The%20Relationship%20between%20the%20Critical%20Success%20Factors%20and%20Academic%20and%20Athletic%20Success:%20A%20Quantitative%20Case%20Study%20of%20Black%20Male%20Football%20Student-Athletes%20at%20a%20Major%20Division%20I%20Southeastern%20PWI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The%20Relationship%20between%20the%20Critical%20Success%20Factors%20and%20Academic%20and%20Athletic%20Success:%20A%20Quantitative%20Case%20Study%20of%20Black%20Male%20Football%20Student-Athletes%20at%20a%20Major%20Division%20I%20Southeastern%20PWI

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Title: The%20Relationship%20between%20the%20Critical%20Success%20Factors%20and%20Academic%20and%20Athletic%20Success:%20A%20Quantitative%20Case%20Study%20of%20Black%20Male%20Football%20Student-Athletes%20at%20a%20Major%20Division%20I%20Southeastern%20PWI


1
The Relationship between the Critical Success
Factors and Academic and Athletic Success A
Quantitative Case Study of Black Male Football
Student-Athletes at a Major Division I
Southeastern PWI
  • Presented by
  • Joseph N. Cooper
  • Thesis Committee
  • Dr. Edgar Shields (Advisor)
  • Dr. Elizabeth Hedgpeth
  • Dr. Deborah Stroman

2
Inspiration for Study
  • Provide possible solutions to eliminate the
    academic achievement gap between Black and White
    male SAs
  • Expand the body of research of Black male SAs
  • Identify the critical success factors (CSFs) of
    Black male football SAs at a Division I
    Southeastern institution

3
Key Definitions
  • Black or African-American
  • Student-Athlete (SA)
  • Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
  • Predominately White Institutions (PWIs)

4
Literature Review
  • Jacqueline Fleming (1984)
  • Blacks in College
  • William C. Rhoden (1989)
  • The Experiences of Black Intercollegiate
    Student-Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions
  • Patricia Adler (1991)
  • Backboards and Blackboards College Athletics and
    Role Engulfment
  • Billy Hawkins (2001)
  • The New Plantation The Internal Colonization of
    Black Student-Athletes

5
Issues facing Black male student-athletes at PWIs
  • Poor Intellectual Development
  • Social Isolation
  • Athletic Exploitation
  • First Generation College Students
  • Institutional Discrimination
  • Academic Negligence
  • Emotional Instability
  • Low Enrollment and Graduation Rates

6
Purpose of the Study
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the
    critical success factors (CSFs) of current Black
    male football student-athletes (SAs) at a major
    Division I Southeastern public Predominantly
    White Institution (PWI) who exhibit high levels
    of success academically and athletically.

7
Limitations
  • Due to the time constraints and resources, this
    study was limited to a sample of current Black
    male football SAs at the major Division I
    Southeastern public PWI.
  • This study did not include all Black male
    football SAs. Specifically, it excludes all red
    shirt freshman and first year SAs.
  • This study did not consider the quality of
    education attained prior to enrollment at the
    major Division I Southeastern public PWI.

8
Limitations (contd)
  • This study did not include the parental status of
    the Black male football SAs participants.
  • This study did not include the socio-economic
    status of the families of the Black male football
    SAs participants.
  • This study does not provide an all inclusive
    solution to the obstacles facing all Black SAs.

9
Delimitations
  • This study was exclusive to current Black male
    football SAs at the major Division I Southeastern
    public PWI and thus the findings cannot be
    generalized to all Black SAs.
  • This study only included the current Black male
    football SAs with the exception of first year and
    redshirt freshman Black male football SAs.

10
Assumptions
  • It is assumed that all SAs answered all questions
    honestly and completely.
  • The completion of the survey and participation in
    the study is voluntary for all targeted SAs.

11
Data Reduction and Analysis
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • 42 participants (100 response rate)
  • 19 sophomores (45.2)
  • 18 juniors (42.9 )
  • 5 seniors (11.9)
  • GPA Distribution (N42)
  • High Academic Success
  • 21 participants (50)--gtGPA lt or 2.4
  • Low Academic Success
  • 21 participants (50)--gtGPA gt 2.4

12
Data Reduction and Analysis (contd)
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Athletic Participation Distribution (N42)
  • High Athletic Success
  • 21 participants (50) participated and started in
    0-11 games in the previous season
  • Low Athletic Success
  • 21 participants (50) participated and started in
    12-24 games in the previous season
  • Racial Diversity of High Schools Attended (N42)
  • 54.7 (23) attended high schools that had at
    least 50 Black enrollment

13
Data Reduction and Analysis (contd)
  • Chi-Square Test Results (N42)
  • Academic Success and Athletic Success
  • P-value.355 (No significant relationship)
  • Personal Development and Academic Success
  • P-value1.000 (No significant relationship)
  • Personal Development and Athletic Success
  • P-value.513 (No significant relationship)

14
Data Reduction and Analysis (contd)
  • Chi-Square Test Results
  • Social Harmony and Academic Success
  • P-value.513 (No significant relationship)
  • Social Harmony and Athletic Success
  • P-value.533 (No significant relationship)
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System and
    Academic Success
  • P-value.537 (No significant relationship)

15
Data Reduction and Analysis (contd)
  • Chi-Square Test Results
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System and
    Athletic Success
  • P-value.537 (No significant relationship)
  • Career Aspirations and Academic Success
  • P-value.513 (No significant relationship)
  • Career Aspirations and Athletic Success
  • P-value.190 (No significant relationship)

16
Data Reduction and Analysis (contd)
  • Chi-Square Test Results
  • Time Management Skills and Academic Success
  • P-value.204 (No significant relationship)
  • Time Management Skills and Athletic Success
  • P-value.525 (No significant relationship)
  • Organized Religion and Academic Success
  • P-value.495 (No significant relationship)
  • Organized Religion and Athletic Success
  • P-value.495 (No significant Relationship)

17
Conclusion
  • There was no statistically significant
    relationship between academic success and
    athletic success.

18
Conclusion (contd)
  • There was no statistically significant
    relationship between academic success and the
    CSFs of
  • Personal Development
  • Social Harmony
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System
  • Career Aspirations
  • Time Management Skills
  • Organized Religion
  • Results did not support the hypothesis

19
Conclusion (contd)
  • There was no statistically significant
    relationship between athletic success and the
    CSFs of
  • Personal Development
  • Social Harmony
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System
  • Career Aspirations
  • Time Management Skills
  • Organized Religion
  • Results did not support the hypothesis

20
Conclusion (contd)
  • There was no relationship found between academic
    success and athletic success.
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized
    as high success athletically, 57.1 (12 out of
    21) were also categorized as low success
    academically.
  • Supports the Role Theory (Adler Adler, 1991)

21
Conclusion (contd)
  • Those participants who were categorized as high
    academic success and high athletic success
    reported higher levels of the following CSFs
  • Personal Development
  • Career Aspirations
  • Time Management Skills
  • Organized Religion

22
Conclusion (contd)
  • Those participants who were categorized as high
    success academically and high success
    athletically reported lower levels of the
    following CSFs
  • Social Harmony
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System

23
Conclusion (contd)
  • Personal Development and Academic Success
  • Only 33.3 (7 out of 42) of both groups (high and
    low academic success) reported low levels of
    personal development.
  • Implications
  • SAs invested a significant amount of their time
    managing their academic and athletic
    responsibilities.
  • Minimal time for enhancing their personal
    development in the form of extracurricular
    activities.

24
Conclusion (contd)
  • Social Harmony and Academic Success
  • From the 21 participants who reported a low level
    of academic success, 44.4 (10 out of 21)
    reported a high level of social harmony.
  • Implications
  • Participants who experienced a lack of social
    inclusion were less likely to perform at a high
    level academically.
  • 54.7 (23 out of 42) attended high schools that
    were at least 50 Black
  • Cultural Disconnect and Social Isolation

25
Conclusion (contd)
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System and
    Academic Success
  • Out of the 22 participants who reported a high
    level of engagement with a strong support system,
    45.5 (10 out of 22) were also categorized as
    high success academically.
  • Implication
  • Participants who were academically prepared for
    college were less likely to have a high level of
    engagement of a strong support system.

26
Conclusion (contd)
  • Career Aspirations and Academic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who reported a high
    level of career aspirations, 61.9 (13 out of 21)
    were also categorized as high success
    academically.
  • Implication
  • The participants perception of a viable career
    after college may have a positive impact on their
    academic performance.

27
Conclusion (contd)
  • Time Management Skills and Academic Success
  • Out of the 16 participants who reported a high
    level of time management skills, 62.5 (10 out of
    16) were also categorized as high success
    academically.
  • Implication
  • Participants who possessed strong time management
    skills were more likely to perform at higher
    levels academically.

28
Conclusion (contd)
  • Organized Religion and Academic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized
    as high success academically, 76.2 (16 out of
    21)reported a high level of organized religion.
  • Implication
  • The presence of a strong belief and/or practice
    of a organized religion may have a positive
    impact on academic performance.

29
Conclusion (contd)
  • Personal Development and Athletic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized a
    high success academically, 38.1 (18 out of 21)
    reported a high level of personal development.
  • Implication
  • Due to the time constraints from their athletic
    responsibilities, the time to pursue
    extracurricular activities that could enhance
    their personal development is limited.

30
Conclusion (contd)
  • Social Harmony and Athletic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized
    as high success athletically, 61.8 (13) reported
    low level of social harmony.
  • Implications
  • Participants who experienced a high level of
    athletic success were more likely to possess
    feelings of social isolation.
  • Coaches and administrators must be sensitive to
    the feelings and experiences of their
    student-athletes.

31
Conclusion (contd)
  • Engagement with a Strong Support System and
    Athletic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized
    as high success athletically, 52.4 (11 out of
    21) reported low levels of engagement with a
    strong support system.
  • Implication
  • Participants who experienced a high level of
    success athletically may have been reluctant to
    seek out support from others.

32
Conclusion (contd)
  • Career Aspirations and Athletic Success
  • Out of the 21 participants who were categorized
    as high success athletically, 76.2 (16 out of
    21) reported a high level of career aspirations.
  • Implications
  • High athletic participation could have a positive
    impact on career aspirations.
  • Many participants reported that becoming a
    professional athlete was their primary career
    goal, hence their high athletic participation.

33
Conclusion (contd)
  • Time Management Skills and Athletic Success
  • Out of the 16 participants who reported a high
    level of time management skills, 56.2 (9 out of
    16) were categorized as high success
    athletically.
  • Implications
  • Athletic participation may have a positive impact
    on the development of effective time management
    skills.
  • The rigid structure of college football
    participation requires strict time constraints,
    which promotes effective time management skills.

34
Conclusion (contd)
  • Organized Religion and Athletic Participation
  • Out of 21 participants who categorized as high
    success athletically, 76.2 (16 out of 21)
    reported high levels of organized religion.
  • Implications
  • Participants who performed at a high level
    athletically possessed strong belief and/or
    practice of an organized religion.
  • The presence of organized religion can have a
    positive impact on a participants athletic
    performance.

35
Recommendations
  • Stronger academic support systems
  • Freshman ineligibility
  • Stricter enforcement of the 20 hours per week
    student-athletes spend on sport
  • Increased investment in the schooling of these
    student-athletes

Sellers, et. al, 1991 Wiley, 1991 Lapchick,
1991 Harris, 1993 Hawkins, 1999
36
Recommendations (contd)
  • Lapchick (1984)
  • Institutional Accreditation based on SA
    graduation rate.
  • Tinto (1987)
  • Systematic and system-wide in character
  • Merged and coordinated student activities
  • Integration of diverse institutional services
  • Consistent and continuous in character
  • Centrally located in organizational fabric of
    institution

37
Recommendations (contd)
  • Carr (1992)
  • Effective Orientation
  • Consistent Communication between Instructors and
    Coaches
  • Regular Academic Progress Review
  • Tutoring for SAs within the Athletic Department
  • Darling et. al (2007)
  • Assessment, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation
    and Reformation

38
Additional Research
  • An increased sample size of Black
    student-athletes
  • SAs from multiple sports
  • SAs from different institutions
  • Female SAs
  • Former SAs
  • First-year SAs
  • Black non-SAs

39
Significance of Study
  • Opportunity for Black male football SAs at a
    major Division I Southeastern PWI.
  • Expanded the body of research in the area of
    research on Black male SAs in college.
  • Provided vital feedback for the coaches, athletic
    administrators, faculty and staff at the major
    Division I Southeastern PWI where the study was
    conducted.
  • Established a sample study that can be expanded
    and modified for future studies in the area of
    Black SAs.

40
  • Questions?
  • Thank You
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