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Title: EnergyEfficient Affordable Homes for the 21st Century: Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation At


1
Energy-Efficient Affordable Homes for the 21st
CenturyEnergy Efficiency andEnergy
Conservation At HUD SC/NC Energy
ConferenceApril 5, 2006
HUDs Phase II Energy Action Plan

2
Improving home energy efficiency
  • Reduces dependence on foreign oil
  • Enhances the nations energy security
  • Improves air quality
  • Increases housing affordability

2
3
3
Goal
  • Help households save
  • 10 percent or more on home energy bills
  • over the next 10 years

4
Benefits
  • Savings of 20 billion a year
  • Reduce demand for natural gas by more than 1 quad
  • Avoid need for more than 40 (600 MW) power plants
  • Avoid greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 25
    million vehicles

5
Partnerships for Home Energy Efficiency

6
HUDs 21-Point Energy Action Plan
www.hud.gov/energy
7
Partnership for Advancing Technologyin Housing
(PATH)
  • Encourages the use of technology to improve the
    affordability and value of new and existing homes

8
Congress Enacted Energy Bill
  • Energy Policy Act of 2005
  • Requires HUD to develop an integrated energy
    strategy for public assisted housing
  • Due August, 2006
  • Also requires PIH to implement energy efficiency
    in public housing
  • Section on Indian tribes
  • Tax credits for rehab, new construction

8
9
National Energy Policy
  • Conservation and energy efficiency are crucial
    components of a national energy plan.
  • Greater energy efficiency helps the United
    States reduce the likelihood of energy shortages,
    emissions and the volatility of energy prices.

President George W. Bush May 2001
9
10
Growing Gap Between Domestic Production and
Consumption
11
Energy Expenditures in the U.S.
  • Americans spend 518 billion a year on energy -
    234 billion in buildings
  • The average household spends over 1,400 on home
    energy, or 3.8 of disposable income
  • Energy Department predicts continuing high oil
    prices oil at 50 or more per barrel.

12
Some Efficiency Gains
  • New home refrigerators use one third less energy
    than in 1972
  • New commercial lighting systems use less than
    half of the energy they did in the 1980s
  • Federal buildings now use about 20 percent less
    energy per square foot since 1985
  • Industrial energy use per unit of output declined
    by 25 from 1980 to 1999
  • Amount of energy required to generate 1 kilowatt
    hour of electricity has declined by 10 percent
    since 1980
  • While energy consumption has increased, emissions
    have declined

13
Homes Use One Fifth Of All Energy
  • In 2004, residential sector
  • consumed 21 of U.S. energy
  • spent 160 billion a year

13
14
Overview of Energy Use and US Homes
15
Energy Costs after Katrina
  • Average household will pay
  • 257 more
  • for heating this winter

Natural gas customers will pay up to 349 more
(in the Midwest) Colder weather will raise
expenditures significantly Source Energy
Information Administration, January 10, 2006
15
16
Winter heating costs have doubled
Over Past Five Years
Source Energy Information Administration,
January 10, 2006
17
Sample Regional Projections
Most Recent EIA Estimated Increases This Winter
  • Midwest Natural gas 41
  • Northeast Heating oil 24
  • Midwest Propane 19
  • South Electricity 14

17
Source Energy Information Administration,
January 10, 2006
18
Utilities and Housing Affordability
Energy Costs Are
  • Second-largest shelter expense
  • A factor in mortgage defaults

Low-moderate income families are especially at
risk
18
19
Energy Burden Highest on Low-Income Households
20
Partnerships with EPA and DOE
  • September, 2002 MOU between HUD, EPA, DOE
  • Expands Energy Star purchases in HUD buildings
  • July 2005 Partnership for Home Energy Efficiency
  • Focuses on all 110 million existing homes

September 2002
20
21
Partnerships for Home Energy Efficiency
  • Coordinated effort of DOE, HUD, and EPA
  • In partnership with public and private sectors
  • Meet important policy objectives
  • Energy efficiency as part of National Energy
    Policy
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions as part of
    Presidents commitment to reduce US intensity by
    18 by 2012

22
Why Existing Homes Now?
  • Address
  • rising energy prices
  • possible natural gas shortages
  • air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Affordable housing pressures
  • Many opportunities to work with industry
  • Home improvement is big business - 240 billion
  • Many homes built in 1970s due for remodeling
  • Major retailers moving into rehab/remodeling work
  • Many utilities/program sponsors promoting energy
    efficiency solutions
  • Manufacturers looking to promote efficient
    products

23
Overview of Partnership Activities
  • Expand efforts to promote ENERGY STAR products
  • Add additional products
  • Coordinated national outreach campaigns
  • Develop/promote new energy efficiency services
    beyond products
  • Contractor credentialing programs and QA/QC
    mechanisms
  • New ENERGY STAR Services -- Home Performance with
    ENERGY STAR and Proper HVAC installation
  • Promote energy efficiency in affordable housing
  • HUD Energy Action Plan
  • DOE Weatherization Program
  • Continue innovative research and bring into the
    field
  • Net Zero Energy Home

24
Key Milestones
25
New government portal
www.energysavers,gov
26
Benefits of Energy Star
  • Refrigerators At least 15 more efficient than
    federal standards
  • Dishwashers Use 25 less energy than minimum
    standards
  • Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFLs) - Use 2/3 less
    energy and last 6-10 times longer.
  • Furnaces - About 15 more efficient than standard
  • New Homes 30 more efficient than standard
    construction

26
27
Lower First CostsHabitat House
Richmond Energy Efficient House vs. Normal
Habitat House
  • Unvented Crawl Space -400
  • Advanced Framing -250
  • Downsizing of heat pump -300
  • Savings on duct system -150
  • Low-e window 240
  • Cellulose vs fiberglass 150
  • Upgrade exhaust fans 150
  • Controlled ventilation system 450
  • Total Incremental Cost -110

28
How does HUD spend 4 billion each year on
utilities?
28
29
HUDs Outlays for Energy
More than 10 percent of budget
  • 1.1 billion - public housing operating
    subsidies
  • 2.9 billion - Section 8 utility allowances
  • Additional - multifamily central heating and
    cooling
  • Also new construction and rehabilitation
  • 175,000 rehab units/year through CDBG
  • New units via HOME, CDBG, HOPE VI, Section
    202-811

29
30
Utility Allowances 2.9 Billion
  • Public and Indian Housing
  • Public Housing - 320 million
  • Tenant-Based Vouchers
  • Section 8 Vouchers - 1.96 billion
  • Assisted Housing
  • Section 8 Mod rehab - 20.1 million
  • Section 8 New substantial rehab - 318 million
  • Other (includes 202/811) - 140 million

31
Sec. Jackson Creates Task Force
  • With the announcement of the Presidents
    National Energy Policy we now have the necessary
    framework for promoting increased energy
    efficiency in housing.
    HUD is committed to giving this issue
    the priority it deserves to make sure we make
    significant progress in conserving energy in
    housing.

Secretary Alphonso Jackson House Financial
Services Committee June 2001
31
32
HUDs 21-Point Energy Action Plan
www.hud.gov/energy
33
Goal
  • Reduce HUDs
  • 4 billion energy bill
  • by at least 5
  • through improve energy efficiency

33
34
21 Actions in Six Key Areas
  • Interagency partnerships with DOE and EPA
  • Provide information, training and technical
    assistance
  • Strengthen rewards and incentives for energy
    efficiency
  • Strengthen energy standards and program
    requirements
  • Implement management and monitoring or HUDs
    energy programs
  • Conduct policy analysis and technology research

35
Department-Wide Actions
  • Work with EPA to distribute Energy Star
    information
  • Coordinate Department-wide training and
    information
  • Award priority rating points for energy
    efficiency in SuperNOFA/competitive grants
  • Include energy in Annual Performance Plan

36
April 20 Satellite Broadcast
  • Satellite broadcast April 20
  • Webcast on energy efficiency ratings for this
    years SuperNOFA
  • Will address Section 202/811 and other programs
  • 2.2 billion in competitive grants

37
Energy Efficient Rehab Advisor
www.rehabadvisor.net
38
Provides Advice to Homeowners
38
39
Homeownership and Assisted Housing
Multifamily
Single Family
  • Feature Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEMs) for up
    to 8,000 higher loan amount
  • Simplify regulatory requirements for EEMs
  • Improve tracking and evaluate performance of EEMs
  • Initiate multifamily weatherization partnerships
  • Energy efficiency training for assisted
    multifamily managers and staff
  • Improve tracking and monitoring

40
Promote Energy Efficient Mortgages
3 Improvements
  • Improved tracking
  • New Mortgagee Letter
  • Consolidates guidance
  • Clarifies procedures
  • Establishes IECC 2003 as standard for new
    construction
  • New brochure and lender training

40
41
Train Multifamily Managers
  • Training workshops
  • Low-cost/no-cost energy management
  • Low-hanging fruit
  • Positive responses strong evaluations
  • Continue or initiate weatherization partnerships
  • New York, California and Missouri
  • Leveraged DOE or state funds

41
42
Assisted Multifamily Senior Housing
Project 221 d(4) Substantial Rehab with
LIHTC 10-Story Elderly Apartment Building,
126,000 sf, 200 apartment units Rehab Cost
2.2 million
Includes Co-Gen heating system, consisting of six
(6) Carrier 60kW Micro-Turbines (Total cost
900K). High-pressure natural gas as the sole
power source, Generates potable hot water,
hydronic heating hot water, and all electricity
for the site. Potential to sell electricity to
adjacent site.
43
Assisted Living Multifamily Geothermal
Project Proposed Sec 232 - New
Construction 1-Story, 85,000 sf Assisted Living
Facility Northwest United States Construction
Cost 13.75 million
Includes the use of geothermal heat pumps (GHP).
System transfers heat extracted from the ground
(deep water wells, closed loop). Geothermal heat
pumps are 2.5 to 4 times more efficient than
electric-resistance space or water heating 75
percent more efficient than oil furnaces 48
percent more efficient than gas furnaces 40
percent more efficient than air-source heat pumps
44
Promote Energy Star in HOME/CDBG
  • Information to all grantees
  • 49 grantees in New England now use Energy Star
    for rehab, new construction
  • Web training module for HOME
  • IDIS performance measurement system - begins FY
    2007
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

FOR EXAMPLE
44
45
Folsom Dore Apts San Francisco
  • HOME-funded
  • PATH Demonstration
  • High-efficiency HVAC system
  • Energy Star Appliances
  • High-performing windows

45
46
Public Housing
  • Streamline Energy Performance Contracting (shared
    savings)
  • Purchase Energy Star products where cost
    effective
  • Establish Energy Star as the standard for HOPE VI
    new construction
  • Improve tracking and monitoring of energy use

47
Folsom Dore Apts San Francisco
  • HOME-funded
  • PATH Demonstration
  • High-efficiency HVAC system
  • Energy Star Appliances
  • High-performing windows

47
48
Danbury Housing Authority 
  • Energy Performance Contract
  • Combined Heat and Power
  • Electricity reduced from 1.25 million to 200,000
    kWh
  • Energy cost reduced by 40,000 annually
  • No initial costs to the Housing Authority or HUD

 
49
Chattanooga Housing Authority
PHA Size 3,109 units. ESCO Honeywell Contract
Cost 9.9 million Energy Savings 1.4
million/year - 16.6 million over 12 years. HUD
Incentive Add-On Subsidy PHA Cost
Benefit Energy 3.1 million (PFS cost
benefit) Cost Avoidance 6.5 million (Heat
Pumps)
50
Ithaca Housing Authority
PHA Size 341 units. Contract Cost
330,069. Energy Savings 31,000/year 374,000
over 12 years. HA Cost Benefit Energy 70,165
(PFS cost benefit) Cost Avoidance 0 Other
Grants NYSERDA 24,020 Weatherization 79,300

51
Churchill Homes - Holyoke MA
  • 50 new wood-framed, 3-story buildings
  • Achieved Energy Star
  • Advanced framing
  • High efficiency boilers/DHW combinations
  • Controlled ventilation
  • 30 percent more energy efficient than standard
    construction

52
Maverick Gardens - Boston
  • Photovoltaics
  • 40.8 kW
  • Cogeneration
  • Microturbine, absorbtion chiller
  • Energy Star
  • HERS 88-89
  • LEED

53
Public Housing Clearinghouse
54
Partnership for Advancing Technologyin Housing
(PATH)
  • Encourages the use of technology to improve the
    affordability and value of new and existing homes

55
Major Systems Affecting Building Energy
Performance - 1
  • Building Envelope
  • Air-tightness, Insulation levels
  • Water-management
  • Windows and Glazing Systems
  • Glazing SHGC
  • Overall U Value
  • Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
  • Equipment sizing, efficiency and location
  • Duct tightness, distribution effectiveness, and
    location

56
Major Systems Affecting Building Energy
Performance - 2
  • Domestic Hot Water
  • Generation
  • Distribution
  • Stand-by-losses
  • Appliances
  • Refrigerator, dishwasher, clothes washer/dryer
  • Lighting and miscellaneous

57
Panelized Advanced Framing
  • Panelized Advanced Framing 2 x 6 Walls _at_24 OC
  • Low-e Windows
  • Foamed Stud Cavities with Blown in Cellulose
    (R-23)
  • Inside-The Envelope AHU
  • Foamed and Insulation Buried Ducts
  • Affordable and Starter Homes
  • HERS 89

Outlook ConstructionAtlanta, GA
58
  • Panelized Advanced Framing
  • Reduces Framing Cost and increases Level of
    insulation
  • Reduces on-Site Labor and Construction Time
  • Requires Additional Planning, But Improves
    Systems Integration

59
Insulation-Buried Ducts
Computer Modeling of Heat Flow From Insulation
Buried Duct
Section Through Foamed Over Insulation Buried Duct
60
  • Buried Duct Benefits
  • Improves air distribution efficiency
  • Provides additional air-sealing at joints and
    registers
  • Reduces Peak load allowing a smaller system to be
    used
  • Cost of foam can be offset by reduced cost of HVAC

61
PANELIZED WALL AND ROOF SYSTEMS
  • 25 Home In-fill Development
  • Panelized SIP Construction
  • R-24 Walls
  • R-40 Roofs
  • 92 AFUE Furnaces
  • Mastic Sealed Ducts
  • 1.2-kW PV Solar Systems
  • Low-e Windows
  • EnergyStar Appliances
  • Compact Fluorescent Lighting
  • Controlled Ventilation

Claretian AssociatesSouth Chicago, Il
62
  • First SIP Project in Chicago
  • 155,000 cost for 1700 SF Home
  • 5 Increase in Cost of Standard Construction
  • 50 Increase in Energy Efficiency

63
Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
  • Cement Board Structural-Insulated-Panels
  • Aluminum-Skinned SIP Roof Construction
  • Structural-Steel Moment-Frame at Centerline
  • Sold as Pre-Engineered Kit to Builder
  • Standard and Custom Designs Available
  • Low-Cost and Durable

Homefront Homes
64
Cement Board SIP Panels
Panelized Wall Construction System
  • Hardie 5/16 thick cement board laminated to
    both sides
  • of 4 thick polystyrene foam
  • Cuts construction time by up to 75
  • High minimum R values with R-20 walls and R-30
    roof
  • No wood used in the home construction to avoid
    moisture
  • and termite damage

3 days to complete the building shell
65
Home Front Disaster Resistant
Before Hurricane
After Hurricane
Home Front homes proved exceptionally resilient
when Hurricane Charley struck in August, 2004
One mile away.
66
Unvented Crawlspace
  • Improved Energy Efficiency
  • Improved Indoor-Air-Quality

67
Low-e Glass Windows
  • Low-e glass blocks out most long-wave radiation
    (heat) while allowing most of the short-wave
    radiation (light) to enter.

68
Typical Costs
  • Extra cost for 300 SF low-e coating on double
    glazing 300.
  • Savings in downsizing AC by ½ ton 275.
  • Net cost 25.

69
Additional Benefits of Low-e Windows
  • Reduced cooling load needs smaller HVAC system
  • Smaller HVAC system means lower air-flows, and
    simpler pressure balancing
  • By being more closely matched to both peak and
    non-peak cooling loads better dehumidification is
    achieved
  • (Improves IAQ and inhibits mold growth)

70
Optimizing HVAC Systems
  • Right-Sized HVAC
  • Manual J with no oversize
  • Compact design
  • Avoids ducts in outside walls
  • Less opportunity for leaks and losses
  • Less costly to install
  • Better able to achieve air-flows

71
  • OPTIMIZED HVAC
  • Mercedes Homes Townhouses
  • Melbourne, Florida
  • Concrete and Panelized Construction
  • Low-e windows
  • Integrated HVAC
  • AHU in Conditioned-space
  • EnergyStar Qualified

72
Down-Sized HVAC
Single Zone 1.5 Ton Capacity Heatpumps Compact
Distribution First and Second Floor
Returns Fresh-Air Duct
73
OPTIMIZED HVAC COMFORT TESTING
74
Tankless Gas Water-Heater
Madera I Model Home, Gainesville, Florida
  • ECO-Block Walls
  • Fly-Ash Concrete
  • Low-e Windows
  • Integrated Compact HVAC
  • SEER 17 A/C
  • Tankless Water-Heater and Hydro-coil AHU
  • HERS 95

Takagi T-KD20
75
Cost and Benefits
  • Saves Space Much smaller than a storage tank
  • Saves Energy Stand-by losses are eliminated.
    Operating efficiency improves by 30 to 40
  • Saves Energy For space heating, .84 AFUE is
    higher than standard furnace at .80 AFUE
  • Incremental cost increase is about 600. Very
    short initial pay-back, and immediate positive
    cash flow.

76
Heat Pump Water Heater
  • Installed in a home in Melbourne, Florida
  • WatterSaver Integrated HPWH by ECR International,
    Inc. (product introduced Fall 2002)
  • 3-person household (2 adults toddler)

77
Preliminary Findings
  • Reliable Performance
  • Homeowners very pleased
  • 62 kWh savings
  • 10/month savings at local electric rates of
    .077/kWh

78
Energy-Efficient Lighting, Appliances, Controls
Takoma Village, Washington, DC
79
Takoma VillageWashington, D.C.
  • Other Sustainable Features
  • Energy Efficient Lighting
  • Low-VOC Paints and Finishes
  • Fiber-Cement Siding
  • Recycled-Content Carpets
  • Horizontal-Axis Clothes Washer
  • Tubular Skylights

80
Putting It All Together
  • Warwick Grove,
  • Warwick, NY

81
Putting It All Together
  • Advanced Framing
  • Unvented Crawlspace
  • Low-E Windows
  • Optimized HVAC
  • 92 Condensing Furnace
  • 13 SEER Air-Conditioning
  • Tankless Gas Water-Heater
  • EnergyStar Appliances
  • HERS 89 90 50 over 1992 Model Energy Code

82
PATH Roadmap for Energy Efficiency in Existing
Homes
  • PATH identified energy efficiency in existing
    homes as an area requiring attention
  • 110 million existing homes most low-mod
    families live in older housing stock
  • Significant untapped potential for energy savings

83
Roadmap Strategies
84
Implementing the Roadmap
  • Uniform guidelines or protocols for energy
    efficient remodeling
  • Develop standard retrofit packages for for
    specific housing types
  • Contractor credentialing and certification (with
    DOE and EPA)
  • Field evaluations
  • RD (with DOE)
  • Low-e Storm Windows
  • High performance electrochromic windows

85
Uniform Remodeling Protocols
  • First phase to be initiated by September, 2005
  • Partnership with remodeling industry
  • Aimed at
  • Boosting credibility and knowledge of trade
    contractors, remodelers
  • Providing homeowners with credible, reliable
    information
  • Builds on existing methods, guidelines
  • Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS)
  • Home Performance with Energy Star
  • California, New York protocols

86
Standard Retrofit Packages for Local Housing
Types
  • Identify standard approaches for particular
    housing types
  • E.g. Chicago bungalow, Baltimore row house
  • Develop and test retrofit packages
  • Test in four locations (to be selected)
  • Streamline energy efficient retrofits packages
    for
  • Underway in Spring 2006
  • Issue Request for Proposals

87
For More Information - HUD
  • www.hud.gov/energy
  • HUD Energy Action Plan
  • http//www.hud.gov/offices/pih/programs/ph/phecc/
  • Public Housing Energy Conservation Clearinghouse
  • http//www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/energyenviron/energ
    y/
  • CPDs energy web site

87
88
For More Information - Other
  • www.energysavers.gov
  • Government-wide portal for energy information
  • www.energystar.gov
  • EPAs Energy Star web site
  • www.pathnet.org
  • Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing

88
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