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LANGUAGES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

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'HOUSE' MAY MEAN YOUR HOME, BUT ALSO OTHER HOUSES 'BOOK' MAY MEAN MANY DIFFERENT BOOKS, ETC. ... MOUSE LSP OR GL? MENU LSP OR GL? NETWORK - LSP OR GL? USB ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LANGUAGES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES


1
LANGUAGES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES
  • daniel.gile_at_laposte.net , daniel.gile_at_yahoo.com
  • www.cirinandgile.com

2
LANGUAGES
  • MADE UP OF
  • SYMBOLS
  • RULES FOR THEIR USE
  • THE SYMBOLS CAN BE
  • - SOUNDS
  • GESTURES
  • IMAGES
  • RULES DETERMINE THEIR
  • SUCCESSIVE ORDER
  • SPECIFIC FORM
  • …

3
HUMAN LANGUAGES
  • INFORMAL
  • MIMICKS, BODY LANGUAGE, CLOTHING, SPONTANEOUS
    SOUNDS…
  • FORMAL
  • WRITTEN, ORAL, SIGN LANGUAGES
  • LEXICAL UNITS
  • WORDS, IDIOMS, PROVERBS…
  • RULES
  • GRAMMAR, WORD ORDER, STYLISTIC RULES…
  • NOTE CONTENT WORDS, FUNCTION WORDS

4
HUMAN LANGUAGES AND INTERPRETATION
  • ONE FUNDAMENTAL POINT IN HUMAN LANGUAGES,
  • SIGNS MUST BE INTERPRETED
  • IN OTHER WORDS,
  • THEY MAY MEAN MORE THAN ONE THING
  • UNDERSTANDING IMPLIES TAKING DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT
    THEY MEAN
  • WHY DO SIGNS NEED TO BE INTERPRETED?
  • FIRSTLY, BECAUSE OF PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ?
  • SECONDLY, BECAUSE OF OTHER FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES
    OF HUMAN LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION ?

5
PHYSICAL REASONS FOR THE NEED FOR INTERPRETATION
OF HUMAN LANGUAGES
  • VERBAL STATEMENTS ARE PRODUCED AS SOUNDS OR
    VISUAL SIGNS
  • SOUNDS ARE NOT CONSTANT AND STANDARD
  • IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY SPEECH SEGMENTS ON
    THE SOLE BASIS OF SOUNDS
  • FEATURES OF THE SOUNDS ARE PERCEIVED BY THE EAR
    AND PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN
  • WITH THE HELP OF
  • PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF THE RELEVANT LANGUAGE
  • AND IN PARTICULAR OF WHAT WORDS, SYLLABLES,
    PHONEMES CAN SOUND LIKE
  • AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE CONTEXT
  • DECISIONS ARE MADE TO IDENTIFY GIVEN SOUND
    SEGMENTS AS WORDS AND SENTENCES

6
PHYSICAL REASONS FOR THE NEED FOR INTERPRETATION
OF HUMAN LANGUAGES
  • IN THE CASE OF WRITING, IMAGES ARE NOT CONSTANT
    EITHER, THOUGH THEIR SHAPES VARY FAR LESS, AT
    LEAST WHEN IN FONT
  • IN HANDWRITING, CONSIDERABLE PROCESSING MAY BE
    REQUIRED
  • EVEN TYPEWRITTEN STATEMENTS REQUIRE SOME
    INTERPRETATION
  • AS THE FONTS, SIZES, ANGLES, COLORS VARY
  • BUT THE PROCESSING EFFORT REQUIRED FOR
    INDENTIFICATION OF LINGUISTIC UNITS PRESENTED IN
    TYPEWRITTEN STATEMENTS IS GENERALLY FAR LESS
    INTENSIVE THAN THE EFFORT REQUIRED TO INDENTIFY
    SPOKEN SPEECH

7
THE NUMBER OF WORDS IN LANGUAGES (1)
  • HOW MANY DISTINCT WORDS ARE THERE IN ENGLISH, IN
    FRENCH, IN GERMAN, ETC.?
  • IN GENERAL LANGUAGE, AROUND 100 000 OR LESS
  • HOW MANY OF THESE DO YOU KNOW?
  • PERHAPS 10 000 TO 30 000 IN EACH LANGUAGE
  • DEPENDING ON YOUR EDUCATION
  • HOW MANY WORDS DO YOU USE IN YOUR DAILY LIFE?
  • PROBABLY ONLY A FEW THOUSAND
  • HOW MANY DISTINCT ENTITIES COULD YOU HAVE TO
    REFER TO OR LISTEN TO OTHER PEOPLE REFER TO IN
    DAILY LIFE?
  • (PEOPLE, OBJECTS, ACTIONS, PLACES, FEELINGS,
    SITUATIONS, PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS, ANIMALS,
    PLANTS…)
  • MANY MORE

8
THE NUMBER OF WORDS IN LANGUAGES (2)
  • YOU WILL THEREFORE
  • USE THE SAME WORD FOR MORE THAN ONE ENTITY
  • I WILL ALMOST ALWAYS MEAN YOURSELF (WHEN YOU
    SPEAK)
  • BUT YOU, HE, SHE WILL MEAN THOUSANDS OF
    DIFFERENT PEOPLE THROUGHOUT YOUR LIFE
  • HOUSE MAY MEAN YOUR HOME, BUT ALSO OTHER HOUSES
  • BOOK MAY MEAN MANY DIFFERENT BOOKS, ETC.
  • EVEN COMBINATIONS OF WORDS WILL NOT BE ENOUGH TO
    ALWAYS NAME A SINGLE ENTITY YOUR BOOK, YOUR
    GREEN DRESS
  • EVEN WHEN THEY DO, THEY WILL HAVE TO BE
    INTERPRETED, AS THEY WILL NOT MEAN THE SAME THING
    TO DIFFERENT PEOPLE

9
THE NUMBER OF WORDS IN LANGUAGES (3)
  • THIS IS INEVITABLE
  • BECAUSE OTHERWISE, NAMES WOULD HAVE TO BE
    INVENTED FOR EVERY ENTITY ANYONE DEALS WITH
  • AND EVERYONE WOULD HAVE TO KNOW THIS NAME
  • NOT FEASIBLE
  • OTHER POSSIBILITY USING A COMBINATION OF
    EXISTING LEXICAL UNITS TO NAME NEW ENTITIES
  • THIS IS DONE EVERY DAY
  • THE MEAL WE ATE YESTERDAY MAKES IT POSSIBLE NOT
    TO HAVE A SPECIFIC NAME FOR THAT MEAL
  • BUT EVEN THAT REQUIRES INTERPRETATION

10
THE NUMBER OF WORDS IN LANGUAGES (4)
  • HOWEVER, WHEN DEALING WITH THE SAME ENTITY
    REGULARLY, IT IS MORE EFFICIENT TO FIND A
    SPECIFIC NAME FOR THE ENTITY, OR AT LEAST FOR A
    SPECIFIC CATEGORY OF WHICH IT IS PART
  • UNIVERSITY DEGREE, LAPTOP COMPUTERS,
    APPLICATION SOFTWARE
  • THE BEST BALANCE IN TERMS OF COMMUNICATION
    EFFICIENCY
  • A RELATIVELY LIMITED NUMBER OF NAMES FOR
    ENTITIES REFERRED TO BY LANGUAGE
  • THE MEANING OF UTTERANCES IS DETERMINED BY
  • THE NAMES, THEIR VERBAL CONTEXT AND THE
    SITUATIONAL CONTEXT

11
COMMUNICATION LAWS (1)
  • VERBAL COMMUNICATION ENTAILS EFFORT INVESTMENT IN
    ORDER TO INTERPRET THE MEANING OF AN UTTERANCE
  • PRINCIPLE OF RELEVANCE
  • MINIMUM COGNITIVE EFFORT FOR MAXIMUM
    COMMUNICATIONAL GAIN
  • THE COGNITIVE EFFORT REQUIRED
  • DEPENDS ON THE RECEIVERS PREVIOUS RELEVANT
    KNOWLEDGE
  • AND ON WHAT THE WORDS ACTUALLY MAKE EXPLICIT

12
COMMUNICATION LAWS (2)
  • UNDERSTANDING ? ANALYSIS (WORDS CONTEXT)
  • REQUIREMENTS
  • KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE
  • EXTRALINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE
  • THE MORE IN THE CONTEXT,
  • THE LESS EXPLICIT THE STATEMENT NEEDS TO BE
  • THE MORE EXPLICIT THE STATEMENT, THE LESS
    KNOWLEDGE OF THE CONTEXT AND SITUATION IS
    REQUIRED
  • DEPENDING ON THE MESSAGE, THERE ARE MINIMUM
    REQUIREMENTS IN TERMS OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE
    LANGUAGE, AND OF THE CONTEXT

13
EXPLICITNESS AND INFORMATION
  • IN CONVERSATION BETWEEN A PROSPECTIVE BUYER AND A
    CAR SALESPERSON WELL?
  • COULD MEAN HAVE YOU MADE UP YOUR MIND?
  • OUT OF CONTEXT, COULD MEAN MANY THINGS
  • HOW IS YOUR HEALTH?
  • DID YOU LIKE THE FILM?
  • …..
  • IN SOME CASES, AUTHORS OF TEXTS DO NOT WANT TOO
    MUCH UNCERTAINTY IN THE INTERPRETATION OF
    STATEMENTS
  • AND ADD WORDS EVEN IF THESE ARE NOT NECESSARY FOR
    INITIAL UNDERSTANDING
  • CONTRACTS

14
THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE (1)
  • INITIALLY, PERHAPS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND BODY
    LANGUAGE
  • THEN GRUNTS AND OTHER SOUNDS
  • FIRST WORDS WERE PERHAPS NAMES
  • THEN MORE WORDS FOR PERSONS, ANIMALS, PLANTS AND
    OTHER CONCRETE OBJECTS
  • THEN SOME SORT OF GRAMMAR,
  • MORE ABSTRACT WORDS,
  • STYLISTIC RULES
  • WRITING SYSTEMS…

15
THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE (2)
  • LANGUAGES DEVELOP IN PARALLEL WITHIN HUMAN
    COMMUNITIES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD
  • SO DIFFERENT WORDS, DIFFERENT GRAMMAR
  • EVENTUALLY DIFFERENT WRITING SYSTEMS
  • HOWEVER, THERE IS ALSO MUCH INTERACTION
  • WITH IMPORTS OF LANGUAGE ELEMENTS FROM GROUP TO
    GROUP
  • EVEN WHEN INTERACTION, GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF
    LOCAL LANGUAGES
  • FROM LATIN FRENCH, ITALIAN, SPANISH….
  • FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REASONS
  • LAW OF LEAST EFFORT
  • SOCIOLINGUISTIC REASONS

16
THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE (3)
  • IN ANY HUMAN COMMUNITY, LANGUAGE IS ALIVE AND
    EVOLVES
  • IN PARTICULAR
  • NEW WORDS ARE CREATED
  • AS HUMAN GROUPS START DEALING REGULARLY WITH NEW
    ENTITIES AND NEED OR WANT TO NAME THEM
  • (NEED OR CONVENIENCE,
  • EMOTIONAL OR SOCIAL REASONS
  • HAVING TO DO WITH GROUP IDENTITY,
  • SOMETIMES WITH INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY)
  • ESPECIALLY CONSPICUOUS TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTS,
    PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES, SPORTS CATEGORIES

17
FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGES
  • LANGUAGE HAS SOCIAL FUNCTIONS, WHICH HAVE TO DO
    WITH COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BEINGS
  • WE WILL FOCUS ON THESE SOCIAL FUNCTIONS WHEN
    CONSIDERING LSPS
  • LANGUAGE HAS OTHER FUNCTIONS AS WELL
  • MAINTAIN RECORDS
  • HELP CONCEPTUALIZE THE WORLD
  • …

18
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGES
  • THE BASIC SOCIAL FUNCTION OF HUMAN LANGUAGES IS
    COMMUNICATION
  • (EXCHANGING INFORMATION, EXPRESSING FEELINGS,
    INDUCING FEELINGS, MAKING PEOPLE DO SOMETHING)
  • ANOTHER IMPORTANT SOCIAL FUNCTION OF LANGUAGES IS
    TO HELP CREATE/MAINTAIN/STRENGTHEN SOCIAL
    COHESION IN GROUPS
  • SPEAKING CERTAIN LANGUAGES OR VARIETIES OF
    LANGUAGE MAKES ONE BELONG TO A GROUP/MARKS ONE AS
    BELONGING TO THE GROUP
  • THIS IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE LIFE OF
    LANGUAGES AND GROUPS
  • (DIALECTS, REGIONAL LANGUAGES, SLANG…)

19
LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATIONS
  • NATIONAL LANGUAGES
  • (ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH, CHINESE…)
  • MANY OF THEM ARE NOT REALLY NATIONAL BUT
    SUPRA-NATIONAL
  • WE WILL CALL THEM NATIONAL NEVERTHELESS FOR
    CONVENIENCE
  • LANGUAGES OF ETHNIC GROUPS
  • (WITHIN A MULTI-ETHNIC COUNTRY)
  • BASQUE IN FRANCE AND SPAIN, YORUBA IN NIGERIA,
    ETC.
  • DIALECTS COMMON ROOTS WITH A NATIONAL LANGUAGE,
    BUT NOT THE SAME
  • CLASSIFICATION AS LANGUAGE OR DIALECT SOMETIMES
    PROBLEMATIC

20
LANGUAGES AS SOCIOLECTS
  • ALL THESE LANGUAGES ARE SOCIOLECTS,
  • I.E. LANGUAGES DEFINED BY THE SOCIAL GROUP IN
    WHICH THEY ARE SPOKEN
  • (NATIONAL/SUPRANATIONAL, REGIONAL, ETHNIC)
  • LSPS ARE ALSO SOCIOLECTS
  • DEFINED AS LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY GROUPS OF PEOPLE
    WHO SPECIALIZE IN SOME ACTIVITY
  • WHICH OTHER PEOPLE DO NOT KNOW (WELL)
  • THEY ARE FORMED WITHIN NATIONAL LANGUAGES
  • THOUGH SOMETIMES WITH ELEMENTS FROM OTHER
    LANGUAGES
  • AGE GROUP-SPECIFIC, REGION-SPECIFIC, ETHNIC
    GROUP-SPECIFIC, FAMILY-SPECIFIC SOCIOLECTS ARE
    NOT LSPS

21
THE RANGE OF LSPS
  • LSPS CAN BE SCIENTIFIC OR TECHNICAL
  • BUT ALSO RELATE TO SPORTS
  • TO ARTS
  • TO HOBBIES
  • TO GAMES CHILDREN PLAY
  • ANY LANGUAGE WHICH IS CREATED AROUND AN ACTIVITY
    WHICH THE PUBLIC AT LARGE DOES NOT SHARE

22
LSPS SPECIALIZED TERMS
  • AS ANY OTHER LANGUAGE
  • SIGNS
  • RULES WHICH DETERMINE THEIR USE
  • HERE, WE WILL BE INTERESTED IN VERBAL SIGNS
  • (AS OPPOSED TO GESTURES, NON-VERBAL SIGNS, ETC.)
  • THOUGH NON-VERBAL SIGNS ARE ALSO PART OF SOME
    LSPS
  • THE BASIC SIGN OF LSPS IS THE SPECIALIZED TERM
  • ALSO CALLED TECHNICAL TERM
  • CONCEPTUALLY, IT CAN BE DEFINED AS A TERM USED
    ESSENTIALLY BY MEMBERS OF THE SPECIALIZED GROUP
  • OPERATIONALLY, IT IS SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO
    IDENTIFY
  • SOMETIMES, IT LOOKS LIKE A NON-SPECIALIZED TERM
    USED IN EVERYDAY LANGUAGE BUT IT IS DIFFERENT
    BECAUSE IT HAS A SPECIAL MEANING

23
LSP GRAMMAR AND STYLE
  • THE GRAMMAR OF AN LSP IS BASICALLY THAT OF THE
    NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF WHICH IT IS PART
  • SOMETIMES IT HAS A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT GRAMMAR
  • OFTEN IN THE USE OF VERBS
  • SOMETIMES IN THE USE OF PLURALS WHICH DO NOT
    EXIST IN GENERAL LANGUAGE (LG)
  • - FOR REASONS OF COMMUNICATIONAL EFFICIENCY
  • (REPETITION, SPELLING OUT OF NAMES FOR LETTERS IN
    MILITARY LSPS)
  • - BECAUSE OF THE INFLUENCE OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
  • ARCHAIC LANGUAGE (LEGAL LSPS)
  • - TO ADAPT TO A PARTICULAR SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • (MILITARY, POLICE…)

24
LSP MORPHOLOGY OF TEXTS
  • LSPS ARE SPECIFIC NOT ONLY AT THE LEVEL OF SMALL
    UNITS SUCH AS WORDS AND SENTENCE STRUCTURES
  • THEY ALSO HAVE PARTICULAR IDIONSYNCRACIES AT THE
    LEVEL OF TEXTS/SPEECHES
  • (TEXTS FOR CONVENIENCE)
  • IN THE FORM OF PARTICULAR TEXT STRUCTURES
  • (CONSPICUOUS IN LEGAL TEXTS, BUT WILL ALSO BE
    STUDIED LATER IN SCIENTIFIC TEXTS)

25
LSP AND GENERAL LANGUAGE
  • AS MENTIONED PREVIOUSLY, ON THE WHOLE, LSPS
    SHARE THEIR NATIONAL LANGUAGES GRAMMAR AND MANY
    FUNCTION WORDS
  • BUT BOUNDARIES BETWEEN LSPS AND GL ARE NOT
    ALWAYS EASY TO IDENTIFY
  • JUST AS BOUNDARIES BETWEEN AN EXPERT ACTIVITY AND
    AN ACTIVITY AVAILABLE TO ALL MAY BE DIFFICULT TO
    DEFINE
  • SOME SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONCEPTS MAKE
    THEIR WAY TO SOCIETY AT LARGE AND THUS MIGRATE
    FROM LSPS TO GL
  • (MODEM, HIV, H5N1, DROIT OPPOSABLE IN FRENCH….)
  • SO PARTS OF LSP MIGRATE INTO GL, BUT
  • WHEN A WORD FROM GL MIGRATES INTO LSP,
  • IT IS NO LONGER GL BECAUSE IT TAKES ON A
    SPECIFIC MEANING

26
THE INTERNAL EVOLUTION OF LSPS (1)
  • LIKE GL, LSPS EVOLVE
  • THEY ACQUIRE NEW TERMS WHEN NEW ENTITIES ARE
    BEING HANDLED WITHIN THE SPECIALISTS GROUPS
  • OFTEN, EVEN BEFORE THESE ENTITIES ARE NAMED IN
    EVERYDAY EXCHANGES
  • IN PARTICULAR, NEW PRODUCTS, NEW METHODS, NEW
    CONCEPTS ETC.
  • THIS IS SIMILAR TO WHAT HAPPENS IN GL, BUT
    RESTRICTED TO THE SPECIALISTS GROUP
  • SOMETIMES, TO A SUB-COMMUNITY WITHIN THE
    SPECIALIST GROUP
  • (A PARTICULAR COMPANY, MINISTRY, SPORTS CLUB ETC)

27
THE INTERNAL EVOLUTION OF LSPS (2)
  • THE MEANING AND/OR USAGE OF TERMS CHANGE
  • PORTABLE IN FRENCH
  • THEY INTERACT WITH OTHER NATIONAL (LSP) LANGUAGES
  • ENGLISH IN THE LSP OF DATA PROCESSING IN MANY
    COUNTRIES
  • THEY INTERACT WITH GL WHICH ALSO CHANGE
  • NEW TERMS MAY BE CREATED FOR THE SAME ENTITIES IN
    DIFFERENT GROUPS
  • THE IDEA THAT IN LSPS, THERE IS ONLY ONE TERM
    FOR EACH CONCEPT AND THAT EACH TERM HAS A SINGLE
    REFERENT IS WRONG
  • IN FACT, THERE IS MORE FREEDOM IN LSPS THAN IN
    GL
  • BECAUSE LSPS ARE LESS UNDER THE CONTROL OF
    NATIONAL ACADEMIES AND OTHER NORMATIVE BODIES

28
THE SIZE OF THE LEXICON OF LSPS
  • IT IS DIFFICULT TO SAY WHAT THE SIZE OF AN LSP
    LEXICON IS
  • IF ONLY BECAUSE THERE ARE LSPS WITHIN LSPS
  • AS THEY ARE SPECIALITIES WITHIN SPECIALITIES
  • LSP OF MEDICINE
  • LSP OF CARDIOLOGY
  • LSP OF RYTHMOLOGY
  • THE SMALLEST LSP LEXICON COULD BE OF LESS THAN 10
    TERMS (?)
  • THE LARGEST COULD BE OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF
    TERMS
  • (MEDICINE?)

29
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (1) EXAMPLES FROM CIVIL
ENGINEERING
  • DERRICKING
  • DEWATERING
  • DEVIL
  • DIAMOND SAW
  • FUSION WELDING
  • DIFFERENTIAL PULLEY BLOCK
  • HIGH-STRENGTH FRICTION-GRIP BOLTS
  • HOYER METHOD OF PRESTRESSING
  • REYNOLDS NUMBER, REYNOLDS CRITERION
  • HOWE TRUSS
  • HUMBER BRIDGE
  • IMPERFECT FRAME
  • REVETMENT

30
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (2) EXAMPLES FROM
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  • BACK-UP
  • MOUSE LSP OR GL?
  • MENU LSP OR GL?
  • NETWORK - LSP OR GL?
  • USB PORT - LSP OR GL?
  • MODEM LSP OR GL?
  • CRM
  • FTP
  • CLIENT-SERVER ARCHITECTURE
  • CODE (IN SOFTWARE)
  • ROUTINE
  • HTTPS

31
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (3) EXAMPLES FROM
MEDICINE
  • POLYARTHRITIS
  • SCHATZKIS RING
  • OCULOGYRIC CRISIS
  • ACHALASIA
  • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
  • ABERRANT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
  • HEARTBURN
  • BRUSH CYTOLOGY
  • DILATING INSTRUMENT
  • ZENKERS DIVERTICULUM, PHARYNGEAL DIVERTICULUM
  • GASTROESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION
  • LEIOMYOSARCOMA
  • ESOPHAGEAL LUMEN

32
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (4) EXAMPLES FROM LAW
  • ADMISSION OF LIABILITY
  • AMIABLE SETTLEMENT, OUT-OF-COURT SETTLEMENT
  • ARBITRATION CLAUSE
  • RECOVERY
  • CIVIL LIABILITY
  • FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT
  • LEX FORI
  • PARTY
  • PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
  • STAY OF EXECUTION
  • DISPUTE
  • POINT OF LAW, POINT OF FACT
  • BRIEF

33
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (5) EXAMPLES FROM
FINANCES
  • SHARE BUYBACK
  • SHARE CAPITAL
  • CAGR
  • CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENT
  • CASH POSITION
  • CURRENT ASSETS
  • IBT INCOME BEFORE TAX
  • IFO INCOME FROM OPERATIONS
  • INTERIM DIVIDEND
  • NON-CURRENT ASSETS
  • OPERATING MARGIN
  • PRE-TAX MARGIN
  • REPEAT RATE

34
HOW LSP TERMS ARE CREATED (6) PROCEDURES
  • NAMES OF PEOPLE/PLACES
  • DETERMINANTS ADDED TO EXISTING TERMS
  • - SHORTENING OF EXISTING TERMS
  • (SHORTENING OF WORDS, DELETION OF ELEMENTS IN
    COMPOUND TERMS, ACRONYMS)
  • TRANSLATION OF EXISTING FOREIGN TERMS
  • - ADAPTATION OF EXISTING FOREIGN TERMS
  • (GRAPHIC, PRONOUNCIATION, GRAMMAR)
  • ONOMATOPEAS
  • ADOPTION OF WORDS FROM GL/ANOTHER LSP WITH
    SPECIALIZED MEANING
  • CREATION OF NEW WORDS WITH EXISTING MORPHEMES
    (GREEK/LATIN, CHINESE CHARACTERS)
  • …..

35
WHO CREATES LSP TERMS?
  • MOSTLY PRIVATE CREATION OF NEW TERMS
  • (JUST AS IN EVERYDAY LANGUAGE)
  • INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS (IN SCIENCE)
  • COMPANIES OR DEPARTMENTS IN COMPANIES TO NAME NEW
    FAMILIES OF PRODUCTS OR FOR MARKETING PURPOSES
  • ANONYMOUSLY, WITHIN A GROUP, WITHOUT IT BEING
    POSSIBLE TO KNOW WHO INVENTED THE TERM
  • SOMETIMES, OFFICIAL OR SEMI-OFFICIAL BODIES
  • (CORPORATE CONSORTIA, PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENTAL
    BODIES SET UP FOR TERMINOLOGICAL
    ACTION/COORDINATION…)

36
HOW LSP TERMS ARE ADOPTED (1)
  • SOMETIMES BY OFFICIAL DECISIONS
  • SOMETIMES BY USAGE, BECAUSE PEOPLE LIKE THEM AND
    FIND THEM CONVENIENT
  • IN ALL CASES, USAGE, NOT OFFICIAL DECISIONS IS
    THE MAIN DETERMINANT OF ACCEPTANCE
  • LAW OF LEAST EFFORT
  • LENGTH
  • EASE OF PRONUNCIATION
  • FEQUENCY OF ENCOUNTERS IN TEXTS OR SPEECH
  • (IN MANY FIELDS, ENGLISH INSTEAD OF LOCAL TERMS)
  • SOCIAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRACTIVENESS
  • (INCLUDING SOCIOLINGUISTIC COHESION FACTOR)

37
HOW LSP TERMS ARE ADOPTED (2)
  • OFFICIAL BODIES CAN ONLY PROPOSE OR RECOMMEND.
    USERS WILL
  • - ACCEPT
  • - ACCEPT AND MODIFY
  • (SHORTEN, ADAPT PRONUNCIATION…)
  • - REJECT
  • SOMETIMES OFFICIAL TERMS DO NOT HAVE A CHANCE
  • THIS IS ONE REASON WHY THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE
    TERM PER ENTITY TO BE NAMED
  • (GROUPS PREFERENCES NOT THE SAME)
  • - FROM THE START
  • - OR OVER TIME, WHEN GROUP SHAPES THE TERM

38
SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS 1. LSPs ARE
SOCIOLECTS 2. THEY ARE LANGUAGES LIKE OTHER
LANGUAGES IN THEIR NATURE, AS THEY ARE MADE UP OF
DISCRETE SIGNS AND RULES FOR THEIR USE 3. THEY
OVERLAP TO A LARGE EXTENT WITH GL, THE MAIN
DIFFERENCE BEING THEIR LEXICON. 4. THEY FOLLOW
THE SAME EVOLUTIONARY LAWS THAT OTHER LANGUAGES
FOLLOW AND ARE SUBJECT TO THE LAW OF LEAST EFFORT
AND TO SOCIOLINGUISTIC LAWS 5. THEY OFTEN
INTERACT MORE ACTIVELY WITH OTHER NATIONAL
LANGUAGES THAN GL AND MAY EVOLVE WITH MORE
FREEDOM THAN WRITTEN GL
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