salmon is our healthiest farm animal
  • There has been a 98 per cent
  • reduction in use of antibiotics from
  • 1987 and up to today. At the same time,
  • salmon and trout production has
  • grown more than tenfold
  • The industry has achieved this through effective
    vaccination, improved production methods and
    preventive work

7. Escaped fish
  • One of the aims of the industry is to reduce the
    number of escaped fish to an absolute minimum
  • According to preliminary figures from the
    Directorate of fisheries around 700 000 salmon
    and trout escaped in 2005.
  • The escapes were mainly due to two individual
  • Around 470 000 salmon escaped in August last
    year, whereas 100 000 escaped in June as a result
    of sabotage

New technical requirements
  • According to the Directorate of Fisheries,
    technical failure was the main reason for last
    years escapes
  • Statutory technical requirements, NYTEK, have
    been introduced for fish farms
  • The NYTEK regulations came into force for new
    facilities in 2004 and in 2006 for existing
  • The industry is working actively to inform fish
    farmers about NYTEK and to improve the

Measures to prevent escapes
  • The industry and the authorities increased their
    focus on research and development
  • From January 2006, the industry itself will
    investigate escapes in order to learn from these
  • The industry and others believe the authorities
    should set up an independent accident
    investigation board
  • The Norwegian Seafood Federation has set up an
    escape board

Control and documentation
  • The fish farmers have daily control of the fish
    and the facilities
  • A veterinarian or a fish welfare biologist
    continuously follow-up the fish
  • The Directorate of Fisheries inspects all
    facilities on a regular basis
  • The Norwegian Food Safety Authority approves and
    has strict control of the fish from harvesting to
  • No other country in the world has such extensive
    control and research related to aquaculture as

Foto Ewos
Did you know that..
  • In 2005, Norway produced 588 000 tonnes of
  • Translated into dinners, this is 1.4 billion
  • skinned and boneless 250 g portions!
  • Norway produces twice as much salmon as it does
    beef, poultry, mutton and pork put together
  • Norwegian salmon is a popular raw material.
  • In 2005, we exported salmon to 108 countries

Did you know that..
  • Norwegian consumers are eating an increasing
    amount of salmon and preferably as fillets
  • In 2005, Norwegians ate 3 kg salmon (round
    weight) per capita, 11 per cent up on the
  • year
  • Single and urbane consumers eat the most salmon,
    whereas people in rural areas and large families
    eat the least
  • Salmon is the favourite fish of young Norwegians

Eat twice as much fish!
  • We should eat fish at least four times a week
  • This is the conclusion in a new report from the
    Norwegian Science Committee for Food Safety, VKM
  • VKM has compared the health advantages against
    the health risks of eating fish
  • According to VKM, Norwegian seafood is good for
    your health and most people should double their
    intake of fish

Norwegian Minister of Fisheries Helga Pedersen
eating salmon nuggets at the film premiere of En
glad laks
Would you like to find out more?
  • Visit
  • Articles about salmon and aquaculture
  • Presentations and fact sheets
  • Free material
  • Appetising salmon recipes

Use of photographs from this presentation for
other purposes is prohibited