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LATG: A Review of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

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Purpose: assist institutions in caring for and using animals ... Mouse, Rat, Hamster, Gerbil, Guinea Pig: 64-790 F. Rabbit: 61-720 F. Cat, Dog, NHP: 64-840 F ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LATG: A Review of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals


1
LATGA Review ofThe Guide for the Care and Use
of Laboratory Animals
  • Created by
  • Marc S. Hulin, DVM, Dipl. ACLAM

2
History of The Guide
  • First published in 1963 6th revision
  • Current revision was written by ILAR
  • Purpose assist institutions in caring for and
    using animals in ways judged to be
    scientifically, technically, and humanely
    appropriate
  • 6th edition was supported by NIH, USDA, and Dept.
    VA

3
Introduction
  • Laboratory Animal any vertebrate animal used in
    research, teaching or testing
  • Guide endorses 9 US Government principles, AWA,
    PHS policy, other federal and state laws

4
Evaluation Criteria
  • Performance standards preferred over Engineering
    standards
  • performance define an outcome in detail and
    provide criteria for assessing the outcome, but
    dont limit methods to achieve outcome
  • Must considered imperative
  • Should strong recommendation

5
I. Institutional Policies and Responsibilities
  • IACUC membership
  • DVM with lab animal experience
  • 1 practicing scientist with research experience
    with animals
  • 1 public member (non-affiliated)
  • Physical restraint
  • use of manual or mechanical means to limit
    animals movement for examination, collection of
    samples, or drug administration

6
Physical Restraint
  • Prolonged restraint should be avoided unless it
    is essential for research objectives and approved
    by IACUC
  • Guidelines
  • not to be considered normal methods of housing
  • restraint period should be minimum time
  • animal should be trained
  • regular observations
  • veterinary care provided if lesions or illness

7
Multiple Major Surgical Procedures
  • Major surgery
  • penetrates and exposes a body cavity or produces
    substantial impairment of physical or physiologic
    function
  • Multiple major surgeries on a single animal are
    discouraged unless
  • scientifically justified
  • approved by the IACUC
  • related components of a research project
  • conserve scare animal resources

8
Food or Fluid Restriction
  • If experimental protocols require restriction at
    least minimal quantities of food and fluid should
    be available
  • Restriction for research purposes should be
    scientifically justified
  • Highly preferred food or fluid as positive
    reinforcement, instead of restriction, is
    recommended

9
Veterinary Care
  • Adequate veterinary care must be provided,
    including access to all animals for evaluation of
    their health and well-being
  • Veterinarian must provide investigators with
    advice on use of sedatives, analgesics, or
    anesthetics in animals

10
Personnel Qualification Training
  • Personnel caring for animals should be
    appropriately trained and the institution should
    provide for formal or on-the-job training to
    facilitate effective implementation of the
    program and humane care and use of animals
  • Occupational Health and Safety program must be
    part of the overall animal care and use program

11
Preventative Medicine for Personnel
  • Development and Implementation of a program for
    medical evaluation should involve input from
    trained health professionals
  • Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus)
  • personnel who work with Macaques should have
    access to and be instructed in the use of bite
    and scratch emergency kits

12
Animal Environment, Housing, Management
  • Proper housing and management
  • Animal well-being
  • Quality of research data
  • Health and safety of personnel
  • Animals should be housed with goal of maximizing
    species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress
    induced behavior

13
Micro vs. Macroenvironment
  • Microenvironment
  • physical environment immediately surrounding it,
    i.e. primary enclosure, food, wire bar lid,
    sipper tube.
  • Macroenvironment
  • the physical environment of the secondary
    enclosure, such as a room, barn, or an outdoor
    habitat
  • Linked by ventilation between primary and
    secondary enclosure

14
Primary Enclosures
  • Should be constructed with materials that balance
    the needs of the animal with the ability to
    provide sanitation
  • Solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is recommended
    for rodents

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16
Space Recommendations
  • Based on professional judgment and experience
  • Thigmotactic rodent species benefit more from
    wall space (stay along the walls in cages)
  • Animal must have enough space to turn around and
    express normal postural adjustments
  • Social animals should be housed in pairs or groups

17
Space Recommendations
  • Cage height
  • Mice 5 inches
  • Rats 7 inches
  • Hamsters 6 inches
  • Guinea pigs 7 inches
  • Rabbits 14 inches
  • Cats 24 inches

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20
Space Recommendations
  • Floor space
  • Dogs
  • lt15 kg 8.o sq. ft.
  • 15-30 kg 12.0 sq. ft.
  • gt 30 kg 24.0 sq. ft.
  • Monkeys
  • Groups 1-7 (including baboons)
  • Apes (Pongidae) Groups 1-3
  • Brachiating species cage height should be when
    fully extended, swing from cage ceiling without
    feet touching the floor

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23
Temperature and Humidity
  • Regulation of body temperature within normal
    variation is necessary for the well-being of lab
    animals
  • Relative humidity should be controlled to the
    acceptable range of 30-70

24
Dry Bulb Temperatures
  • Mouse, Rat, Hamster, Gerbil, Guinea Pig
  • 64-790 F
  • Rabbit
  • 61-720 F
  • Cat, Dog, NHP
  • 64-840 F
  • Farm animals Poultry
  • 61-810 F

25
Ventilation
  • Supply adequate oxygen remove thermal loads
    caused by animals and equipment
  • Use of computer modeling for designing facility
    ventilation (computational fluid dynamics)
  • 10-15 fresh-air changes per hours for secondary
    enclosures is general standard
  • Recycled vs. Non-recycled air

26
Illumination
  • Light can affect the physiology, morphology, and
    behavior of various animals
  • Lighting should provide sufficient illumination
  • for well-being of the animals
  • allow good housekeeping practices
  • Time-controlled lighting system should be used to
    ensure a regular diurnal cycle

27
Illumination
  • Light levels of 325 lux (30 ft-candles) about
    1.0m above the floor appear to be sufficient for
    animal care and do not cause signs of phototoxic
    retinopathy in albino rats
  • Light at cage level for animal susceptible to
    phototoxic retinopathy should be between 130-325
    lux

28
Noise
  • Noisy animals (dogs, swine, etc.) should be
    housed away from quieter animals, such as
    rodents, rabbits, and cats
  • Noise gt85 dB can have both auditory and
    non-auditory effects
  • eosinopenia
  • increased adrenal weights in rodents
  • reduced fertility in rodents
  • increased blood pressure in NHP

29
Behavioral Management
  • Structural Environment
  • primary enclosure- cage complexities, cage
    furniture, manipulanda
  • Social Environment
  • physical contact and communication with
    conspecifics (members of same species)
  • Activity
  • animals should have opportunities to exhibit
    species-typical activity patterns

30
Husbandry
  • Food
  • unused, opened bags of food should be stored in
    vermin-proof containers
  • exposures to temp. gt 700 F and humidity extremes
    hastens deterioration
  • dry lab animal diets stored for 6 months after
    manufacture
  • Vitamin C diets- 3 months shelf-life
  • Stabilized forms of Vitamin C extend shelf life

31
Bedding
  • Untreated softwood shavings and chips are
    contraindicated may affect animals metabolism
  • Cedar shavings are not recommended, because
    microsomal enzymes and cytotoxicity
  • Soiled bedding should be removed and replaced
    with fresh materials as often as is necessary to
    keep the animals clean and dry

32
Cleaning and Disinfection of Primary Enclosures
  • If animal waste is to be removed by flushing-at
    least once daily (animals kept dry during
    flushing)
  • enclosures and accessories (tops) should be
    sanitized at least once every 2 weeks
  • Solid-bottom caging, bottles, and sipper tubes
    usually require sanitization at least once a week

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34
Cleaning and Disinfection of Primary Enclosures
  • Effective disinfection can be achieved with wash
    rinse water at 143-1800 F
  • Traditional 1800 F for rinse water refers to the
    water in the tank or sprayer manifold
  • A regularly scheduled and documented pest control
    and monitoring should be implemented

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36
Emergency, Weekend, and Holiday Care
  • Animals should be cared for by qualified
    personnel every day, including weekends and
    holidays
  • Emergency veterinary care should be available
    after work hrs., weekends, and holidays
  • A disaster plan that takes into account both
    personnel and animals should be prepared as part
    of the overall safety plan for the animal facility

37
Identification and Records
  • Toe-clipping, for identification of small
    rodents
  • only when no other method is feasible
  • performed only on altricial rodents
  • Clinical records for individual animals
  • valuable for dogs, cats, NHP
  • contain pertinent clinical and diagnostic info.
  • dates of vaccinations, surgery, experimental use

38
Veterinary Medical Care
  • Adequate veterinary care consists of effective
    programs for
  • Preventative Medicine
  • Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and control
    of disease including Zoonosis
  • Management of protocol associated disease
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia
  • Surgery and Postsurgical care
  • Assessment of Animal Well-Being
  • Euthanasia

39
Veterinary Medical Care
  • A veterinary care program is the responsibility
    of the attending veterinarian, who is certified
    or has training or experience in lab animal
    science and medicine
  • The veterinarian must provide guidance to
    investigators and all personnel involved in the
    care and use of animals

40
Animal Procurement Transportation
  • All animals must be acquired lawfully
  • Dogs and cats from Class B dealers should be
    carefully inspected for special identification
    markers
  • Importation of NHP is regulated by PHS with
    specific guidelines for Tuberculin testing

41
Quarantine, Stabilization, and Separation
  • Effective quarantine program minimizes the chance
    for introduction pathogens into an established
    colony
  • Veterinary Medical staff should have procedures
    for evaluating the health and pathogen status of
    newly received animals

42
Quarantine, Stabilization, and Separation
  • Effective quarantine program for NHP
  • limit exposure of humans to zoonotic infections
  • filoviral and mycobacterial infections in NHP
    have necessitated specific handling guidelines
    (CDC)
  • Newly received animals should be given a period
    for physiologic, psychologic, and nutritional
    stabilization before their use.

43
Quarantine, Stabilization, and Separation
  • Physical separation of animals by species is
    recommended to prevent interspecies disease
    transmission and conflict
  • separate rooms
  • cubicles
  • laminar-flow units
  • cages that have filtered air or separate
    ventilation
  • isolators

44
Quarantine, Stabilization, and Separation
  • Examples of need for separate housing by species
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits- severe
    disease in guinea pigs
  • Simian Hemorrhagic Fever and SIV separate New
    World, Old World African, and Old World Asian
  • Squirrel monkey latently infected with
    Herpesvirus tamarinus which is fatal to Owl
    Monkeys

45
Surveillance, Diagnosis, Etc.
  • All animals should be observed for signs of
    illness, injury, or abnormal behavior daily
  • Unexpected deaths and signs of illness should be
    reported promptly for appropriate veterinary
    medical care
  • The choice of medication or therapy should be
    made by the veterinarian in consultation with the
    investigator

46
Surveillance, Diagnosis, Etc.
  • Infectious agents that affect research
  • Sendai, KRV, MHV, LCMV, and Mycoplasma pulmonis
  • The principal method for detecting viral
    infections is serologic testing
  • Transplantable tumors, hybridomas, cell lines,
    and other biologic materials should be tested for
    murine viruses
  • MAP (mouse antibody production) test, RAP, HAP
    used for monitoring for viral contamination

47
Surgery
  • Appropriate attention to presurgical planning,
    personnel training, aseptic and surgical
    technique
  • Use of antibiotics should never be considered as
    a replacement for aseptic procedures
  • PHS policy and AWA place responsibility with the
    IACUC for determining that personnel are
    qualified and trained for surgery

48
Surgery
  • Major survival surgery
  • penetrates and exposes a body cavity or produces
    substantial impairment of physical or physiologic
    function
  • laparotomy, thoracotomy, craniotomy, joint
    replacement, limb amputation

49
Surgery
  • Minor survival surgery
  • does not expose a body cavity and causes little
    or no physical impairment
  • wound suturing, peripheral-vessel cannulation,
    castration, prolapse repair, skin biopsy
  • most procedures routinely done on an outpatient
    basis in veterinary clinical practice

50
Surgery
  • Nonsurvival surgery
  • animal is euthanized before recovery from
    anesthesia
  • does not require aseptic surgery
  • surgical site should be clipped, wear gloves, and
    clean instruments
  • Skin sutures, wound clips, or staples
  • must be removed in timely manner
  • Veterinary medical standard 10-14 days

51
Surgery
  • Liquid chemical sterilants should be used with
    adequate contact times
  • Alcohol is neither a sterilant nor a high-level
    disinfectant
  • Nonrodent aseptic surgery should be conducted
    only in designated surgical facility
  • PI and veterinarian share responsibility for
    ensuring that postsurgical care is appropriate

52
Pain, Analgesia, and Anesthesia
  • Fundamental to pain relief is ability to
    recognize clinical signs in specific species
  • vocalization, depression, behavioral changes,
    immobility, abnormal posture
  • Anthropomorphic concept
  • Neuromuscular blocking drugs do not provide pain
    relief
  • paralyzes muscle animal feels pain but unable to
    move

53
Euthanasia
  • The act of killing animals by methods that induce
    rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or
    distress
  • Methods should be consistent with 2000 Report of
    the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia
  • Avoid animal distress
  • other animals should not be present when
    euthanasia is performed

54
Construction Guidelines
  • Corridors
  • should be wide enough to facilitate the movement
    of personnel and equipment
  • 6-8 ft. wide can accommodate most facilities
  • Animal-Room Doors
  • should open into animal rooms
  • large enough for easy passage of racks and
    equipment
  • 42 x 84 inches

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57
Construction Guidelines
  • Floors
  • moisture-resistant, nonabsorbent,
    impact-resistant, and smooth
  • Drainage
  • if used should be sloped and drain traps kept
    filled with liquid
  • drainpipes should be at 4 inches in diameter
  • floor drains are not essential in all animal rooms

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59
Construction Guidelines
  • HVAC systems
  • capable of adjustments or - 20 F
  • relative humidity 30-70
  • temperature is best regulated by having
    thermostatic control for each room
  • regular monitoring of HVAC system done at room
    level
  • partial redundancy

60
Construction Guidelines
  • Power Lighting
  • in event of power failure an alternative or
    emergency power supply should be available to
    maintain critical services
  • recessed energy-efficient fluorescent light is
    most commonly used
  • time-controlled lighting system should be used to
    ensure a uniform diurnal lighting cycle

61
Construction Guidelines
  • Storage areas
  • bedding and food should be stored in separate
    area from risk of contamination from toxic or
    hazardous
  • refrigerated storage kept below 70 C to reduce
    putrefaction of wastes and animal carcasses

62
Facilities for Aseptic Surgery
  • Rodent surgery
  • small simple dedicated space in lab minimize
    contamination during surgery
  • Large animal surgery
  • surgical support, animal preparation, surgeons
    scrub, operating room, and postoperative recovery

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