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Middle and Southern Colonies

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The city had an excellent harbor; roads were well designed and easy to travel. ... Pitch came from pine sap, and was used to seal and waterproof ships. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle and Southern Colonies


1
Chapter 6
  • Middle and Southern Colonies

2
Lesson 1 The Middle Colonies
  • Proprietor
  • Representative
  • Treaty

3
Read p. 188-189
  • How did the Duke of York become proprietor of New
    Netherland?
  • He received the colony form his brother, the King
    of England?
  • How did the Middle Colonies proprietors hope to
    make money?
  • By selling and renting the land to farmers
  • Why did Penn call his colony a holy experiment?
  • He wanted to start a colony where all Christians
    could live together peacefully.

4
Background
  • Quakers faced great persecution in England.
    Between 1661 and 1685, at least 15,000 of them
    were imprisoned there.
  • William Penn used his connections to the king and
    other government officials to fight laws that
    persecuted Quakers in England.

5
Read p. 190-191
  • In what way did Penn contribute to
    self-government?
  • He gave the Pennsylvania Assembly the power to
    approve or reject laws.
  • In what ways did geography contribute to the
    growth of Philadelphia as a center of trade?
  • The city had an excellent harbor roads were well
    designed and easy to travel.
  • What was Poor Richards Almanac?
  • A popular book by Benjamin Franklin containing
    stories, jokes, and sayings.

6
Colonial New York City
  • Settlers of New York City included the Dutch, the
    English, free Africans, the French, and Jews from
    many European countries. The Dutch influence
    could be seen in the architecture and windmills
    found in New York.

7
Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania became a trading center as well as a
    refuge for people seeking religious freedom. The
    proprietor of Pennsylvania, William Penn, had
    plans for his colony. He planned the government
    and the settlements. People came to Pennsylvania
    from the other middle colonies and from Europe.

8
Review of Objectives
  • Britain captured New Netherland and renamed part
    of it New York the rest became New Jersey.
    Because their proprietors lived far away, the
    colonies were ruled by governors and small
    councils an elected assembly of colonists
    advised them but had little power.

9
  • Penn founded Pennsylvania as a place where people
    of all religions could voice opinions and worship
    freely. He planned Philadelphia and worked for
    peace with local American Indians. Franklin was
    a publisher, scientist, and inventor.

10
New York and New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Purpose make money
Purpose religious freedom
Colonists not much political power
Colonists more political power
11
Benjamin Franklin Inventor
  • Few people have had as strong an effect on the
    development of our nation as Ben Franklin,
    statesman, public servant, scientist, inventor,
    and printer. Typically, Franklins inventions
    sprang from necessity, improving the quality of
    life for him and for others. Many of them are
    still used today.

12
Invention
Improved Technology
Tabletop Chair
Combines chair and desk, for Comfort in writing
activities
Measures the distance a Vehicle travels
Odometer
Lightning Rod
lightning on a rooftop Carries the electricity,
through a Wire, into the ground
Lets people see up close and Far away while using
one Pair of glasses
Bifocals
Spreads fireplace heat more evenly
Pennsylvania Fireplace
13
Lesson 2 Life in the Middle Colonies
  • Free market economy
  • Free enterprise
  • Laborer
  • apprentice

14
Read p. 196-197
  • About how many Presbyterian churches were there
    in the Middle Colonies?
  • 160
  • What made the Middle Colonies a good place for
    farming?
  • Warm climate and fertile soil
  • What did children do to help on farms?
  • Cared for animals and the garden

15
Read p. 198-199
  • What could colonists do under the free enterprise
    system?
  • Colonists were free to make their own business
    decisions.
  • What did young people do as apprentices?
  • Apprentices learned important work skills while
    they lived and worked with a master of a trade
    for four to seven years.

16
Country
City
People lived and Worked on farms
People were involved In shipping and trade
Children cared for Animals and gardens
Children often became apprentices
17
Colonial Apprentices
  • In the Middle Colonies, people who lived in
    cities and towns made their living as merchants,
    shopkeepers, and artisans. Young people became
    apprentices and studied with a master tradesman
    to learn skills they would need in business as
    adults.

18
Lesson 3-The Southern Colonies
  • Plantation
  • Legislature
  • Refuge
  • Debtor

19
Read p. 202-203
  • Why did many plantations exist in Virginia?
  • Virginia had rich soil suitable for growing crops
    like tobacco and rice
  • Who could be elected to the House of Burgesses?
  • Planters and other white men who owned property
  • What was Cecilius Calverts purpose in founding
    Maryland?
  • To provide a refuge for Catholics

20
Read p. 204-205
  • Which American Indian groups lived in the area of
    the Southern Colonies?
  • Powhatan, Tuscarora, Catawba, Cherokee, Waccamaw,
    and Guale
  • In what ways did James Oglethorpe help poor
    people?
  • He gave them free passage to Georgia and small
    farms
  • What were some of the first rules Oglethorpe made
    for the colony?
  • They could not drink alcohol, own slaves, or
    elect their own legislature

21
Virginia
  • Some colonists in Virginia began growing tobacco
    as a cash crop. To do the work required to grow
    the crops, plantation owners relied on enslaved
    Africans. At this time the Virginia assembly
    made it legal to enslave Africans. This was the
    first such assembly of lawmakers in the English
    colonies.

22
Georgia
  • James Oglethorpe and a group of settlers
    established a settlement in Georgia. Oglethorpe
    encouraged settlers to bring debtors to the new
    colony where they could better themselves through
    hard work. Eventually plantations were developed
    in Georgia.

23
Anns Story 1747
  • Beliefs in a society change over time, along with
    the society itself. In this selection, Ann
    expresses a desire to learn about mathematics,
    classical languages, and medicine. In the
    eighteenth century, these were not considered
    appropriate or necessary subjects for a girl.
    Today, most Americans consider these appropriate
    topics for anyone to study.

24
Lesson 4-Life in the South
  • Indigo
  • Overseer
  • Spiritual

25
Read p. 210-211
  • Where did pitch come from and what was it used
    for?
  • Pitch came from pine sap, and was used to seal
    and waterproof ships.
  • What were the main cash crops of South Carolina
    and Georgia?
  • Rice and Indigo
  • What was Eliza Lucas Pinckneys contribution to
    South Carolinas economy?
  • She developed a type of indigo that was much
    easier to grow
  • Name some places of origin of the people who
    lived in Chares Town?
  • England, Scotland, Ireland, France, West Indies,
    Africa

26
Read p. 212-213
  • How was a plantation like a village?
  • It might contain horses, workshops, horse
    stables, garden, and fields. Many people lived
    and worked on plantations.
  • What did many indentured servants do after they
    worked a certain number of years to pay for
    their passage to America?
  • They worked for pay or bought their own farms.

27
Read p. 214-215
  • Why did many enslaved Africans die at an early
    age?
  • They had to work extremely hard and had poor
    food, clothing, and shelter.
  • In what ways did enslaved Africans create a new
    culture?
  • They blended African and American customs,
    religions, and music to form a unique culture.

28
Enslaved Africans in America developed their own
culture.
Strong Community Ties
Importance Of Religion
Blended Customs, Language, And Music
29
A Southern Plantation
  • The most successful colonists were the
    independent planters who were able to grow the
    most cash crops. An interdependence developed
    between British brokers and colonial planters as
    the tobacco, rice, and indigo business grew.

30
Servants and Slaves
  • Although indentured servants and slaves supplied
    all the physical labor on large plantations,
    there were differences in how they came to be
    there and how they were treated.

31
Plantation Duties
  • The people who owned and worked the plantations
    lived far away from other plantation families and
    from towns. Although slaves did most of the
    work, planters and their family members had much
    to do. Planters hired teachers to live on the
    plantation. Slaves, however, were not taught to
    read and write.

32
Slaverys Past
  • At archeological digs in Virginia, archeologists
    have made many important discoveries about how
    enslaved people lived. Recovery of small,
    everyday items has offered clues to the customs,
    beliefs, arts, and activities of enslaved people
    in the Southern Colonies.
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