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INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

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Ecology can be defined as the study of relationships between organisms and the environment ... Krill. Whales,penguin. Sharks, Seals. Sea cucumbers. Hydrological cycle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY


1
INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
  • EEP 255
  • NOVEMBER 25, 2003

2
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology can be defined as the study of
    relationships between organisms and the
    environment
  • Ecologists study these relationships over a large
    range of temporal and spatial scales and using a
    variety of approaches.
  • Scales
  • Individual organisms,
  • Populations
  • Communities
  • Ecosystems (biotic abiotic)
  • Biomes
  • Global

3
SPACESHIP EARTH AS AN ECOSYSTEM
  • A closed system except for solar energy
  • A given natural capital stock of matter embodied
    in biotic and abiotic materials
  • With a fixed stock it supports a fantastic number
    and variety of life forms in a complex dynamic
    equilibrium

4
HOW?Ecosystem functions
  • Ecosystem functions transform the quality or
    spatial location of matter and energy (similar to
    economic production functions).
  • Photosynthesis solar energy capture and biomass
    production
  • Food Chain or Web chemical cycling and energy
    flow
  • Climate System solar energy capture and
    transfer, temperature control
  • Hydrological Cycle water purification, storage,
    and transfer
  • Biogeochemical Cycles (C, N, H,O and P) elemental
    matter cycling
  • Evolution and adaptation

5
Food Webs
  • Aquatic
  • Diatoms Phytoplankton
  • Krill
  • Whales,penguin
  • Sharks, Seals
  • Sea cucumbers
  • Autotrophs (producers)
  • Primary consumers
  • Sec. Consumers
  • Tertiary Consumers
  • Decomposers
  • Land Based
  • Plants
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Carnivores
  • Detrivores
  • Fungi
  • Centipedes

6
Hydrological cycle
  • A giant water purification system driven by solar
    energy
  • Stocks
  • Oceans 1.35 billion km3
  • Atmosphere 13,000 km3
  • Groundwater 8.2 million km3
  • Polar ice 7.5 million Km3
  • Surface water 3 million Km3
  • Flows /yr
  • Ocean evaporation 425,000 Km3
  • Land evaporation 71,000 Km3
  • Ocean rainfall 385,000 Km3
  • Land rainfall 111,000 Km3
  • River flows into ocean 40,000 Km3

7
Carbon Cycle
8
NITROGEN CYCLE
9
ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING
  • Input of renewable solar energy
  • Closed loops in terms of material/nutrient flows
  • Ecosystem members include producers, consumers,
    and recyclers
  • No wastes efficient/perfect, Symbiosis between
    members
  • Low intensity energy use and distributed
    production in-sync with local environment
  • Toxins are not produced, stored or transported in
    bulk, but are synthesized and used as needed
    (snake poison)
  • Population growth of members is limited by
    carrying capacity of the ecosystem
  • Decentralized decision-making among members (no
    central planner)
  • Self-sustaining
  • Resilient

10
Industrial/economic systems
  • Transform energy and matter to meet human needs,
    but
  • Open loop systems
  • Dependence on non-renewable resources (non
    sustainable)
  • Dumping Wastes (not recycled, non-recyclable,
    toxic, harmful)
  • Adversarial/exploitative relationship with biotic
    and abiotic environment
  • Growth with in the carrying capacity of local and
    global ecosystems?????????

11
INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
  • An emerging discipline (1990s)
  • Industrial Ecology The study of relationships
    between industrial systems and the environment.
  • Just like ecologists, the study of these
    relationships can be over a large range of
    temporal and spatial scales and using a variety
    of approaches.

12
Industrial Ecology (Normative)
  • Industrial ecology involves designing industrial
    infrastructure as if they were a series of
    interlocking man-made ecosystems interfacing with
    natural global ecosystem. Industrial ecology
    takes the pattern of the natural environment as a
    model for solving environmental problems,
    creating a new paradigm for the industrial system
    as a process
  • Tibbs(1993)

13
Industrial Ecology
  • Industrial Ecology is the means by which humanity
    can deliberately and rationally approach and
    maintain a desirable carrying capacity, given
    continued economic, cultural and technological
    evolution. The concept requires that an
    industrial system be viewed not in isolation from
    its surrounding systems, but in concert with
    them.
  • Allenby Gradel
    1993

14
Key Concepts
  • Systems analysis
  • Material and Energy flows and transformations
  • Analogies to natural systems (creation of
    industrial ecosystems)
  • Dematerialization of industrial output (service
    flows, miniaturization)
  • Closed loop systems
  • Balancing industrial input and output to natural
    ecosystem capacity
  • Multidisciplinary approach

15
Models, Tools Techniques
  • Industrial Metabolism
  • The study of how matter and energy are
    transformed by economic activity into
    intermediate and final goods Industry analysis
  • Goal is to understand and improve metabolic
    pathways
  • Reducing number of steps
  • Reducing material and energy intensity
  • Biological transformation (low intensity,
    dispersed, renewable energy) v/s mechanical
    transformation (high intensity fossil fuel based)

16
Models, Tools Techniques
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
  • Analyzing resource and waste flows over the
    entire life cycle of a product or process
  • Product level analysis
  • Life cycle inventory
  • Life cycle impact analysis
  • Improvement analysis

17
Tools and Techniques
  • Environmental Accounting
  • Firm level
  • Accounting for wastes and resource use
  • Full cost accounting (external costs as well)
  • Life cycle costing
  • Environmental performance metrics and
    eco-efficiency indicators

18
Tools and Techniques
  • Materials Flow Analysis (MFA)
  • Environmental Accounting of critical material
    flows on a global/regional scale to determine
    potential problems
  • Tracking mass flows, elemental transformation,
    embodiment in durable products, dissipation,
    disposal, and environmental component into which
    dissipated/disposed
  • To identify opportunities where materials can be
    recycled, not dissipated and where material use
    can be reduced in the economy.
  • Critical nutrients (C,N,P,), Global warming gases
    (C, CFC), Toxics like heavy metals (Ni, Cd),
    Arsenic, lead, Mercury, Chlorine, Energy flows

19
Example Lead MFA
World Extraction, Use, and Disposal of Lead,
1990 (in thousand tons)
20
Lead MFA
  • Lead is a well recognized toxin contributing to
    IQ reduction in children, High blood pressure in
    adults,
  • Annual refined Lead extraction 3.3 Million tons
    all of which essentially ends up in the
    environment
  • We can not account exactly where and what are the
    effects (current cumulative)
  • Dissipative uses leaded gasoline, pigments, shot
    and ammo(?), solders(?), refining wastes(?)
  • Possibly recyclable batteries, durables
  • How can we make it a closed loop? How can we make
    the economy less lead intensive? How can we
    reduce/substitute dissipative uses?

21
Carbon Cycle
22
Carbon Balance over past 150 years
  • Atmospheric increase  Emissions from Fossil
    fuels  Net emissions from changes in land
    use - Oceanic uptake - Missing carbon sink
  • 3.3(0.2)5.5(0.5)1.6(0.7)-2.0(0.8)-1.8(1.2)
     petagrams (billion MT)
  • How can we offset the fossil fuel related
    emissions of C to atmosphere? Renewable energy?
    Carbon sequestration? Forests? Use coal and
    petroleum for materials that can be buried back?

23
NITROGEN CYCLE
24
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Main reservoir atmosphere(79 N)
  • Plants and animals need fixed nitrogen (NO3 ions,
    Ammonia, Urea)
  • Lightening
  • Bacterial fixing(legumes, alders, soil,
    cynobacteria in water)
  • Industrial fixing
  • Trophic levels (plant/animal proteins)
  • Decay to ammonia
  • Nitrifying bacteria (NH3 to nitrates)
  • Denitrifying bacteria (nitrates to N2 gas)
  • Industrial Fixation of N2 (fertilizers) and
    increasing flows into hydrosphere
  • Are Denitrifiers keeping up or should they be?
  • What are system-wide environmental implications?

25
Tools and Techniques
  • Design for the Environment (DfE)
  • Design for dematerialization
  • Design for efficiency (energy/materials)
  • Design for material variety reduction
  • Design for disassembly/separation
  • Design for less toxic inputs
  • Design for recycling/use by others
  • Design for eco-compatible waste streams
  • Design for non-dissipative waste stream
  • Waste stream standardization!
  • But all these while meeting product performance
    requirements

26
Eco-Industrial Parks
  • Application of ecosystem principles to the design
    of industrial parks and communities
  • Industrial symbiosis (one industrys wastes are
    raw materials for others)
  • Closed loops
  • Geographical clustering that improves each
    others viability

27
Example Kalundborg, Denmark
28
Annual achievements from Kalundborg
  • Reduction in resource consumption
  • Oil 19,000 tons
  • Coal 30,000 tons
  • Water 1,200,000 m3
  • Reduction in emissions
  • CO2 130,000 tons
  • SO2 25,000 tons
  • Reuse of wastes
  • Flyash 135,000 tons
  • Sulfur 2,800 tons
  • Gypsum 80,000 tons
  • N2 from biosludge 800 tons
  • P from biosludge 400 tons

29
Why doesnt IE happen currently?
  • Markets are the primary institutional mechanism
    of industrial systems
  • Highly successful in meeting human needs, but
  • Ecosystem resources are under-priced or at worst
    free (market failure)
  • Overuse of natural resources and wasteful
    technology (No incentives)
  • Economic instruments (taxes, tradable permits)
    can provide right incentives but need estimates
    of marginal damage!
  • Lack of information about system wide
    implications/ damages/scarcity.
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