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Reducing%20Emissions%20through%20Energy%20Efficiency%20and%20Renewable%20Energy

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Title: Reducing%20Emissions%20through%20Energy%20Efficiency%20and%20Renewable%20Energy


1
Reducing Emissions through Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy
  • Air Innovations Conference
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • August 10, 2004

2
DOE National Laboratories
Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy
by Midwest Research Institute Battelle
Pacific Northwest
INEEL
Fermi
Brookhaven
NREL
Lawrence Berkeley
Argonne
NETL
Lawrence Livermore
Thomas Jefferson
Los Alamos
Oak Ridge
Sandia
  • Defense Program
  • Office of Science
  • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • Office of Nuclear Energy
  • Fossil Energy

3
Major Research Programs
4
Driving Down Technology Costs
Levelized cents/kWh in constant (2000)1
4030 20 10 0
100 80 60 40 20 0
Solar / PV
Wind
COE cents/kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
70 60 50 40 30 20 100
1512 9 6 30
10 8 6 4 20
Solar thermal
Biomass
Geothermal
COE cents/kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Source NREL Energy Analysis Office 1These graphs
are reflections of historical cost trends NOT
precise annual historical data. Updated October
2002
5
Why Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency?
  • Diversify Energy Supply
  • Energy Availability Reliability
  • Economic Development
  • Improve Air Quality

6
U.S. Energy Consumption by Source 1850-1996
Non-hydro Renewables
Nuclear
Natural Gas
Hydro
Crude Oil
Wood
Coal
Source 1850-1949, Energy Perspectives A
Presentation of Major Energy and Energy-Related
Data, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1975
1950-1996, Annual Energy Review 1996, Table 1.3.
Note Between 1950 and 1990, there was no
reporting of non-utility use of renewables.
7
Shell Sustained Growth Scenario
1500
Surprise
Geothermal
Solar
1000
Biomass
Exajoules
Wind
Nuclear
500
Hydro
Gas
Oil NGL
Coal
Trad. Bio.
0
1880
1860
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000
2020
2040
2060
Source Shell, The Evolution of the Worlds
Energy Systems, 1995
8
EERE Technologies Serve Diverse Energy Needs
Energy Efficiency Wind Solar Biomass Geothermal
Electricity ? ? ? ? ?
Transport-ation Fuel ? ?
Industry ? ? ? ? ?
Buildings ? ? ? ?
9
Wind Generation Technology
  • Technology has matured over 25 years of learning
    experiences
  • Performance and cost have dramatically improved
  • New hardware is being developed on multiple
    fronts
  • higher productivity and lower costs
  • larger sized for both land and off-shore
    installations
  • tailored designs for high capacity factor, low
    wind speed and extreme weather conditions

10
Wind Energy Capacity
11
Solar Technologies
  • Solar Water Heating
  • Other Solar Heating
  • Photovoltaics (PV) Solar Electricity

12
Solar Water Heating
  • Domestic Water Heating
  • Pool and Spa Heating
  • Process Water Heating

13
Other Solar Heating
  • Example Transpired Solar Collectors
  • 54 transpired collectors installed worldwide
  • Current cost for transpired solar collectors is
    2/kWh

14
Photovoltaics
PV panels
PV roofing shingles
4 Times Square, New York City
Mauna Lani Hotel in Hawaii
15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
Worldwide Photovoltaic Shipments
18
Biomass
19
Today, Most U.S. Renewable Energy Comes From
Biomass
  • Slightly more than conventional hydro
  • Agricultural and Forestry Residues
  • Paper Mills
  • Used for
  • Electricity Generation
  • Process Heat and Steam
  • Bio-based Products
  • Transportation Fuels
  • Ethanol
  • Biodiesel

20
NRELs Role Support the Development of
Integrated Biorefineries
  • USES
  • Fuels
  • Ethanol
  • Renewable Diesel
  • Power
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Chemicals
  • Plastics
  • Solvents
  • Chemical Intermediates
  • Phenolics
  • Adhesives
  • Furfural
  • Fatty acids
  • Acetic Acid

Biomass Feedstock
Conversion Processes
  • Trees
  • Grasses
  • Agricultural Crops
  • Agricultural Residues
  • Animal Wastes
  • Municipal Solid Waste

- Enzymatic Fermentation - Gas/liquid
Fermentation - Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation -
Gasification - Combustion - Co-firing
21
Energy Efficiency The Invisible Energy Resource
  • A primary strategy for all energy needs
  • For Electricity
  • Manage Load Growth through Energy Efficiency
  • Can Reduce Electricity Prices
  • Energy Efficiency Investment Planning
  • Reduce Emissions

22
What Makes a Building Energy Efficient?
  • Whole building design commissioning
  • Proper design, sizing, installation of HVAC
  • Proper insulation management of air flow
  • Efficient windows
  • Efficient lighting
  • Water conservation
  • Efficient office equipment

23
Transportation Efficiency and Alternative Fuels
  • Transportation Demand and System Efficiency
  • Transportation Technology RD at NREL
  • Systems modeling (digital functional vehicle)
  • Alternative fuels and lubricants
  • Auxiliary loads, including cabin heating and
    cooling
  • Clean Cities Program
  • Mission Reduce petroleum use in vehicles
  • Technology Portfolio fuel economy, alternative
    fuels, blends, hybrids, and idle reduction

24
Biodiesel A Renewable, Domestic Fuel Emissions
Benefits and Challenges
  • EPA Emissions Analysis
  • PM, HC, CO, and, generally, toxics reduction
  • NOx increase, 2-4 for B20, insignificant for B5
  • RD on NOx reduction strategies
  • Air Quality Modeling of B20 replacing diesel
  • No increase in ozone levels (NREL/SR-540-33793,
    May 2003)

Data from EPA420-P-02-001, heavy-duty engines
25
Opportunities
  • Substantial opportunities for energy efficiency
    (e.g. 20 less energy use in 2020)
  • EERE Opportunities in all major energy sectors
  • Buildings (20 less primary energy use)
  • 25 electricity savings
  • Industry (17 less primary energy use)
  • Iron and Steel 80 less petroleum
  • Paper 60 less coal 30 less petroleum 28
    less electricity
  • Cement 119 more natural gas 30 less coal
  • Electricity (24 total primary energy savings)
  • Coal 51 less
  • Non-Hydro Renewables 98 more
  • Transportation (21 total primary energy savings)

Numbers from Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future
26
Challenges in Using Energy Technologies to
Address Air Quality
  • How will this technology affect air emissions,
    and how can these effects be measured?
  • Are the reductions quantifiable, verifiable,
    enforceable, permanent, and surplus?
  • Thinking big energy efficiency codes and
    standards, renewable portfolio standards, grid
    connection policies, long-term planning of
    multi-pollutant strategies
  • Incentives for clean energy technology under cap
    and trade systems
  • Are regulatory changes needed?

27
Partnerships Already Forming to Address Challenges
  • DOE
  • Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • Regional Offices
  • EPA
  • Office of Atmospheric Programs
  • Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
  • Office of Transportation and Air Quality
  • Regional Offices
  • State Energy Offices
  • State Air Quality Offices
  • And Many Others!

28
DOE-EERE Technical Assistance to States through
Regional Offices
  • National Labs serve as resource
  • www.eere.energy.gov/regions

29
Program-Specific Technical Assistance to States
through Regional Offices
  • DOE ongoing technology specific programs
  • Million Solar Roofs
  • Wind Powering America
  • Rebuild America
  • Clean Cities

30
Technical Assistance Program Provides Assistance
to States through Regional Offices
  • DOE responds to specific State requests for
    quick, targeted technical assistance
  • States receive technical assistance from
    participating national labs (NREL, ORNL, LBNL)

31
TAP contacts in DOE Regional Offices
  • Southeast
  • Steve Hortin 404-562-0593
  • Northeast
  • Al Benson 617-565-9734
  • Midwest
  • Bill Hui 312-886-8586
  • Central
  • Jerry Kotas 303-275-4850
  • Mid-Atlantic
  • Susan Guard 215-656-6965
  • Western
  • Jeff James 206-553-2079

32
EPA Office of Air and Radiation
  • Office of Atmospheric Programs - State and Local
    Capability Building Branch
  • Inter-agency agreement DOE EPA for NREL
    Assistance
  • Current Collaborations
  • Integration of renewable energy into modeling to
    support regional planning
  • Energy and air quality integration
  • Energy and water
  • EPA Contacts Julie Rosenberg, Art Diem, Steve
    Dunn, Sue Gander, Edgar Mercado
  • Office of Air Quality Planning Standards
  • Office of Transportation and Air Quality

33
Partnership At Work Shreveport, LA
  • Energy Efficiency Project included in
    Shreveport-Bossier City Early Action Compact
  • Shreveports 20-year contract for energy
    efficiency improvements
  • 33 municipal buildings
  • ESCO Johnson Controls, Inc.
  • Guaranteed annual energy savings 9,121 MWh/yr
    and 67,289 hundred CF/yr
  • NREL and LSU Quantified Approximate Emissions
    Reductions
  • 82.5 lbs NOx/O3 season day (0.04 TPD) or 15.05
    TPY from grid connected EE
  • Building emission reductions are nominal at 633
    lbs NOx/yr or 0.32 TPY
  • Also reduces other pollutants SO2, VOCs, Air
    Toxics, and CO2

34
Process for Shreveport, Louisiana
  • Project Initiators
  • LA Department of Environmental Quality Air Office
  • LA Department of Natural Resources, Energy Office
  • Programmatic Leadership / Funding Support
  • DOE-TAP (EERE HQ Central Region)
  • EPA OAQPS-AQSSD OAP-SLCBB
  • Perform Shepherd Quantification Analysis
  • NREL (Adam Chambers)
  • Louisiana State University Center for
    Environmental Studies
  • Approval
  • EPA Region 6
  • EPA Headquarters

35
DOE EERE Air Quality Integration Pilot
  • EPA and DOE jointly promoting use of EERE
    technologies to address air quality issues
  • Pilot innovative activities in four states or
    groups of states in DOEs Southeast,
    Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Central Regions
  • Selected activities receive package of
    assistance DOE, EPA, NASEO, ECOS, GETF, NREL
  • NREL to organize peer review of quantification
    methods and provide technical assistance on
    quantification
  • Point of Contact Jerry Kotas 303-275-4850
  • Jerry.Kotas_at_hq.doe.gov

36
Conclusions and Next Steps
  • Emissions reduction benefits of energy efficiency
    and renewable energy technologies
  • Real, surmountable challenges to achieve greater
    synergy between EERE technology deployment and
    Air Quality
  • Resources available to understand the
    opportunities and address the challenges
  • Work is underway to remove barriers to EERE
    technologies addressing air quality issues

37
Contact Us!______________________________________
_____________________
  • NREL
  • Laura Vimmerstedt
  • laura_vimmerstedt_at_nrel.gov
  • (303) 384-7346

38
The U.S. Department of Energys National
Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden, Colorado
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