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TODAY

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'The combination of all things and factors external to the individual or ... Cell, tissue, organisms (bacteria, flea, cat, elephant), ecosystem, region, the globe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TODAY


1
TODAY
  • Practice clicker use.
  • Define some basic terms environment and
    ecosystem.
  • Consider scales and borders.
  • Introduce biogeochemical cycles.

2
I can clearly define ecosystem.
  1. Yes
  2. No

3
  • ENVIRONMENT
  • The combination of all things and factors
    external to the individual or population of
    organisms in question.

4
SCALE
  • Scale dimensions of space and time. Often used
    to refer to levels of biological organization
  • Example Cell, tissue, organisms (bacteria, flea,
    cat, elephant), ecosystem, region, the globe
  • Patterns, processes, measurements
  • Why relevant?
  • Lots of knowledge about small scale things
  • Lots of questions about large scale processes
    patterns

5
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6
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7
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
  • National Academy of Sciences is an honorific
    society of distinguished scholars engaged in
    scientific and engineering research, dedicated to
    the furtherance of science and technology and to
    their use for the general welfare.
  • The NAS was signed into being by President
    Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, to keep pace
    with the growing roles that science and
    technology would play in public life.
  • National Research Council in 1916.

8
The National Academy of Science names 8 Grand
Challenges Which of the following was NOT named?
  1. Infectious Disease and the Environment
  2. Invasive Species
  3. Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning

9
  • Biogeochemical cycles
  • Biological diversity and ecosystem Functioning
  • Climate variability
  • Hydrologic forecasting
  • Infectious disease and the environment
  • Institutions and resource use
  • Land-use dynamics
  • Reinventing the use of materials

10
Environmental Issues - NRC vs. KC
Issue National Research Council King County
1 Biogeochemical cycles Water and watersheds,lawns, energy
2 Climate variability Floods, global warming info. KC Climate Plan
3 Biological diversity ecosystem functioning Shorelines, wetlands, forests, salmon
4 Hydrological forecasting Floods, stormwater
5 Infectious diseases the environment Noxious weeds, wastewater
6 Institutions and resource use Environmental services in King County
7 Land use dynamics Stewardship, dumps, regional planning, zoning atlas
8 Reinventing the use of materials Biosolids, recycling
11
What is a system?
  • System a collection of matter, parts, or
    components which are included inside a specified,
    often arbitrary, boundary. Example Ecosystem
  • Systems often have inputs and outputs.
  • For dynamic systems, by definition, one or more
    aspects of the system change with time.
  • Example of a simple dynamic system bathtub or
    your bank account.
  • The boundary of a dynamic system is chosen for
    convenient conceptual separation for the system

12
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13
What are biogeochemical cycles?
  • Earth system has four parts
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Lithosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Biogeochemical cycles The chemical interactions
    (cycles) that exist between the atmosphere,
    hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.
  • Abiotic (physio-chemical) and biotic processes
    drive these cycles

14
What is common amongst them?
  • Each compound (water, carbon, nitrogen) typically
    exists in all four parts of the Earth System
  • There are
  • Pools
  • Fluxes in and out of pools
  • Chemical or biochemical transformations
  • Transformations
  • are important
  • can lead to positive negative consequences

15
Transformations
16
Carbon Cycle
5000
http//www.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/carbon_cycle
_version2.html
17
Carbon Cycle Data
  • Burning of fossil fuels
  • Land conversion
  • Cement
  • Role of Oceans
  • Role of terrestrial plants (trees soils)

Lithosphere
18
Key Aspects of the Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon is the skeleton of all life.
  • Carbon dioxide is a critical gas
  • Taken up by plants in photosynthesis
  • Released by plants and animals in respiration
  • Released during decomposition (and fires)
  • Greenhouse gas

19
Question Photosynthesis is an example of a pool
  1. True
  2. False

20
Nitrogen Cycle
www.britannica.com
21
Nitrogen Cycle
22
Nitrogen Cycle
23
Nitrogen Sources over time
24
Nitrogen Cycle Key Points
  • Nitrogen is in the atmosphere as N2 (78)
  • N2 is an inert gas and cannot be used by plants
    or animals
  • N2 can be converted to a usable form via
  • Lightening
  • N-fixing plants and cyanobacteria
  • Industrial process (energy intensive)
  • Nitrogen limits plant growth
  • Nitrogen is easily lost from biological systems

25
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26
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27
Summary
  • What are systems?
  • What are biogeochemical cycles?
  • Why are they important?
  • What is common about them?
  • Carbon and nitrogen cycles
  • Future thinking
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