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Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars? First Principles of Instruction

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Title: Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars? First Principles of Instruction


1
Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars? First
Principles of Instruction
  • M. David Merrill
  • Professor Utah State University

2
Case Study
  • Elements of Market Strategy
  • Brief Text
  • Graphic
  • Audio -- narrator reads text

Define Marketing Marketing is a word you hear or
use almost daily. You probably know several ways
the term is used. As you focus on writing a
strategic marketing plan, be sure your team
agrees on some common definitions, so you are all
clear about what the plan is to accomplish. How
would you define marketing?
3
Case Study
  • Elements of Market Strategy
  • Inserted Questions

Because competition changes the market so
quickly, the smart move is to have an ongoing
process in your business for developing your
market strategy for each product or
service. Choose the statement below that's
true. __ Strategic marketing planning is
primarily for larger companies. __ Every business
that wants to succeed should make marketing
strategy a continuous process.
4
  • Course Evaluation
  • Content
  • Accurate, appropriate, tools
  • Design Delivery
  • Web optimized?
  • Function?
  • Enhance learning?
  • Apply skills in simulations or scenarios?
  • Customize?
  • Relevant assessment?
  • Learning styles?
  • Navigation?
  • Value
  • Better than alternatives?
  • Worth the time and money?
  • www.onlinelearningguide.com

5
Lguide.com evaluation
Under content they state "The information
provided in the course is clear, but overall the
lesson fails to engage. Although the concepts
involved in a marketing strategy are covered, the
course fails to give good, concrete steps and
detail for when you actually sit down to make a
strategic marketing plan. The result is limited
retention and limited applicability." Under
Design and delivery they state "Interactivity
is limited to learner assessments, which include
feedback. Assessments are offered before,
during, and following lesson units." Under value
they state "The course is fair value for
managers, who need an introduction to marketing
strategy." They give the course 2 1/2 stars on
their 5 star rating system.
6
My Evaluation
  • Marketing concepts -- no examples
  • Assessment - remember information not
    application
  • Based on Effective Instructional Strategies
  • Not Problem-based
  • No Activation of previous experience
  • No Demonstration
  • No Application
  • No Integration
  • No stars!
  • Introduction to Marketing is ineffective
    instruction.

7
First Principles of Instruction
  • Many instructional design theories and models
    have fundamental underlying principles in common?

A principle is a relationship that is always true
under appropriate conditions regardless of
program or practice.
8
Levels of Design Theory
  • Instructional design theory, as represented in
    Reigeluth (1999), varies from basic descriptive
    laws about learning to broad curriculum programs
    that concentrate on what is taught rather than on
    how to teach.
  • Do all of these design theories and models have
    equal value?
  • Are all of these design theories and models
    merely alternative ways to approach design?
  • Do these design theories and models have
    fundamental underlying principles in common?
  • If so, what are these underlying principles?

9
Principles, Programs, Practices
  • Practice -- a specific instructional activity
  • Program -- an approach consisting of a set of
    prescribed practices.
  • Principle -- a relationships that is always true
    under appropriate conditions regardless of
    program or practice.
  • Practices always implement or fail to implement
    underlying principles whether they are specified
    or not.

10
Instructional Practice
  • What is an instructional practice? It is what a
    given designer or trainer/teacher does to
    implement instruction.
  • A given instructional principle can usually be
    implemented via a wide variety of practices.
  • If a given practice fails to implement the
    relevant underlying principle there will be a
    decrement in learning.

11
Instructional Programs
  • What is an instructional program?
  • It is prescribed set of instructional practices.
  • Instructional approaches may facilitate the
    implementation of one or more instructional
    principles.
  • If the practices prescribed by the program do not
    implement underlying principles, then there will
    be a decrement in learning.

12
Example Program with Practices
  • Lewis, Watson, Schaps (In Reigeluth) Social,
    Ethical, and Intellectual Development --
    Educations Full Mission
  • Program
  • Literature Based Reading
  • Practices
  • Select books rich in social and ethical themes
    (content)
  • Partner Reading
  • Read aloud
  • Promote values (e.g. Ask How can we help our
    partners?)
  • What are the prescriptive principles required?

13
Example Program with Practices
  • Kovalik McGeehan (In Reigeluth)
  • Program
  • Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI)
  • Practices
  • Create a year long theme, monthly components,
    weekly topics
  • Select a physical location or event (field trip)
  • Identify key points (statement of concept,
    significant knowledge or skill)
  • Write inquiries and assessment
  • Using a topographical map of our area, determine
    the boundaries of our watershed. Draw a map to
    scale. Include our school, major roads, and a
    dozen other well known reference points.
  • Very broad setting for learning.
  • What are prescriptive principles involved?

14
Instructional Principles
  • What is a principle? It is a relationship that
    is always true under appropriate conditions
    regardless of program or practice.
  • Parsimony would dictate that there should be only
    a few instructional design principles that can
    support a wide variety of instructional programs
    and practices.

15
First Principles of Instruction
  • Premise Many instructional design theories and
    models have fundamental underlying principles in
    common?
  • Agenda Identify these underlying first
    principles?

A principle is a relationship that is always true
under appropriate conditions regardless of
program or practice.
16
Hypotheses
  • Learning from a given program will be facilitated
    in direct proportion to the implementation of
    these first principles.
  • Learning from a given program will be facilitated
    in direct proportion to the degree that these
    principles are explicitly implemented rather than
    haphazardly implemented.

17
Method of Inquiry
  • Analyze instructional theories and models to
    extract general first principles.
  • Identify the cognitive processes associated with
    each principle.
  • Identify empirical support for the principles.
  • Describe the implementation of the principles in
    a variety of different instructional theories and
    models.
  • Identify prescriptions for instructional design
    associated with these principles.

18
Areas of Investigation
Automated Instructional Design
First Principles of Instruction
Meta-Mental Models
19
Cognition -- A Simplified View
Data Structures Processes Declarative
Procedural
  • Schematic Memory
  • Schemata
  • Mental Models
  • Problem Solving
  • Associative Memory
  • Propositions
  • Rules
  • Automation

20
Some Cognitive Principles
  • Isolated actions and operations processed by
    associative memory.
  • Information-about processed by associative
    memory.
  • Problem solving requires schematic memory
  • New schema are built by tuning and restructuring
    existing schema.
  • Mental models operate on tasks and problems.
  • Problem solving is selecting a mental model and
    processing the new information via the mental
    model.
  • Mental models develop slowly via successive
    tuning and restructuring
  • Problems of conceptualization, planning, and
    interpretation are processed via mental models.

21
Cardinal Principles of Instruction
  • The Cognitive Structure Principle
  • the development of that cognitive structure
    that is most consistent with the desired learned
    performance.
  • The Elaboration Principle
  • incremental elaboration for increased
    generality and complexity
  • The Learner Guidance Principle
  • active cognitive processing
  • The Practice Principle
  • monitored learner performance with feedback

22
First Principles of Instruction
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner is engaged in solving a real-world
    problem.
  • new knowledge builds on the learners existing
    knowledge.
  • new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner.
  • new knowledge is applied by the learner.
  • new knowledge is integrated into the learners
    world.

23
First Principles of Instruction
Activation
Integration
Problem
Demonstration
Application
24
Bransford -- Star Legacy
Look ahead Reflect back
The Challenges
Go Public
Generate Ideas
Multiple Perspectives
Test Your Mettle
Research Revise
25
McCarthy 4-MAT
Meaning
Renewing
Connect, Examine
Refine, Integrate
share, dialogue, reflect
adapt, re-present, share, renew
1
4
WHY?
IF?
2
3
WHAT?
HOW?
acquire knowledge, understand theory
act, practice, tinker
Try, Extend
Image, Define
Conceptualizing
Operationalizing
26
Andre -- Instructional Episode
  • Activate phase
  • activate preexisting knowledge or motivational
    structures
  • Instruction phase
  • types of information provided
  • how learners are encourages to process
    information and relate it to preexisting
    knowledge
  • Feedback phase
  • types of performances that are encouraged
  • types of information provided as a result of the
    learners performance

27
Problem
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner is engaged in solving a real-world
    problem.
  • The learner is engaged at the problem or task
    level not just the operation or action level.
  • the learner solves a progression of problems.
  • the learner is guided to an explicit comparison
    of problems.
  • Problems promote acquisition, elaboration, and
    use of mental models rather than only associative
    memory.

28
Activation
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner is directed to recall, relate,
    describe, or apply knowledge from relevant past
    experience that can be used as a foundation for
    the new knowledge.
  • the learner is provided relevant experience that
    can be used as a foundation for the new
    knowledge.
  • Activates a mental model appropriate for
    restructuring or tuning.

29
Demonstration
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner is shown as well as told.
  • the demonstration is consistent with the
    learning goal.
  • the learner is directed to relevant information.
  • the learner is shown multiple representations.
  • the learner is directed to explicitly compare
    alternative representations.
  • media plays a relevant instructional role.
  • Instantiates the mental model.

30
Application
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner is required to use his/her new
    knowledge to solve problems.
  • this problem solving activity is consistent
    with the learning goal.
  • the leaner is shown how to detect and correct
    errors.
  • the learner is guided in his/her problem solving
    by appropriate coaching that is gradually
    withdrawn.
  • Enables the student to restructure and tune the
    mental model.

31
Integration
  • Learning is facilitated when
  • the learner can demonstrate his/her new
    knowledge and skill.
  • the learner can reflect-on, discuss, and defend
    his/her new knowledge.
  • the learner can create, invent, and explore new
    and personal ways to use his/her new knowledge.
  • Promotes association among mental models and
    increased generalizability.

32
Gardner -- Multple Approches to Understanding --
  • Youll never understand the theory unless you
    publicly apply it. p. 74
  • Activation
  • Entry points. one begins by finding a way to
    engage the students and to place them centrally
    within the topic. p. 81 Defines different
    types of entry points.
  • Telling analogies. ..come up with instructional
    analogies, drawn from material that is already
    understood. P. 82

33
Gardner (cont.)
  • Demonstration
  • portray the topic in a number of ways. p. 85
  • Application
  • provide many and varied opportunities for
    practice. p. 86
  • Integration
  • display ones comprehension in a publicly
    justified manner.

34
Nelson Collaborative Problem Solving
  • Build readiness -- (Activation)
  • Form and norm groups
  • determine a preliminary problem definition
  • define and assign roles
  • Engage in an iterative collaborative problem
    solving process -- (Application)
  • finalize the solution
  • Synthesize and Reflect -- (integration)
  • Assess products and processes

35
Jonassen --Constructivist Learning Environments
  • The model conceives of a problem as the focus
    of the environment,
    Jonassen, 1999
  • Modeling -- demonstration
  • Coaching -- application
  • Scaffolding -- sequence of cases
  • Related cases
  • worked examples
  • multiple perspectives
  • selectable information just-in-time
  • cognitive (knowledge construction tools)
  • task representation tools
  • performance support tools
  • information gathering tools
  • Provoke reflection, Perturb Learners models --
    integration

36
van Merriënboer -- 4C/ID
Principled Skill Decomposition
Analysis
recurrent skills
non-recurrent skills
Algorithmic Methods
Prerequisite Knowledge
Heuristic Methods
Supportive Knowledge
facts concepts
plans principles
Heuristics SAPs
conceptual models goal-plan hierarchies
causal models mental models
procedures
specific rules
Part-Task Practice
Prerequisite Information
Whole-Task Practice
Supportive Information
available during practice
available before practice
Development of Learning Environment
Design
Rule Automation
Schema Acquisition
37
Schank -- Learning by Doing
  • The first step is determining ... a mission
    that will be motivational for the student to
    pursue. Shank, et al, 1999
  • Goal Based Scenarios
  • Goals -- process and content
  • Mission -- real-world problem
  • Cover story -- the problem to be solved
  • The role --
  • Scenario operations -- application
  • Resources -- stories -- contextualized
    demonstration
  • Feedback -- learner guidance

38
Findings to date
  • Are the theories we have reviewed fundamentally
    different?
  • NO!
  • All theories incorporate some of these
    principles.
  • No theory includes all of these principles.
  • Some theories include principles or prescriptions
    not on our list of first principles. (Area for
    further investigation).
  • No theory includes a contrary principle or
    prescription.

39
How do these theories differ?
  • Implementation details differ.
  • Detailed discussion beyond scope of this
    presentation.
  • Principle(s) emphasized differs
  • Bransford -- phases of learning
  • McCarthy -- phases of learning and learning
    styles
  • Andre -- learning episodes
  • Gardner -- public exhibition of understanding
    kinds of intelligence
  • Nelson -- collaboration
  • Jonassen -- problem solving in learning
    environments
  • van Merriënboer -- problem solving sequence of
    cases sequencing of supporting information
  • Schank -- problem solving (cases) stories

40
Conclusion
  • There are first principles of instruction that
    are similar regardless of theory or philosophical
    orientation.
  • Hypothesis failure to implement these first
    principles in the programs and practices will
    cause a decrement in learning.
  • Much remains to be done in articulating these
    first principles and tracing their role in
    different theories.

41
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