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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
Smoke Management and Air Quality
  • Tools of the Trade
  • Trent Wickman
  • twickman_at_fs.fed.us
  • 218-626-4372

3
Objectives
  • Discuss why you must consider smoke management as
    part of your burn operations.
  • Identify tools available to help you plan for,
    and communicate the impacts of smoke.

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5
gt 100 microns
6
Particulate the Respiratory Tract
Larger Particles
gt 10 microns
5 microns
Smoke
2-3 microns
Smaller Particles
1 micron
Alveolar Diffusion
lt0.1 microns
7
What are the particulates made of?
Sulfates, nitrates, and organic aerosols are key
manmade pollutants adversely affecting visibility
and other resources on forests nationwide.
8
Why is smoke taken more seriously in different
areas of the country?
9
as of 2002

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11
.. in Class I Areas
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15
Why Plan and Communicate the Impacts of Smoke?
  • What air quality issues will prohibit me from
    burning?
  • How will I know if Ive exceeded some air
    quality threshold?
  • How will smoke affect me?
  • How will it affect the local community?

16
Why Plan and Communicate the Impacts of Smoke?
  • Meet national and state ambient air quality
    standards (and other processes or rules)
  • Be sensitive to public concern
  • e.g. Air Quality Index
  • Retain relationships with air quality partners
  • Regulators, public, other land managers

17
Because we have to
  • States establish strategies to achieve the Clean
    Air Act goals through a State Implementation Plan
    (SIP) approved by EPA.
  • State Smoke Management Plans (SMPs) are parts of
    the overall state SIP.
  • Remember State air quality agencies are acting
    as EPA!!

18
Tools of the Trade
  • Weather-related predictions
  • Smoke Modeling
  • Smoke Monitoring

19
When?
  • NEPA ? Burn Plan ? Day of Burn

20
Atmospheric Dispersion Index (ADI) (this form
Generally Used in SE)
ADI Interpretation
1-6 Very poor dispersion
7-12 Poor dispersion
13-20 Generally poor dispersion
21-40 Fair dispersion
41-60 Generally good dispersion
61-100 Good dispersion
gt100 Very good dispersion
Generally burning not allowed
Table 9.2 from Smoke Guide
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22
FCAMMS
  • 2001 January The National Fire Plan
    establishes FCAMMS Fire Consortia for Advanced
    Modeling of Meteorology and Smoke.

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24
Atmospheric Dispersion Index
9-24-Rx410-EP
25
Tools of the Trade
  • Weather-related predictions
  • Smoke Modeling
  • Smoke Monitoring

26
Pre-modeling Questions
  • What do you want to do with the results?
  • NEPA document?
  • Burn Plan?
  • Burn Permit?
  • Threshold levels?
  • Adaptive Management
  • Documentation?
  • Go/No-Go Decision?
  • What state are you in?
  • What is agency policy?
  • Where are your sensitive areas?
  • Cumulative effects of other burns?

27
Types of Smoke Models
  • Emissions Production/Lookup Tables
  • Mass (e.g., tons of particulate/acre)
  • Dispersion
  • Concentration (e.g., micrograms of particulate/
    cubic meter of air)

28
Emissions Production/Lookup Tables
  • Based on the acres /or fuel load OR
  • emissions are calculated directly based on this
    info (e.g. FOFEM)
  • THEN determine the distance to sensitive
    receptors
  • Also similar screening techniques available using
    maps

29
What is Dispersion Modeling?
  • A well defined system for communicating the
    impact of smoke on ambient air quality (which
    can include visibility). Takes the emissions
    generated from the land and using meteorology
    disperses them in the atmosphere.

30
Dispersion Modeling
  • NEPA ? Burn Plan ? Day of Burn
  • SASEM
  • V-SMOKE-GIS
  • V-Smoke
  • Smoke Impact
  • Spreadsheet

31
Dispersion Modeling
  • NEPA ? Burn Plan ? Day of Burn
  • Fire Consortia for Advanced Meteorological
    Modeling (FCAMMS)
  • BlueSky
  • PB-Piedmont
  • The Southern High-Resolution Modeling Consortium
    (SHRMC)

32
FCAMMS
  • 2001 January The National Fire Plan
    establishes FCAMMS Fire Consortia for Advanced
    Modeling of Meteorology and Smoke.

33
  • Dispersion Modeling
  • NEPA ? Burn Plan ? Day of Burn

http//www.fs.fed.us/bluesky/
34
Show EAMC animation
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37
Smoke Modeling
  • References
  • NWCG Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and
    Wildland Fire (2001 Edition)
  • Wildland Fire in Ecosystems Effects of Fire on
    Air (December 2002)
  • Smoke Management Techniques (Rx-410) (September
    2003)
  • Help
  • Regional/Zone Smoke or Air Quality Specialist
  • Fire Consortia for Advanced Modeling of
    Meteorology and Smoke (FCAMMS)

38
Tools of the Trade
  • Weather-related predictions
  • Smoke Modeling
  • Smoke Monitoring

39
Smoke Monitoring
  • Photos
  • Satellite photos
  • Particulate monitors

http//rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/
40
Current Particulate Monitors
  • History
  • 1998 USFS Air Program began at MTDC
  • Tasked to evaluate commercial, real-time PM2.5
    smoke monitors
  • Portable
  • Rugged
  • Easy-to-use
  • Cost
  • Accurate or correctable estimates?

41
Current Particulate Monitors
  • History - 1998 through 2001
  • RMRS Fire Lab Tests
  • Field Tests (chasing Rx smoke in 1999, wildfire
    smoke in 2000)
  • Outcome
  • USFS purchased MIE DataRam for monitoring cache
    in Fort Collins
  • Ease of use
  • Correction Factor
  • Portability
  • Customer support

42
Current Particulate Monitors
  • DataRam 4
  • Reliability problems, frequent transport
  • Company bought out and moved twice
  • New correction algorithm needed to be developed

43
Current Particulate Monitors
  • New promising monitors
  • E-Sampler
  • Light scattering
  • 1/3 price of DataRam (about 4.5k)
  • EBAM
  • Technology the same as EPA- approved monitors for
    PM10
  • Cost 7.3k

44
Current Particulate Monitors
  • E-BAM USFS Region 5 Program
  • 10 Portable E-BAMs
  • 3 BAM 1020s

45
Current Particulate Monitors
  • Interagency Real-Time Smoke Monitoring
  • http//www.satguard.com/usfs

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50
Particles (PM2.5) - AQIhttp//www.airnow.gov/
51
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53
Trents Tips
  • Establish and maintain relationships with key
    state air quality folks
  • Implement an ongoing program to educate the
    public in likely impacted areas,
  • To gain their support for your burning program
  • So at-risk folks will remove themselves from
    dangerous situations
  • Take existing air quality into account (AQI)
  • Know your SMP/state regs/procedures

54
What does this show?
55
WFRA tips
  • Know if you are working in a Class I wilderness
  • Know if you are in an area of the country where
    smoke is a concern
  • If 1) or 2) contact your local agency air
    resource specialist
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