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Tools for Analyzing the Worlds Languages Ch' 10: Inflectional Morphology


One aspect of these two questions is the distinction between DERIVATIONAL and ... remember our discussion on words like: foot / feet, tooth / teeth, goose / geese... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tools for Analyzing the Worlds Languages Ch' 10: Inflectional Morphology

Tools for Analyzing the Worlds Languages Ch.
10 Inflectional Morphology
  • Spring 2008 (class 9)

Morphology Section 2(welcome back!)Ch. 10
Inflectional Morphology
10.2 Inflection vs. Derivation
  • (remember ch. 4)
  • 2 Basic questions in Morphology
  • What is meaning?
  • How is meaning expressed?
  • Chapter 10
  • One aspect of these two questions is the
    distinction between DERIVATIONAL and INFLECTIONAL
  • How can Inflectional morphology (Inf M) be
    integrates with syntax in a formal grammar. (Ch
    11 deals specifically with Derivational
    Morphology Der M)

Quick intro
  • Derivational M
  • takes one word and changes it into another
  • creating new lexical entries
  • In the clearest cases it creates a word of
    another syntactic category
  • suffix ness changes Adjs into Abstract Ns.
  • dry ness dryness or hotness, playfulness
  • suffix er changes Vs into Ns
  • teacher, player, farmer

Quick intro
  • Inflectional M
  • DOES NOT change words into others and never
    changes syntactic categories
  • It produces another FORM of the SAME word
  • plural (e)s, past tense (e)d
  • (also 3rd person singular agreement)

Essential Difference
  • The question you have to ask your self is
  • (not) Do I feel lucky
  • Clint Eastwood as Dirty Harry
  • Does the morpheme create a new word

Other Differences
  • Productivity
  • Inf M is VERY productive
  • meaning it will work on most of the lexemes in a
    particular word class
  • If you borrowed or created a new verb
  • to morphix any inflectional morphemes that
    attach to many other verbs should attach to it
  • He morphixes the words in class.
  • She morphixed the words to make her poem rhyme.
  • Der M is NOT very productive
  • its not as easy to add to new cases (though it
    might be possible)
  • sameness, weakness vs.
  • differentness, strongness,
  • NOTE (Some Derivational affixes are more
    productive than others for example er)

Other Differences
  • Meaning
  • Inf M generally has GRAMMATICAL meaning
  • V to morphix es 3rd person sing agreement
  • He morphixes the words in class.
  • V to morphix ed PST tense of V
  • She morphixed the words to make her poem rhyme.
  • Der M generally have LEXICAL meaning
  • V to morphix er N one who changes

Other Differences
  • Paradigm (as in pair-a-dime ? .20)
  • Inflected forms of a word can generally be
    organized into a PARADIGM chart
  • Span andar to walk
  • Notice that we are showing both Person Number
  • each form is a unique combination of P N

Other Differences
  • Paradigms
  • allow us to classify the six forms in a
    systematic way
  • they consist of a set of forms wh/
    arecross-classified by means of a set of
    grammatical categories.
  • usually characteristic of Inf M but not Der M
  • which may work in pairs or possibly triplets
  • V slow, Adv slowly,
  • N (the) slower (as one who slows something)

Differences in Review
10.3 Using Paradigms
  • In agglutinative languages (where morphemes are
    arranged in a sequence and easily divided)
    possition class charts can give us a clear
    understanding of the morphemes (e.g. Swahili
  • However in other languages (particluarly when a
    language uses IRREGULAR or SUPPLETIVE verb types)
    this isnt as easy so we use paradigms

10.3 Using Paradigms
  • consider the following from Eng
  • sing sang
  • think thought
  • have had
  • see saw
  • go went
  • is was
  • (morphix morphoughx)

10.3 Using Paradigms
  • consider the following from Span
  • (it would be nearly impossible to make a
    position class chart for all the endings

10.3 Using Paradigms
  • Advantage
  • helps make sense of complex morphological systems
    with irregular verbs or in fusional languages
    (when position class charts are not very helpful)
  • Start by setting up the data for Inf M by
    arranging it into paradigms.
  • Then determine the grammatical categories involved

Two Perspectives on Morphology
  • one
  • looks at morph by focusing on individual
  • like beads on a string
  • (think position class charts)
  • two
  • looks at morph by focusing on grammatical
    categories and paradigms
  • useful for inflectional morphology in all types
    of languages (particularly fusional or when there
    is a lot of irregularity)

10.4 Grammatical categories and Infletional
  • Word and Paradigm approach looks mostly at
    Grammatical categories
  • i.e. person, number, tense
  • Grammatical categories are sets of abstract
    elements which are MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE.
  • Each Gram Cat has only a small and fixed number
    of elements they are closed classes.
  • A GC is a small, closed class of mutually
    exclusive grammatical properties. B. p. 117

  • we use FEATURES to implement grammatical
    categories of morphology into our formal grammar
  • For instance singular gt -plural
  • 3rd person gt 3person
  • The names of the feature are plural or person
  • the values are - or 3
  • (weve also talked about nominal features like
    /- common )

  • many features are Binary
  • meaning that the morpheme either has it or does
    not have it.
  • Singular -plural
  • Present -PST, -FUT
  • At other times we may want to use multi valued
  • number Sg (only 1), Dual (exactly 2), or
    Plural (3)
  • Tense PST, PRS, or FUT
  • Which ever you decide BE CONSISTANT

  • One of the tasks in the morphological analysis of
    a language is
  • Making a PRECISE hypothesis about the
    grammatical categories involved by choosing an
    APPROPRIATE set of features
  • So how does it fit with Syntax???

Remember The BASE COMP?
Morphology and Base
  • The Base componentbuilds trees with PSRsthen
    fills in the terminal nodes from the lexicon
  • Morphology fits into the model by providing
    details about the terminal nodes
  • We assume that the grammar builds sentences in
    two phases (syntax Inf M).

10.5 Inf M in Formal Grammar
  • The inf M is represented in trees produced by the
    base solely by inflectional features on
    preterminal nodes.
  • (Out put from Base)

10.5 Inf M in Formal Grammar
  • The only phonological material at the terminal
    nodes belongs to the stems, exactly as they are
    listed in the lexicon
  • Also known as DEEP STRUCTURE

10.5 Inf M in Formal Grammar
  • After the inflectional features are added or the
    spell out rules are applied we get what is
    called the Surface Structure
  • The Surf. Structure Tree matches the actual
    sentence we are trying to produce.

Inflectional Spellout Rules
  • The rules that tell us how to add affixes to get
    from the Deep structure to the Surface structure
    are called ISRs.
  • ISRs convert the terminal nodes from one form to
    the other
  • For English plurals Eng. PST
  • N V
  • plural pst
  • X ? Xz X ? Xd
  • left side is Input right side is output

Inflectional Spellout Rules
  • How to ISRs help us?
  • they allow us to refine our lexicon such that we
    do not have to represent every form of a word
  • i.e. the lexicon does not have to contain the
    whole paradigm of a word (or all its inflected
  • but instead it only needs to contain the stems.
  • The stem is what is inserted into the tree by the
    Base component
  • The lexicon also does not have to include all the
    affixes as these will be defined by the ISRs
  • Thus, the lexicon is now primarily a list of just
  • DOESNT that take a load off your mind

Now that weve made some space
  • Lets consider how the features are assigned.
  • we have to back track a little here since we
    already had features when we used our ISRs to go
    from the DStr to the SStr

Feature Assignment Rules
  • Some features like /- PST apply to all members
    of a particular word class.
  • In English all verbs have both Present and Past
    forms so they much be labeled
  • We need a special type of phrase structure rule
    or a Feature Assignment Rule which puts the
    feature PST on all verbs
  • V ? /- PST

Feature Assignment Rules
  • V ? /- PST
  • FARs are also part of the BASE component and
    work together with the other phrase structure
    rules and the lexicon to build the trees.
  • This rule says to add either PST or -PST to
    a V node when building a tree

Feature Assignment Rules
  • Other rules are more specific
  • For instance the feature plural can only be
    applied to count nouns.
  • mass nouns can not have a plural feature
    applied because it is intrinsic in the word
  • Contrast Ncount N-count
    computer software hardware
    computers softwares hardwares
  • Thus we get rules like the following
  • Ncount ? /-plural N-count ? -plural

Inflectional Morph and the BASE
DEEP STRUCTURE(trees with bare stems and
inflectional features only)
SURFACE STRUCTURE(trees with Phonological
material of inflectional affixes included)
Bickford p. 123
What to do? (also see p. 127 33)
  • 1st decide on a set of features both what
    features to use and how many values there are for
  • 2nd Incorporate these assumptions into feature
    assignment rules as a formal hypothesis about the
    grammatical categories
  • 3rd Write Inflectional Spellout Rules to add the
    phonological material for each affix
  • 4th State which order the rules need to apply to
    be consistent with the data.

Going From Pos Class Chart
  • see Bickford pp. 123-125
  • for data and logic behind the following rules

1,2,3 person pst, pres, fut tense V ? sg,
dl, pl number /- interrogative V pst ? /-
10.7 Irregular inflection
  • when you encounter words that are INFLECTED
    IRREGULARLY you need to list those forms in the
    lexicon (see Bick p. 127 34).
  • For instance remember our discussion on words
    like foot / feet, tooth / teeth, goose / geese
  • At one point in the history of the language this
    was a correct way to make plurals, how ever
    since it is NO LONGER PRODUCTIVE (we dont get
    moose / meese, or roof / reef we want to consider
    them individual lexical items.
  • These types of forms are no longer predictable in
    Eng. and must be learned as exceptions.

10.8 Case Marking on PNs
  • Many languages have case marking on Pronouns
  • Three common cases markings on PNs are
  • nominative (subject)
  • objective (used for more than one type of obj)
  • genitive (possessor)
  • English (Nom) I, we, you, he, she, it, they
  • (Objective) me, us, you, him, her, it, them
  • (Gen) my, our, your, his, her, its, their

  • be sure to read this section and try to remember
    how we came up with the rules. If you cant you
    may need to do some review. p.129
  • Pay particular attention to the Lexicon and
    Inflectional Spellout rules.

10.12 10.14
  • Read through the Sample Description
  • Look at the Infelctional Categories chart on
    pp.133 (nouns), 134 (verbs)

Tools for Analyzing the Worlds Languages Ch.
11 Derivational Morphology
  • Spring 2008 (class 10)

(Review from ch4)Stems/Roots and Affixes
  • stem
  • kick -er -s
  • Root Derivational Inflectional
  • Suffix Suffix
  • stem
  • view point (Compound Stem)
  • Root Root

(Review from ch4)Stems/Roots and Affixes
  • the base (or part of the word to which affixes
    are attached) of a word is called either a STEM
    or a ROOT.
  • Root (p. 136)
  • Is any single morpheme which is not an affix.
  • may be identical to the STEM
  • (Haspelmath 2002 p.274) a base that cannot be
    analysed further i.e. a base that consist of a
    single morpheme

(Review from ch4)Stems/Roots and Affixes
  • STEM (p. 136)
  • Can be an inflected word
  • i.e. can contain multiple morphemes
  • May be identical to the root
  • May consist of multiple roots
  • may contain more than one derivational affix
  • (p 137 inter-line-ar-ize-r)
  • Der Prefix root Der Sufixes
  • (Haspelmath 2002 p.274) the base of an inflected

(Review from ch4)Stems/Roots and Affixes
  • the base (or part of the word to which affixes
    are attached) of a word is called either a STEM
    or a ROOT.
  • Affix
  • morphemes that are used to modify the base of the
  • (Haspelmath 2002 p.265) a short morpheme with an
    abstract meaning

More Difference b/t Inf and Der
  • generally DER is closer to the root
  • may appear to be done first
  • tends to have lexical meaning
  • often has rich and complex meaning
  • the meaning of the derived word is often not
    fully predictable from the meaning of the
    morphemes involved
  • computer/calculator twister
  • (in semantics when the meaning is not fully
    predictable from the meaning of its parts the
    meaning may be CONVENTIONALIZED

Differences in Review
  • The previous chart should not be applied
    rigidly but rather used as a guideline.
  • view point compound noun consisting of two
    nouns (while view and point could both also be
    verbs we would consider them different lexical
  • un as in unkind
  • changes Adj kind ? Adj unkind
  • These are derivational processes that make a new
    word that has a different (Conventionalized)
    LEXICAL meaning but the SYNTAXTIC category has
    not been changed.
  • Consider Swahili Causatives (that change intrans
    Vs to trans Vs. (p. 139. 12).

  • sometimes derivational morphology is highly
    productive, and its meaning is very predictable
    from its parts.
  • Sometimes inflectional morphology is highly
  • Therefore In deciding whether something is
    inflectional or derivational, think about the
    full range of characteristics listed in the chart
  • Dont rely on JUST ONE characteristic wh/ may be
    misleading with considered by itself.
  • B. p. 139

In Simplest Terms
  • INFLECTINAL morphology is
  • What is relevant to the syntax.
  • So what does that mean?
  • Inflectional Morphology is sensitive to the
    larger syntactic context in wh/ it occurs.
  • Derivational Morphology is not sensitive to the
    larger context.

Other forms of Inflectional morphology
  • Agreement
  • in order to choose the right form of the verb you
    have to look else where in the sentence.
  • Case
  • grammatical relations that show the inherent
    parts of the language
  • (English Pronouns)
  • Tense (in many languages is sensitive to the
    larger context.

Der Morph in Formal Grammar
  • Recall that we use Feature Assignment Rules
    (FARs) in Inflectional Morph.
  • FARs help show the morphology in the Grammar
    (i.e. in the trees).
  • Because we use separate lexical entries the
    Derivational Morphology does not explicitly
    appear in the Grammar.
  • It takes place in the lexicon.
  • When a derived word is inserted in a tree, it is
    handled exactly like a simple word
  • (p. 145) Once the new lexical enry is created,
    it takes on a life of its own independent of the
    rule and may change further in ways that are
    inconsistent with the rule.

Remember the Lexicon
  • as you remember from Ch 10
  • the inflectional morphemes are not considered to
    occur in the lexicon (except for some words see
    p. 127 go/went)
  • (because they are built by separate rules)
  • Derivational Morphemes are just included with the
    derived word in the lexicon.
  • the new stems are considered as lexical entries
    and can contain multiple morphemes

Word Formation Rules
  • using a similar process as Inflectional Spellout
    Rules (ISRs)
  • we now show derivations using WFRs
  • Xv a
  • X? N an agent or instrument
    associated with a
  • Rule says taking any verb X add the suffix ?
    derives a noun that is an agent or instrument
    that does or is associated with verb X

  • Word Formation Rules are not needed to generate
    individual sentences.
  • they are important for 2 reasons
  • Expressing the generalizations that native
    speakers (NS) know about the relationships b/t
    words in the lexicon
  • accounting for NSs ability to create new words
    following the same pattern

After the rule is applied
  • like we said
  • after the rule is applied the word (new lexical
    item) can take on a life of its own
  • some rules are no longer productive, however the
    effects of the rule are still visible.
  • see Bickford p. 145-146
  • Historical use of th in English

Inflectional Morph and the BASE
LEXICON (incl. Defining subcategories) e.g. /-
Word Formation Rules
DEEP STRUCTURE(trees with bare stems and
inflectional features only)
SURFACE STRUCTURE(trees with Phonological
material of inflectional affixes included)
Bickford p. 123
  • see B. p. 148 36
  • The differences b/t ISRs and WFRs
  • Questions for analysis.
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