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Park Ecology and Global Climate Change a view from the UK Paul Bramhill CEO GreenSpace

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Title: Park Ecology and Global Climate Change a view from the UK Paul Bramhill CEO GreenSpace


1
Park Ecology and Global Climate Change a view
from the UKPaul BramhillCEO GreenSpace
2
GreenSpace
The only charity dedicated to the improvement of
parks and greenspaces in the United Kingdom
3
GreenSpace
  • Started in 1997 as Urban Parks Forum
  • Gained staff in 2001
  • Renamed in 2003
  • Became a national charity in 2005
  • Now have
  • 9 English Regions
  • GreenSpace National Forum
  • 15 staff

4
GreenSpace
community
awareness
improvement
education
5
UK Relationships
DCLG
DCMS
DEFRA
Heritage Lottery
Sport England
Cabe / Cabe Space
Government Offices
Forestry Commission
English Heritage
Local Authorities
Natural England
Groundwork
GreenSpace
Communities and the Public
International links Parks for Life
Institutes/NGOs
6
Introduction
  • Review some of the more strategic work currently
    underway in the UK
  • This presentation pulls together work from a
    range of authors and organisations including Town
    and Country Planning Association, Cabe Space,
    CURE, London Climate Change Partnership.
  • GreenSpace would like to acknowledge our thanks
    to contributors.

7
UK Mean Temperature change
8
UK Mean Precipitation change
9
Thermal Growing Season Changes
2020s
2050s
2080s
10
ASCCUE Adaptation to climate change in the urban
environment
11
Urban Morphology Types
12
Urban Morphology Types
13
Urban Morphology Types Conurbation Map
14
Urban Morphology Type Surface Cover
15
Maximum Surface Temperature
16
Residential 10 green cover
17
Surface Temperature in Open Spaces
18
Drought risk to grassland
19
Months of water stress for grass
20
Surface Runoff
21
Residential green tree cover
22
Infiltration Capacity
A case for conservation areas?
23
Climatic adaptation via the green infrastructure
Functional importance of urban greenspace needs
to be reflected planning
24
Green Spaces and Climate Change A City-Wide
Approach
How do green spaces fit into a citys overall
environmental strategy? Considering the
importance of a holistic approach to
environmental sustainability planning in which
green spaces are integral to the sustainable
infrastructure of the whole city.
Andrew TuckerLondon Climate Change Partnership
ManagerGreater London Authority
25
How is London Vulnerable to Climate Change?
  • Flooding
  • Water resources
  • Overheating
  • Subsidence and heave
  • Wind storms
  • Global climate events
  • 1 inch of intense rainfall shutdown Londons five
    mainline rain stations.
  • 600 people died in London from heat related
    effects in the August 2003 heatwave.
  • The West End of London blacked out in August 2006
    heat due to businesses turning on their
    air-conditioning units.
  • Value of land property in the Thames flood risk
    area is estimated at 80billion.
  • London is a world financial city. Vulnerable to
    global impacts of climate change.

26
Flooding
  • 4 flood sources
  • Tidal
  • Fluvial
  • Surface
  • Sewer
  • (Groundwater)
  • - Frequently experience flooding from more than
    one source.
  • - Climate change will increase probability,
    Londons growth may increase consequence.

27
East London Flood Map
Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) TGLP/ EA
28
Green space within the flood zone
Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) TGLP/ EA
29
Chinbrook Meadows Lewisham
30
Chinbrook Meadows Lewisham
31
Urban Heat Island
Regents/Hyde Park
Richmond Park
32
Londons Open Space Network
33
Londons Open Space Deficiency
34
Thames Gateway East London
  • Largest regeneration focus in Europe.
  • Minimum 157,000 additional homes by 2016 and
    353,000 new jobs to 2026.
  • Regeneration development is within flood zones 2
    3.
  • Essential to incorporate high-quality
    multifunctional green infrastructure within all
    development types.
  • Essential that adaptation to climate change is
    embedded in planning and design.

35
Green Grid - Multifunctional Spaces
Green Infrastructure projects have the potential
to be delivery mechanisms for many of our
National, Sub regional and Borough objectives.
Sustainable Communities. Framing and shaping
growth, image and identity. Addressing
deficiencies. Access to Open Space, nature
conservation and recreation Making connections.
Sustainable modes of transport Surface water
management. Reducing residual flood risk, river
restoration Adapting to climate change.
Mitigating UHI effect, improving local air
quality. Access to recreational opportunity.
Passive and active. Sub Regional Tourism.
Visitor attractions - destination management
36
Sub-Regional FrameworkEast London Green Grid
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Maximising benefits of Green Space
  • Green space will become increasingly important
  • Offsetting the urban heat island
  • Enhancing permeability of urban realm
  • Providing an escape from hot buildings
  • Providing additional flood storage capacity
  • Provide water storage and recycling
    opportunities
  • Ecological connectivity (mainly watercourses)
  • Opportunities for parks to communicate key
    issues
  • Changes in funding priorities of funders

39
London Climate Change Partnership
  • The LCCP is led by the GLA, comprises over 30
    public, private and voluntary sector
    organisations.
  • Aim To help ensure that London is prepared and
    able to adapt to climate change impacts.
  • Current Workstreams finance, transport, new
    development
  • Future Workstreams retrofit of existing
    development, utilities

   .
www.london.gov.uk/lccp
40
Adapting public space to a changing climate
  • June 2008
  • Nicola Mathers

41
Guidance provided through themed newsletters
  • Aimed at heads of parks, planning and streetscene
  • 4 during 2008/09

42
Themes
  • Flooding
  • River Quaggy, Lewisham, London
  • River Irwell Flood Control Scheme and Salford
    Strategic Flood Risk Assessment, Salford
  • Milton Keynes Flood plain forest
  • Cleveleys coastal protection
  • A holistic approach to developing sustainable
    neighbourhoods
  • Augustenborg, Malmö, Sweden
  • Olympic Park, Sydney, Australia
  • CitySpace Plan, Chicago
  • Approaches to sustainable urban drainage
  • 12th Avenue Green Street, Portland, USA
  • Bristol Business Park, North Bristol
  • Combating the urban heat island effect
  • Chiswick Park, London

43
The Quaggy River Flood Alleviation Scheme
44
Cleveleys Coastal Protection
45
Milton Keynes Floodplain Forest
46
Bristol Business Park
47
River Irwell Flood Control Scheme and Salford
Strategic Flood Risk Assessment
48
The briefing paper
  • Adaptation through policy making
  • Assessing the need
  • Monitoring progress
  • Maximising the benefits
  • Engaging the community
  • Design matters
  • Management and delivery

49
  • Nicola Mathers
  • Advisor
  • www.cabe.org.uk

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www.sustainablecities.org.uk
  • A PROSPECTUS

56
The challenge
  • The changes in the global climate will
    dramatically affect every living thing on the
    planet. The evidence is conclusive.
  • It is our responsibility to find sensitive
    approaches to reducing our CO2 emissions and our
    demands on finite natural resources.

57
Cities can change for the better
  • Over half of the worlds population live in
    urban areas, consume 75 of all resources and
    create 75 of all waste. In the UK, the built
    environment contributes to over half of all our
    CO2 emissions.
  • Cities are best placed to lead action to reduce
    our emissions. The way we plan, design and manage
    them provides solutions to adapting to a changing
    climate and mitigating any further changes.
  • It is CABEs belief that a proactive response
    from cities can deliver much better places to
    live and work.

58
Specific focus on urban design
  • The resource will identify, explain and
    prioritise the issues that cities can control and
    influence through strategic urban design and
    management to make the city (region) better able
    to respond to climate change.
  • Adaptation and mitigation are its key drivers.
  • It will cut through the noise and confusion
    surrounding climate change to provide better
    understanding and clarity for action.

59
Priorities
60
Further information
  • A holding page for the resource is to be found
    at www.sustainablecities.org.uk
  • It will be publicly available in early 2009.
  • In the meantime check www.cabe.org.uk for
    updates

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  • www.green-space.org.uk
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